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University of Maryland 








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Copyright, 1891, 
By Eugenb Fauntlbroy Cordbi,i-, M. D. 



''pHIS work was conceived mMve than ten years ago, with the idea 
J. of supplying the presumed desire of many friends of the Uni- 
versity to know more of its past history. In some investigations 
which the author then made, he found the subject fraught with 
varied and highly interesting episodes, in which many eminent per- 
sons, without as well as within the profession, had taken part. Most 
of this was a ferra incog^iita to the present generation, and it not 
unnaturally occurred to the author that an accurate sketch of these 
events and memoirs of these persons would not only prove accept- 
able to those most interested, but, perhaps, be regarded as of some 
value as a contribution to the history of our city and State. The 
result of his labors, such as it is, is herewith laid before the reader, 
and he begs leave to dedicate it most respectfully to his fellow- 
alumni of the School of Medicine. Whatever the financial outcome 
of his enterprise may be, if in recalling the faces and forms of 
teachers and comrades, and in reflecting upon the imagination, as it 
were, once more the scenes of student life, it prove a source of 
pleasure to his readers, and especially if it renew or intensify their 
interest in an alma mater so worthy of esteem and affection, he will 
not consider that he has labored in vain. 

2III Maryland Avenue, 

Baltimore, y^a«wary i, 1891. 




Introductory : Events Preceding the Founding of the College 

OF Medicine of Maryland in 1807 1-14 

First Period: College of Medicine, 1807-181 2 15-29 

Second Period: University — Government of Regents, 1812- 

1825 30-60 

Third Period: Government of Trustees, 1826-1839 61-103 

Fourth Period: Restoration of Regents to Close of Civil 

War, 1839-1865 104-132 

Fifth Period: From the Civil War to the Present, 1865-1890 . 1 33-161 
Catalogue of Alumni, School of Medicine, 1812-1890, inclusive . 167-206 

Addenda 207-208 

Appendix 209-213 

Index 214-218 



BALTIMORE, the youngest of the great Atlantic seaboard cities, 
ranked as a place of but little consequence prior to the Revolu- 
tion. It made considerable progress during that struggle, and at its 
close had a population estimated at about 8000. On the restoration 
of peace an active emigration set in, commerce and manufactures 
increased, and the town grew and developed astonishingly. Among 
the other settlers of this period were several physicians who after- 
wards became eminent in the community, and we also find at this 
time the first evidences of homogeneity and professional spirit among 
the practitioners of the town and state. The establishment of the 
University of Maryland may be regarded as the final and crowning 
event of a long series of discussions, plans and attempts, all looking 
towards organization of the profession and the securing of oppor- 
tunities of advanced medical instruction for this community. As 
these all bear so close a relation to the institution whose history it is 
proposed in the following pages to sketch, it becomes necessary to 
devote a brief space to their consideration. 

The first indication of a tendency towards a community of interest 
and action in the profession was an interesting discussion in the 
newspapers, upon the subject of medical reform and suppression of 
quackery, which began about 1785 and was carried on, at intervals, 
through several years. In July, 1788, a medical writer suggested 
that a law be passed restricting the practice of medicine to those 
duly qualified, and at the close of this year a petition was in circu- 
lation among the citizens of the town and state, for presentation 
to the General Assembly, praying that body to institute measures 
for " the better regulation of medical practice " in the community.' 

■ To this call it is significantly added that "empirics are most particularly 
prevalent in Baltimore." What would have been the writer's astonishment 
and disgust could he have foreseen that the same statement would be equally 
true one hundred years later! 


In furtherance of this movement, and for the purpose of discussing 
the most eligible plan for carrying it out, a society was formed 
by the physicians of the town, to whose meetings the physicians 
throughout the state were invited ; those who were unable to attend 
being requested to send their views in writing. A plan was sketched 
for a state medical society, embracing the main features of the 
charter of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland, and the 
success of the movement seemed on the point of being attained, when 
further progress was cut short by the death of its chief patron and 
promoter, Dr. Charles Frederick Wiesenthal. 

Charles Frederick Wiesenthal was born in Germany in 1727. He 
arrived in Baltimore in 1755, and continued to practice here from that time 
until his death in 17S9. He held several offices in the state line and super- 
intended the manufacture of saltpetre during the Revolution. He was much 
esteemed and beloved. One of his pupils (Ur. George Buchanan), in dedi- 
cating his inaugural thesis to him (Philadelphia, 1789), calls him the Sydenham 
of Baltimore. The obituary notice of Ur. W., in the newspapers, is headed : 
"The shaft he so often warded from others has pierced him at last.'" 

In the fall of 1789 a more complete organization of the physicians 
of the town was effected, to which the name " Medical Society of 
Baltimore " was given. Dr. Andrew Wiesenthal, a son of the above, 
and Dr. George Buchanan, both of whom had recently returned to 
the city after extensive studies abroad, were its leading spirits. 
Under its auspices dissection was attempted and the body of an 
executed criminal was procured for the instruction of the students 
of anatomy and surgery in the town. The populace, however, inter- 
fered and took possession of the body, which proved a great damper 
upon the ardor of the teachers.^ 

During the ensuing winter (1789-90) Dr. Wiesenthal lectured 
upon anatomy and surgery to a class of fifteen, and Dr. George 
Buchanan upon obstetrics to a class of nine.^ The success of this 
first attempt led in the spring of 1790 to the organization of a 
" Medical School," with a full faculty, which, besides the two 
already mentioned, included other men of prominence and known 
ability and doubtless well qualified to do honor to any institution 
with which they might be connected. Several of the members of 

' Maryland Journal, June 2, 1789. 
''Newspapers and Griffith'' s Antials. 

2 A complimentary notice of these lectures by the students in attendance 
appears in the papers the following March. 


this faculty were physicians to the county and town almshouse, 
then located at the head of Howard street, a circumstance that 
favored the prompt inauguration of clinical teaching. A public hos- 
pital was also contemplated, and the benefits to be derived from its 
establishment were duly dwelt upon in the published advertisements. 
The opportunities for instruction were to be still further increased 
by a lying-in hospital, and Dr. Buchanan published a "Treatise on 
Typhus Fever," for the purpose pf raising funds for it. 

This institution was destined to but a brief existence. The Medical 
Society was dissolved before midsummer, and none of the proposed 
lectures appear to have been delivered the next winter. 

Dr. Andrew Wiesenthal was born in Baltimore in 1762. He obtained his 
medical education in Scotland. He returned to Baltimore in 1789. He was 
Judge of the Orphans' Court in 1796 and died in 1798. 

Dr. George Buchanan was born near Baltimore in 1763. He received his 
medical education in Edinburgh and Philadelphia, and began practice in Balti- 
more in 1789. He was a member of the City Council in 1797, the year after 
Baltimore became a city, and the following year a magistrate. He retired from 
practice in 1800 on account of bad health. He moved to Philadelphia in 1806, 
became Lazaretto physician of that city, and died there of yellow fever in 
1808, at the age of 45 years. He was a man of advanced views and public 
spirit, urging the registration of births, the formation of a public park, and 
the organization of a humane society (1790), delivering an address upon the 
"moral and political evils of slavery" {1791), and aiding in the foundation of 
the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland (1799). 

Although this enterprise met with so little success, Dr. Wiesenthal 
did not abandon the idea of a medical school. In the fall of 1797 he 
advertised lectures on anatomy, surgery and midwifery, to com- 
mence the first Monday in November, and a notice also appeared in 
the papers, most likely emanating from him, of a "medical seminary," 
several courses of lectures in which were already in preparation for 
the ensuing winter. The proposed " removal of Professor Rush from 
Philadelphia to New York " would, it was thought, greatly favor the 
success of this undertaking.' No further information is given of this 
enterprise, which evidently shared the fate of its predecessor. 

These various efforts served at least to keep alive in the breasts of 
the more advanced thinkers in the profession aspirations for better 
things, and they were not without practical fesults in the end. Their 

' Notice in newspaper of 1797. 


culmination was reached in 1799, in the passage by the General 
Assembly of the state, of the charter of incorporation of the Medical 
and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland. Those were wise and far- 
sighted physicians who conceived and secured the passage, by the 
highest legislative tribunal of the state, of this admirable law, which 
at once united all the practitioners in the state into a comprehensive 
organization, and conferred upon them, in their corporate capacity, 
absolute control of all professional interests. That this charter has 
fallen into desuetude and proven inoperative in the course of years is 
due to the apathy and want of spirit of their successors, and illus- 
trates a well-known truth, that not only are good laws necessary, but 
the men also to see to their execution. 

Shortly before this, two young physicians had settled in Baltimore, 
whose influence upon the future University was to be paramount. 
They were Doctors John Beale Davidgeand Nathaniel Potter. The 
former settled in Baltimore in 1796 (the year in which the city was 
incorporated), the latter a year later. 

From the time of his arrival, as we learn from Dr. Potter, Dr. 
Davidge entertained the idea of founding here a medical school, and 
the subject formed a frequent topic of conversation between the two, 
but they were unable to find any others " willing to embark in an 
untried experiment so inauspicious and problematical." About 
1802 (as near as we can ascertain),' he began a "private course of 
lectures " on anatomy, surgery, midwifery and physiology. These 
lectures were continued annually until they merged into the College 
of Medicine, of which they may therefore be regarded as the nucleus. 

The establishment of a medical college began also about this 
time to form a subject of discussion at the meetings of the Medical 
and Chirurgical Faculty. At the biennial meeting held at Annapolis 
in 1801, a plan was proposed "by a distinguished member of the 
Society," which was revised and approved by Dr. Upton Scott, the 
president. Owing to the limited attendance, final action was deferred, 
after much discussion, till 1802, when it was further urged in an 
address by Dr. Scott's successor. Dr. Philip Thomas.'^ The need of 

•Newspaper advertisement, Dec. 1802. These lectures were advertised to 
be delivered every Wednesday and Saturday, at 7 P. M. (Scharf). This is the 
earliest notice of these lectures the author has met with. The statements of 
Potter and others as to the time of their commencement do not agree. Davidge 
himself says {Physical Sketches, Vol. 2, 1814) that it was between 1799 and 1804. 

"^Federal Gazette, June 16, 1S02. 


further legislation led to delay, and the committee to whom the 
matter was referred was continued/ 

The year 1807 is memorable as the date of the founding of the 
proposed institution, and, in order that we may know all the circum- 
stances connected with so important and interesting an event, it is 
necessary to introduce here some other personages who participated 
in it, besides those already named. 

One of these was Dr. James Cpcke, of Virginia, who came to Bal- 
timore to reside about the close of the year 1804. He had pursued "his 
medical studies at Guy's Hospital, London, under Sir Astley Cooper, 
and afterwards, in 1804, received his diploma at the University of 
Pennsylvania. His thesis, which was an attempt to explain the cause 
of inflammation in wounded cavities, attracted considerable attention 
and was republished by Dr. Charles Caldwell, of Philadelphia, in a 
volume with others deemed worthy of permanent preservation. On 
February loth, 1807, he became associated in practice with Dr. 
Davidge, and during the remainder of his brief but active life, the 
most devoted attachment subsisted between the two. 

Another was Dr. John Shaw, of Annapolis, who first publicly 
offered his services to the people of Baltimore on March 2d, 1807. 
He was a graduate of St. John's College, a man of scholarly attain- 
ments and of decided poetical talent. He had attended lectures at 
the University of Pennsylvania, but had left before obtaining his 
degree there, in order to avail himself of a medical appointment in 
the navy, which was offered to him. He was fond of travel and 
adventure and led a somewhat wandering life, of which he has left 
many interesting reminiscences. 

These two and Davidge, drawn together, no doubt, by common 
literary tastes and aspirations, and having as yet ample leisure, united 
in a course of medical instruction in the fall of 1807. The course 
began about the first of November. Dr. Davidge took charge of the 
departments of Anatomy and Surgery and gave some attention to 
the elements of Midwifery ; Dr. Cocke took Physiology, and Dr. 
Shaw, Chemistry. Dr. Shaw's lectures began November 24th and 
were given at his house in " Chatham " street, on Tuesdays and 
Fridays, at 7 P. M. To accommodate the anatomical department. Dr. 
Davidge erected at his own expense and on his own ground, " a 

' Drs. George Brown and Davidge were members of this committee (June, 


small anatomical theatre."^ A subject was procured for the use of 
the class, but its introduction became known and a crowd of boys 
collected in front of the door. Soon this gathering increased to a 
noisy mob, who proceeded to demolish the building and destroy its 
contents. So much prejudice against dissection existed in the public 
mind at that period that but little sympathy was felt in the commu- 
nity for the Doctor's loss." 

This mishap interrupted the lectures for a time, but it had the 
effect of bringing the profession to the support of the enterprise, and 
a full meeting of the physicians of the city was held at Dr. Davidge's 
house, early in December, to take action to procure legal protection 
and support.^ It was then unanimously resolved, "in consequence 
of the late interruption of lectures on Anatomy and Surgery, and the 
very generous and handsome present of a lot of ground in the pre- 
cincts," to apply to the Legislature for a charter for a medical college, 
and a committee was appointed to canvass the city for funds for the 
erection of a building. 

No time was lost in preparing the charter, a duty which was very 
satisfactorily discharged by Dr. Shaw. Indeed, it is probable that 
the charter had already been drawn up and that it was presented to 
the meeting. 

In its passage through the House of Delegates on December 7th, 
the " Medical College Bill " was under discussion, and an amendment 
was proposed uniting the school with St. Mary's College, a Roman 
Catholic institution on North Paca street above Franklin, now limited 
to the education of priests and known as the Seminary of St. 
Sulpice. This amendment was lost and the bill passed the Legis- 
lature, in its original form, on December i8th.^ The following is the 
full text of this bill, taken from the authorized publication of the laws 
passed at this session of the Legislature, and printed by the " Printer 
to the State ": 

^ Which was located near the southeast corner of Liberty and Saratoga 
streets. (Scharf.) 

' Potter's " Some Account of the Rise and Progress of the University of Mary- 
land,''^ pamphlet, 1838. 

^A notice of the proceedings of this meeting appeared in the newspapers of 
December 3d. 

"* See certificate of "John Brewer, Clerk, House of Delegates," in Potter's 
Journal, 181 1. 


An Act for founding a medical college in the city or precincts of 
Baltimore for the instruction of students in the different 
branches of medicine. 
Whereas it appears to this general assembly that many benefits would 

accrue, not only to the state of Maryland, but to many other parts of the United 

States, from the establishment of a seminary for the promotion of medical 

knowledge in the city of Baltimore ; therefore 

II. Be it enacted, by the General Assembly of Maryland, That a college for the 
promotion of medical knowledge, by the name of The College of Medicine of 
Maryland, be established in the city or*precincts of Baltimore, upon the following 
fundamental principles, to wit : The said college shall be founded and maintained 
forever upon a most liberal plan, for the benefit of students of every country and 
every religious denomination, who shall be freely admitted to equal privileges 
and advantages of education, and to all the honors of the college, according to 
their merit, without requiring or enforcing any religious or civil test, or urging 
their attendance upon any particular plan of religious worship or service ; nor 
shall any preference be given in the choice of a president, professor, lecturer, 
or other officer of the said college, on account of his particular religious profes- 
sion, but regard shall be solely paid to his moral character, and other neces- 
sary qualifications to fill the place for which he shall be chosen. 

III. And be it enacted. That the members of the board of medical examiners 
for this state for the time being, together with the president and the professors 
of the said college, and their successors, shall be, and are hereby declared to 
be, one community, corporation and body politic, to have continuance for ever, 
by the name of The Regents of the College of Medicine of Maryland. 

IV. And be it enacted. That the said regents and their successors, by the 
same name, shall be able and capable to enjoy, to them and their successors, in 
fee, or for any less estate or estates, any lands, tenements, annuities, pensions 
or other hereditaments, within this state, by the gift, grant, bargain, sale, alien- 
ation, enfeoffment, release, confirmation or devise, of any person or persons, 
bodies politic or corporate, capable to make the same, and such lands, tene- 
ments, rents, annuities, pensions or other hereditaments, or any less estates, 
rights or interests, of or in the same, at their pleasure to grant, alien, sell and 
transfer, in such manner and form as they shall think meet and convenient for 
the furtherance of the said college ; and also that they may take and receive 
any sum or sums of money, and every kind, manner or portion of goods and 
chattels, that shall be sold or given to them, by any person or persons, bodies 
politic or corporate, capable to make a gift or sale thereof, and employ the 
same towards maintaining the said college, in such manner as they shall judge 
most necessary and convenient for the instruction of students in medicine, and 
the sciences connected with it. 

V. And be it enacted. That the said regents and their successors, snail be able 
in law to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, in any court or courts, 
before any judge, judges or justices, within this state and elsewhere, in all and 
all manner of suits, pleas, causes, matters and demands, of whatsoever kind, 
nature or form they be, and to do all and every other matter and thing hereby 


contemplated to be done, in as full and effectual a manner, as any other person 
or persons, bodies politic or corporate, in like cases, may or can do. 

VI. And be it enacted. That the yearly value of the messuages, lands, tene- 
ments, rents, annuities, or other hereditaments and real estate, of the said 
college and corporation (exclusive of the lots and buildings occupied by the 
institution), shall not exceed thirty thousand dollars ; and all gifts to the said 
college and corporation, after the yearly value of their estates shall amount to 
thirty thousand dollars aforesaid, and all bargains and purchases to be made 
by the said corporation, which may increase the yearly value of said estate above 
or beyond the amount aforesaid, shall be absolutely void and of none effect. 

VII. And be it enacted. That the said regents and their successors shall have 
full power and authority to have, make and use, one common and public seal, 
and likewise one privy seal, with such devices and inscriptions as they shall 
think proper, and to ascertain, fix and regulate, the uses of both seals by their 
own laws, and the same seals, or either of them, to change, break, alter and 
renew at their pleasure. 

VIII. And be it enacted. That the said regents shall have full power and 
authority to appoint a president of the said college, who shall preside at their 
meetings, and perform such other duties as may be assigned to him, and in his 
absence to appoint a vice-president, which latter shall always be one of their own 

IX. And be it enacted, That the said regents shall from time to time, and at 
all times hereafter forever, have full power and authority to constitute and 
appoint, in such manner as they shall think best and most convenient, profes- 
sors of the different branches of medicine for instructing the students of said 
college, by regular lectures upon every part of that science, who shall be 
severally styled Professors of such branch as they shall be nominated and 
appointed for, according to each particular nomination and appointment; and 
also to constitute and appoint, in like manner, lecturers upon the sciences sub- 
servient to, or connected with, medicine, who shall be severally styled Lec- 
turers on such sciences as they shall be appointed for; and the said professors 
and lecturers, so constituted and appointed from time to time, shall be known 
and distinguished forever as one learned body or faculty, by the name of The 
Medical Faculty of the College of Medicine of Maryland, and in that name 
shall be capable of choosing their own dean of faculty, and of exercising such 
powers and authorities as the regents of the said college, and their successors, 
shall by their ordinances, think necessary to delegate to them, for the instruction, 
discipline and government of the said institution, and of all students, officers 
and servants belonging to the same ; provided that nothing be done in virtue 
of this act contrary to the constitution and laws of this state, or to the consti- 
tution and laws of the United States, 

X. And be it enacted. That the said regents and their successors shall meet 
at least once a year in stated annual meetings, to be appointed by their own 
ordinances, and at such other times as by their said ordinances they may 
direct, in order to examine into all matters touching the discipline of the 
institution, and the good and wholesome execution of their ordinances ; and 

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the said regents, when dulj' assembled, shall have full power and authority to 
make their own rules of proceeding, and to make fundamental ordinances for 
the government and discipline of the said college, and to appoint the neces- 
sary officers of the same, in all which meetings a majority of the whole number 
of regents shall be a quorum to do any business except to vacate the seat of a 
president, professor or lecturer, for which purpose the consent of two-thirds 
of the whole number of regents shall be necessary. 

XI. A}td be it enacted. That the medical faculty of the said college shall hold 
one term in each year, which shall commence on the first Monday in November 
in every year, and shall continue not less than four, nor more than six months, 
as may be regulated by the ordinances of the college, within which period all 
the lectures to be delivered in the said college shall be given, except the 
lectures on botany, and such other lectures as the regents shall judge will be 
delivered with more advantage at a different season. 

XII. And, for animating and encouraging the students of said college to a 
laudable diligence, industry and progress in medical science, Be it enacted. 
That the said regents and their successors, shall, by a written mandate, under 
their privy seal and the hand of their president or vice-president, have full 
power and authority to direct the medical faculty of the said college to hold 
public commencements, either on stated annual days, or occasionally, as the 
future ordinances of the said institution may direct, and at the said commence- 
ments to admit any of the students of the said college, meriting the same 
(whose names shall be inserted in the said mandate), to the ofiice and profes- 
sion of surgeon, or to the degree of bachelor or doctor of medicine ; and it is 
hereby enacted, that the president or vice-president shall make out and sign, 
with his name, diplomas and certificates of the admission to such offices or 
degrees, which shall be sealed with the public or greater seal of the college or 
corporation, and delivered to the graduates as honorable and perpetual testi- 
monials of such admission ; which diploma or certificate, if thought necessary 
for doing greater honor to such graduates, shall also be signed by the names 
of the different professors or lecturers, or as many of them as can conveniently 
sign the same ; provided always, that no student or students within the said 
college shall be admitted to any such offices or degrees, or have their names 
inserted in any mandate for that purpose, until such students shall have been 
first duly examined and thought worthy of the same, at a public examination 
of candidates to be held previous to the day of commencement in the said 
college, by and in the presence of the regents and other persons choosing to 
attend the same, and shall also have undergone such previous private exami- 
nations, and have performed such exercises as shall be prescribed by the future 
ordinances of the college ; and provided further, that no student or students 
in the said college shall be admitted to the degree of doctor of medicine 
unless he or they shall have attended lectures in the said college during two 
terms, and shall during that period have attended each of the lectures pre- 
scribed by the ordinances for at least one term, and shall also have written 
and caused to be printed, a thesis or theses in the Latin or English language, 
and shall publicly defend the same on the day of commencement ; but the 


regents of the college shall, at any time, have power to consider the having 
attended lectures in any other medical seminary of established reputation, for 
an equal space of time, as equivalent to having attended one of the terms 
above prescribed. 

XIII. And be it enacted, That the regents shall, at any time, have the power 
of conferring the honorary degree of doctor of medicine on any physician who 
has practised physic for twenty years within the state of Maryland, and of 
conferring the honorary degree of bachelor of medicine on any one who has 
practised physic for ten years within the same. 

XIV. And be it enacted. That every licentiate of the board of medical 
examiners who shall have practised physic for five years within this state, shall 
have a right to demand and receive, from the college aforesaid, a surgeon's 
certificate, free of all expense, except the sum of one dollar to the register or 
other such officer of the college, for his trouble in making out the same. 

XV. And be it enacted. That the right of the said college to confer degrees 
shall not take place until professors shall have been appointed, and one course 
of lectures delivered upon the several branches of anatomy, chemistry, materia 
medica, and the practice of physic; provided that nothing in this act shall be 
construed to prohibit the said regents from conferring at any time, the 
honorary degrees before mentioned, or from admitting at any time, to the 
degree of doctor of medicine, such persons as may be appointed professors in 
the college on their performing such exercises and duties as may be prescribed 
by their ordinances. 

XVI. And be it enacted, That until further arrangements be made by the 
regents of the said college, John B. Uavidge, M. U., and James Cocke, M. U., 
shall be joint professors of anatomy, surgery and physiology, George Brown, 
M. D., shall be professor of the practice and theory of medicine, John Shaw, 
M. D., shall be professor of chemistry,Thomas E. Bond, M. U., shall be professor 
of materia medica, and William Donaldson, M. D., shall be professor of the 
institutes of medicine; and the said professors, or any three of them, shall 
appoint the time and place of the first meeting of the regents of the said 
college, giving one week's notice of it in two newspapers published in the city 
of Baltimore. 

XVII. And be it enacted. That all students who matriculate in the said 
college previous to the first day of January, and attend any of the lectures 
therein to the end of the course, shall be considered as having completed a 

XVIII. And be it enacted, 'Y\\7sX the medical and chirurgical faculty in the 
state of Maryland shall be considered as the patrons and visitors of the said 
college, and their president, for the time being, shall be chancellor of the 
college ; and the medical faculty of the said college shall give into the said 
medical and chirurgical faculty, at each of their biennial meetings, a report of the 
progress of learning in the said college, and of such other particulars as they 
may think fit to communicate. , 

XIX. And be it enacted. That in case at any time hereafter through over- 
sight, or otherwise through misapprehension, and mistaken construction of the 


powers, liberties and franchises, in this charter or act of incorporation granted, 
or intended to be granted, any ordinance should be made by the said corpora- 
tion of regents, or any matter done and transacted by the corporation contrary 
to the tenor thereof, all such ordinances, acts and doings, shall of themselves 
be null and void, yet they shall not, in any courts of law, or by the general 
assembly, be deemed, taken, interpreted or adjudged, into an avoidance or 
forfeiture of this charter and act of incorporation, but the same shall be and 
remain unhurt, inviolate and entire, unto the said corporation of regents, in 
perpetual succession, and all their acts conformable to the powers, true intent 
and meaning hereof, shall be and rem'ain in full force and validity, the nuljity 
and avoidance of such acts to the contrary notwithstanding. 

XX. And be it enacted. That this charter and act of incorporation, and every 
part thereof, shall be good and available in all things in the law, according to 
the true intent and meaning thereof, and shall be construed, reputed and 
adjudged, in all cases most favorably on the behalf, and for the best benefit 
and behoof of, the said regents and their successors, so as most effectually to 
answer the valuable ends of this act of incorporation, towards the general 
advancement and promotion of medical knowledge.' 

In perusing this interesting document, which is still in full force, 
according to the decision of the Court of Appeals of Maryland, 1S39, 
the most remarkable fact which strikes us is the close connection 
between the College and the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of the 
State. The Board of Examiners of the latter, twelve in number, are 
to constitute a part, and the major part, of the governing body of the 
College, and the President of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty 
is to be ex-officio Chancellor of the College. Reports of the College 
are to be presented to the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty at its 

1 Laws of Maryland. " In the Act of corporation of this college, Shaw is 
styled M. D. This is a mistake and an explanation may afford some amuse- 
ment to those who do not profess implicit veneration towards the Solons of 
our country. The law was drafted by Dr. Shaw, and he added the letters 
M. D. to the names of those gentlemen who were entitled to that distinction by 
a regular diploma. In the list there were some who, like Shaw, were only licen- 
tiates and their names were inserted without any addition. But, while the 
clerk of Assembly was reading the preamble, a member, who happened to 
recognize a friend among the licentiates, interrupted him to observe, that " he did 

not know why Dr. should not as well be an M. D. as Dr. , and Dr. , 

etc.," and therefore proposed to insert these letters after his name. No one 
could explain the reason and all the licentiates in the bill thus became doctors 
of medicine by Act of Assembly." (^^ Poems by the late Dr. John Shmv, to -which 
is prefixed a Biographical Sketch of the Author.'''' Philadelphia and Baltimore, 
1810.) Those who were simple licentiates besides Dr. Shaw were Drs. Bond 
and Donaldson. 


biennial meetings. The Medical and Chirurgical Faculty are con- 
stituted patrons and visitors of the College. No better evidence 
could be adduced of the harmonious relations then existing between 
the two institutions, and of the fostering care and interest with which 
the older personally superintended the birth and early development 
of the younger. Theoretically, the relations assumed by the two 
were perfect. Subsequent events will show, however, that these 
relations were not permanent. Before many years this identity of 
interests ceased, and whilst the State Faculty gradually lost its 
importance and authority, the College received large accessions of 
influence and privilege. 

We may here pause in our narrative to glance briefly at the con- 
dition of Baltimore at this period. The population of the city was 
about 33,000, and it was the third in size in the Union. Its growth 
between 1790 and 1810 was enormous, in proportion far exceeding 
that of both New York and Philadelphia. From 1790 to 1800 its 
population had doubled, from 1790 to 1810 it nearly trebled. The 
increase between 1800 and 18 10 was two and a half times that of 
Boston and four times that of Charleston, and during this period it 
far outstripped those cities, both of which had exceeded it in size in 
1790, It was nearly half the size of Philadelphia and New York. 
According to a statement in the Neiv York Mornhig Post, in 181 1, 
the advance in trade was equalled by that of New York alone. 
During the previous twenty years, according to this authority, the 
tonnage of the city had increased from 13,000 to 104,000 tons, the 
number of houses from 1955 to 6611. In the eight years from 1790 
to 1798 the exports had risen from $2,000,000 to $12,000,000. Ac- 
cording to another authority (the Encyclopcedia Amer'icana), from 
1790 to 1816 the shipping of the port increased nearly 800 per cent. 
These figures show a phenomenal development, which was not 
equalled by any of our Atlantic seaboard cities, at least. They 
further show that Baltimore occupied, at this time, no mean rank 
among American cities, and was justly entitled to claim an equal 
right with them to become one of the great centres of education. 

The following local details will help to fill in the picture : The 
present site of the Washington Monument was the northern limit of 
the city ; here was the residence of Col. John Eager Howard, the 
Revolutionary hero, situated in a large grove extending northward 
and known as " Howard's Park." The western limits were at Greene 
and Pearl streets and the southern at Barre street. That part of 


the city bordering on the Falls, north of Fayette street, was little 
better than a marsh and was known as " The Meadow." It was 
liable to constant overflow by the stream during rainy weather, and 
the whole lower section of the city was extremely unhealthy ; mala- 
rial diseases prevailed in their most aggravated forms and yellow 
fever was almost an annual visitant. Many of the streets were 
narrow and crooked, and among them we meet with such strange- 
sounding names as Conewago,^King George, King Tammany, 
Lemmon, New Church, French, East, Chatham, Bernard, BaHk, 
Duke, Pitt, Dulaney, St. Paul's Lane, German Lane, Vulcan Alley, 
etc. The Washington and Battle monuments had not yet been 
thought of, and the foundation of the Cathedral had just been laid. 
There was no gas, and railroads were unknown. 

There were two collegiate institutions in the city — Baltimore Col- 
lege, developed out of Mr. James Priestly 's Academy in 1S04, and St. 
Mary's College, founded by priests of the Roman Catholic order of St. 
Sulpice, who fled from France at the time of the French Revolution 
in 1791. Though raised to the rank of a university by act of the 
Legislature in 1805, the latter never succeeded in assuming univer- 
sity proportions, and only the theological department now survives. 
There was one public library, the Baltimore Library, founded in 
1796 ; it is said at this time to have " contained no inconsiderable 
collection of books upon medical science." There were three hos- 
pitals — the Almshouse, located at the head of Howard street in the 
neighborhood of Madison ; the Marine Hospital, and the Baltimore 
or Maryland Hospital, on Broadway. The last had been established 
in 1798 for the care and treatment of the sick and insane.' 

There were, at this period, four other medical schools in the 
country, viz. the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard University, 
Dartmouth College, and the College of Physicians and Surgeons of 
New York. The College of Medicine of Philadelphia — " Collegium 
et Academia Philadelphiensis " was its exact title, according to the 
diploma of Dr. John Archer, of Maryland, its first graduate' — was 

' In 1^08 it was leased by Drs. Smyth and Mackenzie, by wliom it was con- 
ducted for many years as a general hospital. It subsequently reverted to the 
state, and became (1838) the " Maryland Hospital for the Insane." After the 
war it was moved to the vicinity of Catonsville, and its former site is now 
occupied by the Johns Hopkins Hospital. 

*This was the first medical diploma issued in America. It is dated June 
21, 176S. It is now in the library of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of 


founded in 1765 ; in 1791 it was united with the University of Penn- 
sylvania, which had then been in existence about two years. In 
1807-8 the University of Pennsylvania had 270-275 students, and 
among the graduates of that year were Samuel Baker and Richard 
Wilmot Hall,' who afterwards became professors in the school here. 
The Medical School of Harvard University was founded in 1782, 
that of Dartmouth College in 1798.'^ The College of Physicians and 
Surgeons of New York was organized in May, 1807.' 

' Balti7nore Medical and Physical Recorder, \ S08. 

-Thacher's American Medical Biography, 

3 As indicating the condition of medical education then, I may add that, of 
the 241 names of members of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland 
in 1807, but 43 had degrees in medicine, of which 37 were M. D. and 6 M. B. 




LJPON receiving notification of the passage of the Medical College 
J Bill by the Legislature, the Board of Regents were called together 
by public notice in the newspapers. The meeting was held at Dr. 
Davidge's house, at noon, on the 28th of December, 1807, and forms 
an epoch in the career of the University, because it was the beginning 
of its existence as an organized institution. The only record, or 
even knowledge, that we possess of this meeting is contained in the 
Federal Gazette of December 30th, and is as follows : " At a meeting 
of the Regents of the College of Medicine of Maryland, held pur- 
suant to an act of the General Assembly for founding a medical 
college in the city or precincts of Baltimore, passed December i8th, 
1807, George Brown, M. D., was unanimously elected President, 
Solomon Birckhead, M. D., was unanimously elected Treasurer, and 
James Cocke, M. D., Secretary. After these elections were made 
the Board entered into the following resolution : 

" Resolved, That the appointments by the General Assembly of 
George Brown, M. D., to the professorship of the Practice and 
Theory of Medicine; of John B. Davidge, M. D., and of James 
Cocke, M. D., to the joint professorship of Anatomy, Surgery and 
Physiology ; of John Shaw, M. D., to the professorship of Chem- 
istry ; of Thomas E. Bond, M. D., to the professorship of Materia 
Medica; and of William Donaldson, M. D., to the professorship of 
the Institutes of Medicine, be and are hereby confirmed. 

" Dr. Brown having resigned, Nathaniel Potter, M. D., was elected 
to the professorship of the Practice and Theory of Medicine. 

" TheBoard of Regents being adjourned, John B. Davidge, M. D., 
was elected Dean by the Medical Faculty of the College of Medicine 
of Maryland. James Cocke, M. D., Secretary. 

"The Professors of Anatomy and Chemistry have commenced 
their lectures." 

George Brown was born in Ireland, in 1755, received the degree of A. M. 
from Glasgow University, and obtained his medical degree (M. U.) at Edin- 


burgh, in 1779, the subject of his graduation thesis being " De Cortice Peru- 
z'iano.''^ He emigrated to Baltimore in 17S3. The prevalence of a severe 
epidemic in the town at that time favored his successful entree into practice. 
He took part in the formation of the first medical society organized in Balti- 
more (1788) and of the first medical school projected in 1790. He was among 
the first, if not the first (Davidge, Physical Sketches), to employ mercury in 
acute injlammations (1790), especially pneumonia. He was one of the founders 
of the Baltimore Library in 1796 (the first public library in Baltimore), of the 
Baltimore College in 1804, and of the College of Medicine in 1807. He was 
President of the Board of Regents of the latter from 1S07 to 1812. He died 
August 24th, 1822, aged 67 years. He attained to the highest social and pro- 
fessional rank, and in almost every enterprise, medical, literary or educational, 
begun during his residence in Baltimore, he was a prominent actor. (The 
author has been aided in preparing this notice by Judge George William 
Brown, grandson of the subject of it.) 

Thus modestly and unostentatiously began the career of an insti- 
tution, which, for eighty-odd years, has never ceased to fulfill its 
sphere of usefulness, and which has trained and sent forth a majority 
of the physicians of Maryland, and a large proportion of those of 
other states; illy provided, it is true, for the tempestuous voyage 
before it, but with youth, energy and skill at the helm to guide .it on 
to more prosperous seas. 

The course of instruction during the first session of the College 
was not a complete one. After the destruction of the Anatomical 
Theatre by the mob, as already described, practical anatomy was 
abandoned for a time. The lectures were delivered at the houses of 
Professors Davidge, Cocke and Shaw, but some clinical lectures 
were given at the Almshouse. The class numbered but seven, and 
there were no graduates. Professor Potter did not commence his 
course until the second session (December, 1808). Dr. Bond was 
early compelled by ill health to resign his chair and retire to his 
country seat in Harford County. Dr. Donaldson and Dr. Brown 
(as appears to have been anticipated) declined their appointments, 
but not from any want of interest in the institution. They seem only 
to have joined in the undertaking in order to give it the advantage 
of their influence and aid and get it under way, and not from any 
desire for professorial honors, for which they had no aspirations. 
Dr. Brown continued to co-operate with the Faculty as President of 
the Board of Regents, an office which he held from 1807 to 1812, 
when he voluntarily resigned it. The vacancies in the chairs of 
Materia Medica and Institutes were not immediately filled. Some 

'.rw^' f^ 

\ \ ■/ 

Professor o/ Theory and Practice oy Medicine. 


time early in 1808 the Faculty secured a building on the southwest 
corner of Fayette street (then known as " Chatham " street) and 
McClellan's Alley, which had formerly been used as a schoolhouse, 
but had been tenantless for several years and was now dilapidated 
and afforded but partial protection from the weather. In the absence 
of anything better, this structure, repaired as well as possible, served 
for college purposes until the winter of 1812-13. Professor Shaw 
here entered zealously upon his \*ork and soon had a very respect- 
able laboratory, which he utilized to the best advantage. But alas ! 
he was cut down almost at the very beginning of what promised to 
be a most brilliant career. In the course of some experiments which 
he made early in 1808, and which occupied an entire night, it became 
necessary for him to immerse his arms frequently in cold water. 
This exposure resulted in a pleurisy, which developed rapidly into 
pulmonary consumption. By the end of the year his fast-failing 
health compelled him to abandon his duties and try the virtues of a 
change of climate. He accordingly sailed for Charleston and there 
re-embarked, designing to go to the Bahamas. He died at sea 
before reaching his destination, a martyr to his zeal in the service of 
the College. Professor Cocke was also laid up for several weeks 
during the first winter with pleurisy.* 

John Shaw was born in Annapolis, May 4th, 1778. He entered St. John's 
College, in that city, on its establishment in 1789, and received from it the 
degree of A. B., in October, 1796. During this period Francis Scott Key was 
his intimate friend and companion. He began the study of medicine under 
Dr. Shaaf, of Annapolis, a graduate of Edinburgh University. In 1798, while 
attending his first course of lectures in Philadelphia, he received a medical 
appointment in the U. S. Navy and sailed for Algiers, He spent about a 
year and a half in North Africa, in a position partly medical and partly con- 
sular. While there he learned to speak Arabic and became the physician of 
the Bey of Tunis, Secretary of Legation and Charge d'Affaires. He returned 
home in the spring of 1800, but in July, 1801, again set forth to continue his 
medical studies in Edinburgh. Early in 1803, before he had obtained his 
degree, he was induced to go to Canada, by the Earl of Selkirk, who had 
founded a- colony there. He remained in the Earl's service until 1805, when 
he again returned to Annapolis, and entered upon practice as the partner of 
his preceptor. In February, 1807, he married and moved to Baltimore, where 
he assisted in founding the College of Medicine, in the manner already 
described. His death occurred at sea, January loth, 1809, at the age of 30, 
while on his way from Charleston to the Bahamas, in search of health. He 
published a number of poems and left a manuscript of his travels in Africa. 

' Potter's Sketch. 


The former were collected and republished in a volume in 1810 : a biograph- 
ical memoir precedes them. His prose style is sprightly and entertaining ; 
his poetry, which is chiefly sentimental and patriotic, and ambitious neither 
in subject nor length, is sweet and graceful. 

Thomas Emerson Bond was born in Baltimore, in February, 1782, and 
practiced in this city for many years. He held a professorship in the Wash- 
ington Medical College, and was a member of the City Council and President 
of the Board of Health. He was a local preacher of the M. E. Church and 
edited " The Itinerant," and later, for twelve years, " The Christian Advocate 
and Journal," of New York, the leading official organ of his denomination. 
By his ability and zeal in the cause of Methodism he earned the title of 
" Defender of the Church." He held an honorary degree of M. D. from the 
University (conferred in 1819) and he was also a D. D. He died in New York 
■City, March 14th, 1856, aged 74. (Drake and others.) 

William Donaldson was born in Calvert Co., Md., in 1778. He graduated 
(B. A.) at St. John's College, Annapolis, in 179S, and attended lectures at the 
University of Pennsylvania, 1802-3. About the time of the establishment of 
the medical college he suffered from an affection of the chest, from which he 
got relief after visiting the West Indies. He married Miss Catherine Weather- 
burn, of Baltimore, in 1815. He received the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Medicine from the University of Maryland, in 1818. He died January i6th, 
1835, at the age of 57. He was associated in practice with Dr. Miles Little- 
john and later with Dr. Richard S. Steuart, both physicians of eminence. He 
was one of the leading men in the profession and was said to possess great 
skill in physical diagnosis. He wrote only two short articles, on "Ascites " 
and " Epidemics." (See memoir by Professor William N. Baker, Maryland 
Med. and Surg. Journal, 1840.) 

During the second session (1808-9) the number of the class 
increased to ten. The expenses were borne equally by the members 
of the Faculty. The Professors of Institutes and Practice lectured in 
a ballroom on Commerce St., the use of which was tendered by the 
proprietor, from 12 to 2 o'clock daily during the session. The 
vacancies in the chairs of Chemistry and Materia Medica were filled 
in 1809 by the appointments, respectively, of Doctors Elisha DeButts 
and Samuel Baker. No successor was appointed to Dr. Donaldson, 
the duties of whose chair were probably performed by Professor 
Davidge.' During the winter of 1809-10 the same apartments were 

' Much importance was attached to the teaching of the " Institutes " by both 
Professors Davidge and Potter. "They came to the conclusion that the 
science" (of medicine) "could not be successfully taught under the usual 
organization of medical schools ; that without the aids of physiology and 
pathology, either associated with anatomy or as a separate chair of Institutes, 


occupied, and the class had increased to 18. According to Professor 
Potter, the first public commencement was held in April, 18 10, and 
degrees were then conferred on five graduates.' 

In 1 81 2 the Faculty received some important accessions to its 
number. Dr. William Gibson, who had recently returned from the 
University of Edinburgh, being elected to the chair of Surgery, and 
Dr. Richard Wilmot Hall being made Adjunct Professor of Obstet- 
rics, to which was added the n^xt year Diseases of Women and 
Children. Professor Davidge now devoted his attention to Obstet- 
rics and Institutes, while Professor Cocke continued in charge of the 
department of Anatomy. 

The want of a suitable building for the purposes of the College 
had been painfully felt from the first, and the ways and means for 
securing it had been frequently and anxiously discussed. There was 
no available structure in the city that was suited for use. It was 
necessary, therefore, to build, and it was determined that the con- 
templated building should be one that would be a credit and orna- 
ment to the city. The Faculty, at this time, was composed of young 
men, none of whom were wealthy. How should the means neces- 
sary for the purpose, therefore, be raised ? By lottery, was the 
answer. Lotteries were the favorite resort in almost every enter- 
prise of the day. It is astonishing to how many and varied objects 
they were made to contribute. Not only public, but private 
enterprises also, were set on foot through their agency. Among the 

the philosophy of the body, in sickness or in health, could not be understood. 
This formed the basis of our scheme and the ground on which we erected 
a school." — Potter's Sketch. 

1 Potter's Sketch. I have spent much time vainly seeking in the newspapers 
for some reference to this commencement. The statement rests upon the 
authority of Professor Potter alone ; I have not seen even an allusion to it by 
any one else. Although the first and second sessions were incomplete, it seems 
not improbable that some of the students should have been prepared to receive 
the degree at the close of the third session ; and it would appear as though so 
importan.t an event as this must have been impressed with indelible distinct- 
ness upon Professor Potter's memory. But the Sketch is inaccurate in many 
other particulars as important as this, and therefore, in view of the absence 
of any confirmatory evidence and the fact that the number of graduates in the 
years 1812 and 1813 corresponds exactly with that given by him for iSio and 
181 1, there is some justification for a doubt, at least, as to the truth of his 
statement. The earliest mention of a commencement, to be found outside of 
the Sketch, is in the "American," of May 7th, 18 12, and the names of five 
graduates are there given. 


former were the erection of monuments, the building of market- 
houses, engine-houses, academies, public halls and bridges, the 
erection, repair and enlargement of hospitals, the construction of 
wharves and pumps, the purchase of fire-engines, alarm-bells and 
town-clocks, the cutting and opening of roads and canals, the straight- 
ening and paving of streets, the improvement of the navigation of 
rivers, and the preservation and distribution of vaccine virus ; among 
the latter were the building of colleges, Masonic halls and preachers' 
houses, the erection, rebuilding and repair of churches and the 
finishing of steeples. These lotteries abound in the legislative 
enactments of the state, from the beginning of the century on to 
near its middle. They were a source of large revenue to the state 
and were very popular — to legislators, because they supplied the 
means of government without the necessity of direct taxation ; 
to the people, because they enabled them to raise money for their 
various enterprises, without forced contributions and with the incen- 
tive of a possible fortune. They were actually only to be regarded 
as " dispensations from penalties under the prohibitory lottery law." ' 
The first act authorizing the drawing of a lottery for the benefit of 
the College was passed by the Legislature, January 20th, 1808. It 
names Col. John Eager Howard, James McHenry, James Calhoun, 
Charles Ridgely, of Hampton, Wm. Gwynn, John Comegys, Charles 
A. Warfield, John Crawford, Solomon Birckhead, John B. Davidge 
and Ennals Martin, as commissioners to prepare a scheme for raising 
a sum not exceeding $40,000. They were required to give bond for 
$80,000, to pay the prizes within six months after the drawing began 
and to pay over the balance after deducting expenses to the Board 
of Regents. The commission made but little progress with the work 
entrusted to them, and at the next session a supplement was passed 
authorizing the Regents to appoint commissioners in place of those 
who had neglected to comply with the provisions of the act. Dr. 
Cocke now assumed charge and finally placed the enterprise upon a 
successful financial footing. To him, according to Professor Potter, 
was chiefly due the credit of raising the means for carrying on the 
work of the College and for erecting the University building.''' As 

' Report of Joint Committee of Legislature on Memorial of Regents of 
University of Md., 1839. 

2 Other acts relating to the University lottery were passed during the sessions 
of iSii, 1813, 1816, 1819, 1820, 1826, and 1827. That of 1813 authorizes the 
raising of $30,000, "to be paid to the members of the Faculty of Physic 


we learn, however," nothing was derived from these efforts until after 
the College became a University, and the expenses were meanwhile 
borne by the members of the Faculty, who made themselves person- 
ally responsible for the debts incurred. Loans from banks and 
individuals were effected, and we find acknowledgment of help and 
encouragement received from a number of prominent and public- 
spirited citizens, and especially Col. Howard, Robert Oliver, Robert 
Gilmor, and John and David Hoffman. 

The purchase of the lot on the corner of Lombard and Greene 
streets, at "a merely nominal amount," from Col. Howard, has been 
already referred to and is but one instance of the liberality of that 
distinguished gentleman.' The plan for the erection of a building 
upon this lot was entrusted to Mr. R. C. Long, an eminent archi- 
tect of the day, to whom Baltimore is indebted for so many of her 
handsomest and most enduring edifices. Accordingly he drew a 
plan for the building, which was erected in accordance therewith and 
which still serves for the uses of the College, and in its massive 
structure seems destined to endure for centuries. It was built, like 
most of the public buildings of the day, in imitation of a classic 
model — the Pantheon, at Rome.^ At the time of its erection it was, 

therein, and to be applied to the payment of balance due on their lot and 
edifice, to the purchase and support of a botanic garden, a library and other 
necessary apparatus." By an act of 1816 the amount was raised to $100,000. 
The state was paid taxes on all the drawings. In time it was found that the 
scheme for raising revenues by lotteries was interfered with by the privileges 
granted the University and the Legislature determined to put an end to the 
latter. Accordingly, the act of 1827, ch. 198, was passed, which provides that 
the balance of the privilege remaining to be realized ($40,946) should be paid 
to the University from the state treasury by annual installments of $5000 
instead of by successive lottery drawings. (Report of Joint Committee of 
Legislature, 1839.) 

' Idem. 

^ The contract with Col. Howard was signed by several of the Professors of 
the College, who made themselves individually responsible for the amount of 
the purchase money, and the deed for the lot was recorded "as a deed to them 
in trust for the Regents of the University, whenever they should be reim- 
bursed " {M. S. Records, Statement of Professor Hall). The amount asked 
was $10,000. No security was demanded, and there was no limitation as to 
time of payment {Opinion of Counsel, May 21st, 1826, and Potter's Sketch). 
Col. Howard contributed $1000 of the purchase money, and the balance (amount- 
ing with interest to about $ii,oco) was paid to him in full. 

2 The Pantheon was a magnificent temple, built by Agrippa, son-in-law of 
Augustus, and dedicated by him to Jupiter the Avenger. It has been con- 


without doubt, the finest structure devoted to medical education in 
the New World. It may well, therefore, have excited the pride and 
admiration of the Faculty and citizens, and given rise to the glowing 
but somewhat exaggerated descriptions found in matter-of-fact old 
Niles' Register. It was one of the conspicuous objects of the city 
and stood almost alone, at the extreme " western precincts." 

" The splendid edifice which constitutes the Medical College, as 
the centre from which the other departments are to diverge, stands 
on Lombard street extended, in the western end of the city. It is con- 
structed on the plan of the (old) Pantheon at Rome. The front faces 
on the Washington road, commanding an extensive prospect down 
the Patapsco and Chesapeake. The grandeur of the exterior of the 
building does not excell the internal convenience of the apartments. 
The anatomical theatre with its necessary appendages is as exten- 
sive and appropriate as those of any of the European schools. The 
lecturing room alone is capable of containing twelve hundred per- 
sons with convenience. The chemical hall, immediately below, is 
but little inferior ; it will accommodate about a thousand, a part of 
its area being taken off by the laboratory and necessary apparatus. 
The apparatus is complete, accommodated to the taste and views of 
the learned professor." * 

The building was begun May 7, 1812, and according to the expect- 
ation of the Faculty, it was to be ready for occupancy at the opening 
of the ensuing session. Although this anticipation was not realized, 
it was so far completed as to be partially tenantable during that 
session, and some of the lectures were delivered in it.^ 

verted into a church — the Tempio di San Maria Rotonda. It is of a round or 
cylindrical form, capped by a spherical dome, and is 144 feet in diameter. 

1" Viator," Niles' Weekly Register, Sept, 15th, 1815. 

'According to Professor Potter {6"/^^/^:/;), the corner-stone was laid, " with 
ceremonies," by Colonel John Eager Howard, April 7th, iSii. This is probably 
a mistake, and the date is more likely May 7, 1812. Official publications of 
the Faculty in 1812 say the building was "begun " May 7, 1812. There is no 
allusion in the newspapers to a)iy corner-stone laying either in 1811 or 1S12, 
nor have I seen any allusion to it except Prof. Potter's. This is remarkable, 
as there must have been some ceremony on so important an occasion as this. 
The only explanation I can give for this omission is the almost utter indiffer- 
ence to local matters which characterizes the press of the period, and which is 
exceedingly provoking to those who seek for information through that channel. 
Whilst the columns are filled with politics, congressional proceedings, Euro- 
pean affairs, and advertisements, the events that make up the daily life of the 
city and its inhabitants are either not mentioned at all or else referred to in 
the briefest manner. 


R. Gary Long was born in Maryland in 1772. His father dying, he early 
left home and came to Baltimore, where he apprenticed himself to a carpenter. 
He here rose to the highest distinction as an architect. To him our city owes 
the introduction of gas, being second only to London in the utilization of 
this method of illumination. He aided also in its introduction into Boston and 
Philadelphia. Among the buildings erected under his supervision were the 
University of Maryland, the second St. Paul's Church, destroyed in 1854, the 
HoUiday Street Theatre, destroyed by fire in 1873, ^^^ old City Hall, old St. 
Peter's Church on S. Sharp street, Baltimore Library, Mechanics', Patapsco, 
and Union banks, Patapsco Institute, the Court House, the old Jail, and 
numerous private residences. The McKim schoolhouse, corner Baltimore 
and Aisquith streets, which is considered a gem of classic architecture, was 
designed either by him or his son. His latter years were given mostly to civil 
engineering, and the laying out of Canton, a suburb of Baltimore, was his last 
work. He died in 1835, at the age of 63, beloved and honored by all, and his 
remains were interred in St. Paul's graveyard. He left a son of the same 
name, who was also a distinguished architect. (See notice of him by his grand- 
son in the Amer. Architect and Building News, June 24, 1876.) 

The idea of engrafting a University upon the Medical College 
seems to have been first conceived about the time the building was 
commenced, but we are not informed who suggested it. This was 
not the first time that the thought of such an institution had been 
entertained. As far back as 1784 a "state university" had been 
actually " created " by act of the Legislature. It was then enacted 
that Washington College, at Chestertown, in Kent County, on the 
Eastern Shore, an institution incorporated in 1782, and St. John's 
College, at Annapolis, chartered in 1784, should be united into " one 
University, by the name of the University of Maryland." ' Of this 
foundation the Governor was made Chancellor, and one of the prin- 
cipals of the colleges was to be Vice-Chancellor, and there was a 
representative board or " convocation " composed of members of the 
colleges. Very liberal endowments were granted by the state, 
Washington College receiving £12^0 and St. John's ^^1750 annually, 
the proceeds of marriage and other licenses, fines, penalties and 
forfeitures. *' The connection between the two shores," thus secured, 
" would," it was thought, " be greatly increased by uniformity of 
manners, and j'oint efforts for the advancement of literature, under 
one supreme legislative and visitorial jurisdiction." The failure of 
such a cumbrous organization might easily have been foreseen. In 

' General John Cadwalader (who moved from Philadelphia to Maryland 
after the Revolution ; natus 1742, obiit 17S6) was the author of this bill. The 
original of St. John's College was King William's School, opened in 1701. 


1799, the appropriation of Washington College was reduced to £'j^o, 
and on June i, 1806, the funds were entirely withdrawn from both 
institutions, and the act constituting them into a university was 
repealed. This is not the only instance in which the state has 
withdrawn its support from literary institutions which it has created 
or fostered, and unfortunate is that college which has to depend for 
maintenance upon the uncertain tenure of state aid. St. John's 
afterwards again became the beneficiary of the state, and was again, 
with singular inconsistency, abandoned. At the present time it 
seems to be flourishing, in a measure, with a small annual state 
appropriation and a scholarship from each of the twenty-four sena- 
torial districts into which the state is divided. It is still without any 
permanent endowment. The collapse of the bilittoral university left 
the field open for newcomers. 

The memorial for the passage of the act founding the University 
of Maryland was presented to the Legislature by the president and 
professors of the Medical College, with the approval and advice of 
the Board of Regents, and was passed December 29th, 1812. I give 
this important bill in full : 

An Act for founding an University in the city or precincts of 
Baltimore, by the name of the University of Maryland. 

Whereas, public institutions for the promotion and diffusion of scientific 
and literary knowledge, under salutary regulations, cannot fail to produce the 
most beneficial results to the State at large, by instilling into the minds and 
hearts of the citizens the principles of science and good morals ; and 

Whereas it appears to the General Assembly of Maryland that this desir- 
able end would be much advanced by the establishment of an university in the 
city or precincts of Baltimore ; therefore 

I. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of Maryland, That the college for 
the promotion of medical knowledge, by the name of The College of Medicine 
of Maryland, be and the same is hereby authorized to constitute, appoint and 
annex to itself the other three colleges or faculties, viz : The Faculty of 
Divinity, The Faculty of Law and The Faculty of the Arts and Sciences ; and 
that the four faculties or colleges, thus united, shall be, and they are hereby, 
constituted an University, by the name and under the title of The University 
of Maryland. 

II. And be it enacted. That the said University shall be founded and main- 
tained forever upon the most liberal plan, for the benefit of students of every 
country and every religious denomination, who shall be freely admitted to 
equal privileges and advantages of education, and to all the honors of the 
University, according to their merit, without requiring or enforcing any relig- 
ious or civil test, urging their attendance upon any particular plan of religious 

Professor of Chemistry atiei Mineralogy. 


worship or service, nor shall any preference be given in the choice of a 
Provost, Professor, Lecturer, or other officer of the said University, on account 
of his particular religious professions, but regard shall be solely had to his 
moral character and other necessary qualifications to fill the place for which 
he shall be chosen. 

III. And be it enacted. That the members of the said four faculties, together 
with the provost of said University, and their successors, shall be and are 
hereby declared to be one corporation and body politic, to have continuance 
forever, by the name and style of the " Regents of the University of Mary- 
land "; and by that name shall be, an*d are hereby made able and capable in 
law, of enjoying to themselves and their successors, in fee, or for any lesser 
estate, any lands, tenements, hereditaments, annuities, provisions, goods, 
chattels and effects, of what kind, nature and quality whatsoever, and by whom- 
soever given, granted, bargained, sold, aliened, enfeoffed, released, confirmed 
or devised, and the same to grant, demise, alienate or dispose of in such 
manner as they shall judge most promotive of the interests of said University. 

IV. And be it enacted, That the said regents and their successors, shall be 
able in law to sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded, answer and be 
answered, in any court or courts, before any judge or judges, justice or justices, 
within the State, and elsewhere, in all and all manner of suits, pleas, cases and 
demands, of whatever kind, nature or form they be, and to do all and every 
other matter and thing hereby contemplated to be done, in as full and effectual 
a manner as any other person or persons, bodies corporate or politic, in like 
cases may or can do, 

V. And be it enacted, That the yearly value of the messuages, houses, lands, 
tenements, rents, annuities, hereditaments or other property, real or personal, 
of said University (exclusive of the lot and buildings occupied by the said 
University), shall not exceed one hundred thousand dollars ; and all gifts or 
donations to the said University, after the yearly value of their estates shall 
amount to an hundred thousand dollars as aforesaid, and all bargains and pur- 
chases to be made by the said University, which may increase the yearly value 
of said estates above or beyond the sum aforesaid shall be absolutely void and 
of no effect. 

VI. And be it enacted. That the said regents and their successors shall have 
full power and authority to have, make and use one common and public seal, 
and likewise one privy seal, with such devices and inscriptions as they shall 
think proper, and to ascertain, fix and regulate the uses of both seals, by their 
own laws ; and the same seals, or either of them, to change, break, alter and 
renew at their pleasure, 

VII. And be it enacted, That the said regents shall have full power and 
authority to appoint a provost of the said University, who shall preside at their 
meetings, and perform such other duties as may by the said regents be 
assigned to him, and in his absence to appoint a vice-provost, who shall 
always be one of their own body. 

VIII. Atid be it enacted. That the mode of constituting and appointing the 
professors and lecturers of the different branches of physic, divinity, law and 


the arts and sciences, shall be as follows : Each of the faculties shall possess 
the power of appointing its own professors and lecturers ; and it shall be the 
duty of the said professor and lecturer of the different branches aforesaid, to 
instruct the students of the said University by delivering regular lectures on 
their respective branches. 

IX. And be it enacted, That each faculty shall be capable of choosing its own 
dean, and of exercising such powers and authorities as the regents of said 
University and their successors shall by their ordinances delegate to them, 
for the instruction, discipline and government of the said institution, and of 
all students, officers and servants belonging to the same : Provided, That 
nothing be done in virtue of this contrary to the constitution of this State or to 
the constitution of the United States. 

X. And be it enacted. That the professors now appointed and authorized in 
the College of Medicine of Maryland, and their successors, shall constitute the 
Faculty of Physic ; that the professor of theology, together with six ordained 
ministers of any religious society or denomination, and their successors, shall 
form and constitute the Faculty of Divinity ; that the professor of law, 
together with six qualified members of the bar, and their successors, shall 
form and constitute the Faculty of Law; and that the professors of the arts 
and sciences, together with three of the principals of any three academies or 
colleges of this State, and their successors, shall form and constitute the Fac- 
ulty of the Arts and Sciences. 

XL And be it enacted. That the said regents and their successors, shall meet 
at least once a year, in stated annual meetings, to be appointed by their own 
ordinances, and at such other times as by their ordinances they may direct, in 
order to examine into all matters touching the discipline of the institution, and 
the good and wholesome execution of their laws ; and that the said regents, 
when duly assembled, shall have full power and authority to make their own 
rules of proceeding, and to make fundamental regulations for the government 
and discipline of the University, in all which meetings a majority of the whole 
number of regents shall be a quorum to do any business, except to vacate the 
seat of the provost of said University or of any of the professors or lecturers, 
for which purpose the consent of three-fourths of the whole number of the 
regents shall be necessary, and then only on a formal impeachment. 

Xn. And be it enacted. That the faculty of physic of the said University 
shall hold one term in each and every year, which shall commence on the third 
Monday in October in each year and shall continue not less than four nor 
more than six months, as may be regulated by the ordinances of the Univer- 
sity, within which period all the lectures to be delivered by said faculty shall 
be given, except the lectures on botany, and such other lectures as the regents 
shall deem most proper to be delivered at a different season. 

XIII. And be it enacted. That in order to animate and encourage the students 
of the said University to a laudable diligence, industry and progress in the 
professions and sciences taught therein, the said regents and their successors, 
shall, by a written mandate, under their privy seal, and the hand of their 
provost, have full power and authority to direct the different faculties to hold 


public commencements, either on stated annual days or occasionally, as the 
future ordinances of the said institution may direct ; and at the said com- 
mencements to admit any of the students of the said University, meriting the 
same, whose names shall be severally inserted in the said mandate, to the 
office and profession of surgeon, or to the degree of bachelor or doctor of 
physic, or doctor of divinity, or doctor of laws, and bachelor or master of arts ; 
and further, the said provost shall have made out and sign with his own hand, 
diplomas and certificates of the admission to such offices or degrees ; which 
diplomas and certificates shall be sealed with the common or public seal of 
the University, and delivered to th^ graduates as honorable and perpetual 
testimonials of such admission ; which diplomas or certificates in order to 
confer still greater honor on such graduates, shall also be signed by as many 
of the different professors and lecturers as can conveniently sign their names 

XIV. And be it enacted. That no student or students within the said Uni- 
versity shall be admitted to any of the aforesaid offices or degrees, or have 
their name or names inserted in any mandate for that purpose until such 
student or students shall have been first duly examined and thought worthy of 
the same, at a public examination of candidates, to be held in the said Uni- 
versity, on the day of commencement, by and in the presence of the regents, 
and such other persons as may attend the same ; and also until such student 
or students shall have had such previous private examinations, and have per- 
formed such exercises as shall be prescribed by the future ordinances of the 
said University. 

XV. And be it enacted. That no student or students in the said University, 
shall be admitted to the degree of bachelor of physic, except he or they shall 
have attended medical lectures in the said University during one term ; or to the 
degree of doctor of physic, or doctor of divinity, or doctor of laws, except he or 
they shall have attended the lectures on the respective subjects during two 
terms, and shall during that period have attended each of the lectures pre- 
scribed by the ordinances, at least one term, and shall also have written and 
caused to be printed, a Thesis or Theses, in the Latin or English languages, 
and shall publicly defend the same on the day of commencement; but the 
regents of said University may consider the attendance of such candidate or 
candidates for offices or degrees on lectures in any other University of estab- 
lished reputation, for the space of one or more terms, as equivalent to an 
attendance for one of the above prescribed terms ; and no student or students 
shall be admitted to the degree of bachelor of arts, until he or they shall have 
attended lectures in said University for two years, or to the degree of master 
of arts, until he or they shall have attended the same for three years ; but the 
said regents may consider the attendance during one or more years in any 
other respectable institution as equivalent to one year's attendance in said 

XVI. And be it enacted. That the regents shall have full power to confer the 
honorary degrees of doctor of divinity, doctor of physic, doctor of laws and 
master of arts, on any person recommended by the faculty whose degree is 
contemplated to be conferred. 


XVII. And be it enacted. That all students who matriculate in the said Uni- 
versity, previous to the first day of December, in each year, and attend any 
three courses of lectures therein, to the end of the course, shall be considered 
as having completed a term. 

XVIII. And be it enacted, That the beneficial exception in favor of all 
property real and personal, owned by colleges, contained in the first section of 
the Act of Assembly, passed at November session eighteen hundred and three, 
chapter ninety-two, entitled, "An Act for the valuation of real and personal 
property within this state," or which may be contained in any future act, be, 
and the same is hereby extended to all the property real and personal belong- 
ing to, or hereafter to be owned by the said University. 

XIX. And be it enacted. That in case at any time hereafter through oversight, 
or otherwise through misapprehension and mistaken construction of the 
powers, liberties and franchises in this charter or act of incorporation granted, 
or intended to be granted, any ordinance should be made by the said corpora- 
tion of regents, or matter done and transacted by the said corporation contrary 
to the tenor thereof, all such ordinances, acts and doings, shall of themselves 
be null and void ; yet they shall not in any courts of law, or by the General 
Assembly, be deemed, taken, interpreted or adjudged into an avoidance or for- 
feiture of this charter and act of incorporation ; but the same shall be and 
remain in full force and validity, the nullity and avoidance of such acts to the 
contrary notwithstanding. 

XX. And be it enacted. That this charter and act of incorporation, and every 
part thereof, shall be good and available in all things in law, according to the 
true intent and meaning thereof, and shall be construed, reputed and judged, 
in all cases, most favorably on the behalf, and for the best benefit and behalf 
of the said regents and their successors, so as most effectually to answer the 
valuable ends of this act of incorporation, towards the general advancement 
and promotion of the professions, sciences and arts. 

XXI. And be it enacted, That so much of the act passed at November ses- 
sion eighteen hundred and seven, entitled "An act for founding a Medical 
College in the city or precincts of Baltimore, for the instruction of students 
in the different branches of medicine," as is inconsistent with, repugnant to, 
or supplied by this act be, and the same is hereby repealed.^ 

As the acts of 1807 and 1812 are, according to the Court of Ap- 
peals, still in force, it is interesting to know the relations in which 
the University stands to each. The following quotations will explain : 

" The Act of 18 1 2 authorizes, not the Regents but the College, con- 
sisting of President and Professors, to constitute, appoint and annex 
to itself the three other Colleges or Faculties, thus, by the use of the 
words other colleges or faculties, treating and considering the Col- 
lege as itself a faculty. The authority is not given to the corpora- 
tion, ' The Regents of the College of Medicine.^ " " The College of 

' Ch. CLIX, Sess. 1812. 


Medicine and the University are distinct corporations; the first did 
not cease to exist, and the Professors and President became members 
of the Board of Regents of the second just as they might have 
become directors of a bank for instance," " The College of Medi- 
cine and the University exist in contemplation of law as distinct and 
independent corporations, in possession of all the rights and fran- 
chises conferred upon them by the acts of their incorporation." 
" There is nothing in the act of 1807 inconsistent with or repugnant 
to the act of 1812.'" 

In fact, however, although having a potential existence, it is evi- 
dent that the original Board of Regents, consisting of the board of 
medical examiners of the state for the time being, together with the 
president and professors of the College, ceased to exist at the time 
of the organization of the University, and that the College or Faculty 
transferred its allegiance to the new Board of Regents of the Univer- 
sity, composed of the Provost and the four faculties of Medicine, 
Divinity, Arts and Sciences, and Law, or such of them as exist. Nor 
is it likely that the original board, or the College of Medicine, as 
such, will ever be revived, although some feeble attempts were made 
many years ago in the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty to revive 
them,^ The University is too securely established upon the more 
comprehensive law of 1812, and has had too long a career of success 
and usefulness, to make a reversion to the earlier law a subject for 
discussion. Still it is an interesting fact that the first law is yet in 
legal force, if not enforced, and upon that fact seems to have largely 
depended the result of the trial restoring the University to the 
Regents in 1839. 

1 Opinio7i of the Court of Appeals of Maryland in the case of the University of 
Maryland. Delivered December Term, 1838. 

2 Transactions of M. & C. F., 1854-5. 



IN accordance with the new act, on Jan. 6th, 1813, the Faculty of 
Physic, "with the advice and recommendations of learned men of 
the several professions," " appointed and annexed to itself" the three 
other Faculties, and on April 22d, 1813, at a meeting of the Board of 
Regents thus constituted, a Provost and Secretary were elected. The 
Faculty of Divinity consisted of Right Rev. James Kemp, D. D., 
Rev. James Inglis, D. D., Rev. J. Daniel Kurtz, Rev. George Rob- 
erts, and Rev. John Glendy, leading Protestant clergymen of Balti- 
more, with two vacancies to be filled. Naturally such a "school of 
theology," composed of such inharmonious elements, could not be 
expected to prosper. The first professor in this department who 
ever actually discharged any public duties was Rev. Dr. Wm. E. 
Wyatt, of St. Paul's P. E. Church, appointed in 1819, who lectured 
to the medical class on Sunday afternoons during the session of 
1823-4 (and probably also during that of 1820-1), on " The Evi- 
dences of Christianity and Moral Conduct."' This could hardly be 
called a theological course. The last survivor of this faculty was the 
Rev. J. G. Hamner, D. D., a Presbyterian divine, whose name 
appears in the list of Regents as late as 1878, and whom former 
alumni will remember as officiating at the annual commencements. 
On his resignation in 1878 the department became extinct, and it is 
not likely that the Faculty of Theology will ever be revived. The 
Faculty of Law consisted of Messrs. David Hoffman, Professor of 
Law ; Robert Goodloe Harper, John Purviance, Robert Smith, 
Nicholas Brice and Nathaniel Williams. The Faculty of Arts and 
Sciences was composed of seven of the most eminent scholars in the 
city, among whom were Charles W. Hanson, Moral Philosophy ; 
Rev. John Allen, Mathematics ; John E. Hall, Rhetoric and Belles 
Lettres ; Rev. Archibald Walker, Humanity ; John D. Craig, Nat- 
ural Philosophy ; , History, and Samuel Brown. Henry 

1 Regents' Minute Book, and Federal Gazette, Oct. 18, 1822. 


Wilkins, M. D., was made lecturer on Botany.' Most of these 
appointments were mere sinecures. The Law Department was not 
organized until 1823, and then with but one professor; the Acad- 
emic had only a nominal existence until 1830 and never flourished. 
Archbishop John Carroll, of the Roman Catholic Church, a cousin 
of Charles Carroll, of Carrollton, signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, was chosen to be the first Provost of the University, but 
declined. Hon. Robert Smith, who had recently held the office of 
Secretary of State of the United States, was then elected and 
accepted the position. Professor Richard Wilmot Hall was elected 
Secretary of the Board of Regents. 

Robert Smith, statesman, brother of Gen. Samuel Smith, was born in Lan- 
caster, Penna., Nov. 1757. Was present at battle of Brandywine. Graduated 
at Princeton, 1781. Practiced law in Baltimore. Presidential elector, 17S9; 
state senator, 1793; member House of Delegates, 1796-1S00 ; member of City 
Council, 179S-1801 ; Secretary of Navy, 1S02-5; Attorney-General, 1S05 ; Sec- 
retary of State, 1S09-1S11; Provost of University of Maryland, 1S13-1S15; 
President of Maryland Agricultural Society, 1818. Author of "Address to the 
People of the United States," 181 1. Died in Baltimore, Nov. 26, 1S42. (See 
Appletoii" s Cyclopadia of American Biography.^ 

During the session of 1812-13 a Gold Medal was instituted, to be 
conferred annually, upon the student writing the best thesis in the 
Latin language. It was designed "as an expression of the estima- 
tion in which the College of Medicine of Maryland holds classical 
learning, and as an encouragement to medical students who may 
attend the institution, to acquire it."^ It was conferred, for the first 
time, upon John D. Sinnott, in 1813, the graduating class then 
numbering ten. It was given for the last time at the close of the 
session of 1836-37, Dr. E. J. Chaisty being the recipient. From a 
similar motive, the announcement was made at this time that gradu- 
ates in arts and sciences would be exempted from the payment of 
the graduation fee. 

The session lasted four months, from November ist to February 
28th, and at first the lectures were all delivered in Anatomical Hall, 
except those of the Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy. Not 

* Regents' Minute Book, Rev. John Allen was an A. M. of Trinity College, 
Dublin, and the author of an edition of Euclid and an original work on Conic 
Sections {Fed. Gazette^ Oct. 22, 1S22). His name appears on many of the 
earlier medical diplomas. 

'^ Report of Committee of Faculty, Niles' Register, August 24th, 1S13. 


until the session of 1815-16 was a separate room provided for the 
accommodation of the Professors of Theory and Practice, Institutes, 
Surgery, Materia Medica and Obstetrics. This was derived from 
" an alteration of the Library,'" and was situated in the front of the 
building, opposite the present Faculty, or "Green" Room. 

The obligations assumed by the Faculty, in the purchase of ground 
and the erection of buildings, were far greater than they had antici- 
pated. The expenses, as is so often the case, exceeded the estimates. 
The erection of a high wall about the grounds was one item of large 
outlay. The members of the Faculty contributed as much as they 
were able and secured loans from their friends. But the period of 
the war was now upon them, with its depressing influences, and the 
classes increased but slowly. The creditors — the bricklayers, car- 
penters, architects, etc. — became importunate, and the lotteries were 
not yet bringing in any revenue. In this critical stage, the property 
of the corporation was actually threatened with sale by the sheriff. 
The aid of the banks was now invoked and a loan was effected from 
two of them of several thousand dollars. The threatened calamity 
was thus averted, but the financial anxiety of the Professors was not 
allayed until some years later — in 1821 — and in a manner that will 
hereafter be described.'^ 

At the beginning of the session of 1813-14 the University sus- 
tained a severe loss by the death of Professor Cocke. It was due 
to " fever," and occurred on the 25th of October, and at the very 
hour at which he was to have delivered the opening lecture of the 
course in the new building.' To talents and acquirements of a very 
high order, and which gave promise of a brilliant future, Professor 
Cocke added a trait — very rare in physicians — business capacity. 

James Cocke was a native of lower Virginia and came from a wealthy and 
influential family. The exact date of his birth is unknown, but was probably 
about 1780. He enjoyed superior advantages of education. About 1801-1802 
he was a pupil of Sir Astley Cooper, at Guy's Hospital, London. He then 
returned to America and obtained his degree (M. D.) at the University of 

' Communication from " Viator," Niles' Register, Sept. 15th, 1815. 

"^ A number of years later (1827-30), suit was brought by the Bank of Balti- 
more against the Faculty for $7000, with interest, which had been loaned by 
the bank for the erection of buildings. Judgment was given against the 
Faculty, and the Infirmary was threatened with sale, when the Trustees very 
unwillingly consented to pay the debt with the funds of the University in their 
hands. (MS. Records of University.) 

3 Potter's Sketch. 

Pro/essor of StiJ'gery. 


Pennsylvania in 1S04, his thesis attracting considerable attention from its 
original views. He came to Maryland in the same year, and settled perma- 
nently in Baltimore towards the close of the year. He died in the fall of 1813 — 
flatu fehris astuante ustits — and was buried in Kent County, Maryland, the 
earlier home of his wife.' He was a most amiable and accomplished gentle- 
man, and gave evidence of marked abilities as a lecturer and surgeon. His 
early decease was a great loss to the University and to his profession. 

Professor Cocke was succeeded in the chair of Anatomy by Pro- 
fessor Davidge. The chair of Institutes became temporarily vacant, 
but was revived by the election to it, in 18 14, of Dr. John Owen, of 
Baltimore, Dr. Owen was just then on his way to Bladensburg to 
join the 5th Regiment of state militia, of which he was surgeon, 
and he therefore declined the honor. Dr. Maxwell McDowell was 
elected to fill the vacancy, and delivered his first course of lectures 
during the ensuing session, 1814-15.^ 

John Owen was a native of Maryland. He received the degree of A. M. 
from St. John's College, Annapolis, in 1794. He obtained his medical educa- 
tion partly in Great Britain, partly in America. The honorary degree of M. D. 
was conferred upon him in 181S, by the University of Maryland. He began 
practice in Baltimore in November, 1799. ^^ died in 1824, in his 50th year. 
Dr. Owen was a member of the City Council, Physician to the Baltimore Gen- 
eral Dispensary, Surgeon of the 5th Maryland Regiment in the war of 1812, 
and Consulting Physician to the City Board of Health. He contributed 
nothing to medical literature. (See Fed, Gaz., Oct. 22d, 1824, and Quinan's 

The chair of Surgery was filled during these early years by Pro- 
fessor Gibson, afterwards the eminent professor of the same branch 
in the University of Pennsylvania. A native of Baltimore, a graduate 
of the University of Edinburgh in i8og, and afterwards a pupil and 
friend of Charles Bell, of London, he entered upon the duties of his 
chair at the early age of 24.^ His reputation as a surgeon was estab- 
lished by his operation of ligating the common iliac artery, performed 
during the riots in Baltimore in May, 18 12. He possessed great 
skill in making casts and models of wax. His lectures were largely 
didactic, as the facilities for clinics at this time were limited. Yet, 
he occasionally performed operations in the presence of the classes 
at the Maryland Hospital, on Broadway, of which he was the Con- 

' See dedication of thesis of E. M. Worrell, Aid. Med. Journal, July i, 1882. 
^ His letter of acceptance is dated Sept. 3d, 1S14. 
2 His appointment is dated April 6th, 1812. 


suiting Surgeon, and at the Almshouse.' He also had a private 
surgical institution, which was established by authority of the Legis- 
lature in 1817, and located on Madison street extended, "out the 
Falls turnpike, a short distance from town."* 

Dissections were no doubt carried on during all the early years of 
the school. They were not made obligatory until many years after 
this, and they were conducted only in the daytime. There is a 
tradition handed down from one of the elder alumni,^ that the pre- 
sent " green-room " was used at first as a dissecting room, the second 
story of the front of the building not being yet completed. It has also 
been said that the Anatomical Hall was at first reached by the dark 
winding stairway at the northeast corner, near the exit towards Cider 
Alley.'' We have no account of any Demonstrator until several years 
after the occupation of the building. The classes being small, per- 
haps one was not deemed necessary, the Professor of Anatomy 
superintending this department himself or being assisted by one of 
the senior students. A graduate of the class of iSi^'" states, in his 
thesis, that he had dissected six subjects, and performed experiments 
in order to elucidate the phenomena of luxation, and the method of 
reduction, and that " the Professor of Anatomy had first demon- 
strated to him a third head of the coracoid muscle." Dr. James 
Bain, a graduate of the year 18 16, testified at the trial of Prof. Hall 
(1843), that he " dissected for two years for Dr. Davidge." It is 

1 He and Professor Baker accepted appointments as Attending Surgeon and 
Physician, respectively, of the Almshouse, on condition that their students 
should have the privilege of clinical instruction there. The Almshouse, it will 
be remembered, was then in the city. A certain number of the students held 
positions as residents in the Maryland Hospital. The late Dr. Samuel P. Smith, 
of Cumberland, was one of these for two years (1814 to 1816), having learned 
of the place while serving with the troops collected in the vicinity, for the 
defense of Baltimore. In excavating for the foundations of the Johns Hopkins 
Hospital, which occupies the site of the Maryland Hospital, the plate was 
discovered upon which the certificates of these students were printed. (See 
Baltimore Sun, June 15th, i88g.) 

'^ Medical Repertory, July, 1817. 

2 Communicated to me by Mr. Runge, the present Janitor, who received it 
orally from the alumnus. 

*In some alterations recently made at the University, this dark stairway was 
opened, and its appearance certainly seemed to negative the idea of its having 
ever been used by medical students. 

^Alex. Clendinen, of S. C, on the " Surgery of the Dislocated Shoulder 


believed that Dr. John Buckler, who graduated in 1817, performed 
the same duty, and it is quite certain that Jno. D. Godman, of the 
class of 1 818, did. Both of these held the position of Lecturer on 
Anatomy, which involved the oversight of dissections. Dr. William 
Howard was Adjunct Professor of Anatomy under Davidge, in 1820. 
From 1 82 1, the date of the appointment of Dr. Duncan Turnbull, 
our information is more exact, and we have the names and years of 
service of all the Dernonstratovs from that date to the present time. 

The " Library " was opened to the use of the students in the fall 
of 1815. It then consisted of the books of the late Dr. John Craw- 
ford, purchased from his widow after his death in 1813 for $500, that 
amount having been privately subscribed for the purpose by the 
members of the Faculty. The following account of it at this time is 
given : "Though not the most extensive of the kind," it " is compe- 
tent to most of the useful purposes of the medical pupil. While it 
contains many of the most useful works, it presents the curious 
inquirer with some of the rarest of both ancient and modern times, 
a few of which (I believe) are not to be found in any of the collections 
in the country." ' 

The subsequent history of the " Library " may be dismissed in a 
few words. Small additions were made to it from time to time by 
purchase and donation. A minute of the Faculty is entered Dec. i ith, 
1813, " requesting the Secretary to present the thanks of the Faculty 
to Jeremiah Sullivan, Esq., for donation of an Encyclopaedia, the 
binding to be paid for by him." In a report of the Faculty to the 
Board of Regents' dated May 3d, 1819, it is stated that "the debt 
due for the buildings and appurtenances, together with the amount 
expended for apparatus, library, etc., is now about $15,000." June 
14th, i83i,the Trustees' records contain a notice of "350 volumes 
folio, of the great French Encyclopaedia, presented to the Library 
by the late Mexican Minister, as a return ' for kindness received 
from the amiable people of Baltimore.' " This handsome contribu- 
tion was turned over to the department of Arts and Sciences. The 
same records contain a notice of books purchased for the Medical 
Library, April, 1837. In a list of disbursements of the funds of the 
University, contained in the "Memorial of the Trustees of the 
University of Maryland, and Trustees of Baltimore College to the 
Legislature of Maryland," Baltimore, 1830, $2600 are charged to 
the account of the " Medical Library." Some volumes were donated 

1 " Viator," Niks' Register, Sept. 15th, 1815. ^ MS. Records of University. 


by Prof. Geddings, and Prof. Smith is said to have contributed 
liberally to it.' Notwithstanding these various additions, the Library 
has certainly within the last 25 or 30 years been in a most languishing 
condition. It is doubtful if a single addition has been made during 
that time to the 600, more or less, antiquated volumes which repose 
in undisturbed retirement upon the shelves of the " Green " Room, 
the prey of dust, damp and worms. The value of the collection may 
be estimated from the fact that when oflfered to the Medical and 
Chirurgical Faculty a short time since, it was declined by the Library 
Committee of that body.^ 

The year 1818 deserves to be noted for the graduation of John 
D. Godman, a youth who, rising solely by his talent and merit 
from the humble position of a poor and friendless orphan, was 
destined to become one of the foremost of American savants, not- 
withstanding his brilliant career was cut short before it had reached 
its full development. He fell a victim to that dread disease — con- 
sumption — which has laid low so many of the brightest and best of 
our profession. The University should be proud to have trained 
such a scholar and to have afforded him the means, denied by 
nature, for entering upon that scientific career for which he was so 
well fitted. The circumstances connected with Godman's lecture- 
ship are these : 

During the winter of 1817 and 1818, Professor Davidge met with 
a serious accident by slipping upon the ice and falling against the 
curbstone. He thus sustained a fracture of the thigh-bone, which 
confined him to bed for several weeks and rendered him slightly 
lame ever after. Of course his further attention to his lectures was 
rendered impossible during that session, and in the emergency his 
assistant was called upon to take his place. Although not yet a 
graduate, Godman gladly embraced the opportunity, thus unex- 

1 Oral communication to writer by the late Prof. Aikin. 

2 In this connection it may be mentioned that at one time the Trustees made 
an annual appropriation of $50 for the purchase of medical works, to be kept 
at the Infirmary for the use of the physicians and resident students. (MS. 

An examination of a part of the Library stored in drawers in the Museum 
shows that there are there some old works which are probably rare and valu- 
able, as Hippocrates, Sennertus, Malpighi, Hoffman, Swammerdan, Reaumur, 
Galen, Van Swieten, Sauvage, Hiester, Baglivi, Linnaeus, St. Hilaire, Chorus 
Veterorum Medicorum, etc. Some of these are quarto editions, profusely 
illustrated in the highest style of mediaeval art. 


pectedly offered, for entering upon that career which was to be the 
chief business of his life, having an innate consciousness of his 
abihty to discharge its duties with credit. The result is graphically 
stated by his biographer. The sympathy arising from their common 
youth and sense of companionship, the contagious enthusiasm with 
which he discharged his task, and the consciousness of his supe- 
riority, which was too apparent to excite any feelings of jealousy or 
rivalry, made him master of « his audience from the first. With 
eloquent and burning words, and with all that fervor and zeal which 
characterize a vivid imagination and a comprehensive intellect to 
which the world of knowledge is just unfolding its treasures, he 
threw a charm into the dry subject which it had never had for his 
audience before. In chaste and apt language, of which he was 
master, with well-chosen illustration drawn from acute observation, 
extensive reading and a memory which never permitted anything 
to escape that once entered it, and in a style which, in its clearness 
and simplicity, contrasted most favorably with the turgid and mean- 
ingless verbosity of the day, he drew his youthful audience around 
him. So close was the attention and so fascinating the teacher that 
a pin might have been heard to fall during the delivery of his lec- 
tures. With such a guide and such surroundings the weeks flew 
rapidly by and the end came — the regretful time of parting. His 
success had been perfect, and gladly would the class have seen him 
permanently invested with the chair. No vacancy then existed, 
however, and after obtaining his degree he saw no other opening 
than a country practice. Although having little to do in a profes- 
sional way, even there he was not idle, but utilized his ample leisure 
for the prosecution of those studies and researches in natural his- 
tory which led afterwards to his work upon that subject, the first 
in America, and made him one of the authorities in that depart- 
ment. When the chair of Anatomy became vacant in 1819 he 
turned his face, as by right, towards his Alma Mater, which, other 
things being equal, should always prefer her own children to 
strangers. His qualifications and fitness for the post had been fully 
demonstrated and were freely acknowledged, but although he waited 
a whole year before the vacancy was filled, the verdict had been 
irrevocably passed — he was too young. Thus was lost to the 
institution and to the state a man who appeared destined to advance 
our knowledge, and more than it had been advanced by any one of 
his predecessors, at least in this part of the world. If so much could 


be achieved in so short a life, what great benefits would science not 
have derived, what remarkable steps in advance might not have 
been made, had it been given to such a great mind to work on for 
the good of his race during a lifetime of ordinary length! 

John D. Godman was born at Annapolis, 1794. Being left an orphan and 
very poor, he received only the rudiments of an English education. He was 
then apprenticed in Baltimore with a printer, but ran away during the war of 
1812 and joined the American fleet in Chesapeake Bay. He began the study 
of medicine with Dr. Luckey, of Elizabethtown, Penna., and by the generous 
interest of the Faculty was enabled to continue it at the University of Md. 
After graduating he spent a short time in the country and then went to Phila- 
delphia. There he organized a very successful School of Anatomy. He held 
several professorships and lectureships, edited two or three medical journals 
(among them the Am. Jour, of the Med. Sciences), was a voluminous con- 
tributor to periodical literature, and wrote a number of works, the most 
important of which were his Natural History, 3 vols. ; Rambles of a Naturalist ; 
a work on Anatomy ; a volume of Addresses, etc. He also edited several 
works of foreign authors and contributed some poetry. He died in 1830. He 
married a daughter of Rembrandt Peale, who with her children moved to the 
West after his death. He wrote with great vigor, simplicity and elegance, 
and his style might well serve as a model still. 

In 1819 Professor Gibson severed his connection with the Univer- 
sity to enter upon a larger sphere of activity. By the death of Pro- 
fessor Dorsey and the transfer of Professor Physick, a vacancy had 
occurred in the chair of Surgery in the University of Pennsylvania, 
then and still the leading medical school in America. Gibson was 
chosen to fill it, and thenceforward, for thirty-odd years, he was con- 
spicuous there as a teacher and writer, sending out edition after edition 
of his Surgery, and contributing many valuable monographs to the 
periodical literature of the time. 

William Gibson was born — a twin — in Baltimore, in 178S. He was educated 
at St. John's College, Annapolis, and at Princeton. He began the study of 
medicine with Dr. John Owen, of Baltimore. In 1806 he went abroad, attended 
lectures at the University of Edinburgh, and obtained the degree of M. D. there 
in 1S09. Later in life he received the honorary degree of LL. D. He was a 
student and warm personal friend of Dr. Charles Bell, after whom he named 
his son. After graduating, he hurried off to the seat of war in Spain and was 
present at the battle of Corunna, where Sir John Moore was killed. Later, in 
1815, happening to be travelling in the vicinity, he was present also at the 
battle of Waterloo and received there a slight wound. In 1810 he was prac- 
tising in Baltimore, and married the same year Miss Hollingsworth of this city. 
In 1812 he achieved great reputation from being the first to ligate the common 


iliac artery, which he did upon a negro wounded in the riots of that year. He 
held the professorship of Surgery in the College of Medicine and University 
of Maryland from 1812 to 1S19, and the same chair in the University of Penn- 
sylvania from 1819 to 1854. He spent his latter years in Newport, R. I., and 
died in Savannah, March 2, 1868, aged 80. He was twice married and had seve- 
ral children by each marriage. He was an Episcopalian. He possessed great 
mechanical ingenuity and at the age of 80 still worked in his shop. He was 
also very fond of fishing. He painted, knew how to stuff birds, and played 
upon several musical instruments, especially upon the violin. He retained a 
strong taste for the classics and ip his old age could repeat three hundred 
lines of Vergil from memory. He kept a daily journal for over 60 years, jvhich 
at his death amounted to 150 volumes. Among the operations (besides that 
already mentioned) which gave him most eclat, were caesarian section, per- 
formed twice upon the same patient, saving both mother and children, and 
extraction of the ball which General Scott had received at the battle of Lundy's 
Lane. The most important of his numerous works was his Surgery, in two 
volumes, which went through eight or nine editions. He was 5 ft. 9 in. high 
and weighed 160 lbs. (See Dr. Samuel Francis' sketch in Medical and Surgical 
Reporter, 1S68, and Drake's Diet, of Med. Biog., 1878.) "An accomplished 
lecturer, lucid writer and able surgeon." (Gross.) 

During the session succeeding Professor Gibson's removal to 
Philadelphia, Professor Davidge was again called upon to discharge 
the duties of the surgical chair, in addition to those of the anatom- 
ical chair, which he still retained. His preferences seem to have 
been for the latter. An able assistant was given him in the anatom- 
ical department in Dr. William Howard, who was appointed Adjunct 

William Howard was born in Baltimore and practiced there. He trav- 
elled extensively in Europe. He took the degree of M. D. at the University 
in 1817, and was Adjunct Professor of Anatomy under Davidge, and member 
of the Building Committee, 1S20-21. He held the professorship of Natural 
Philosophy in the Academic Department of the University, and later was in 
the U. S. Topographical Engineers. Died in Baltimore, August 25, 1834, in 
his 41st year. He was "a gentleman of fine taste and very superior talents." 
(Niles'' Register, Scharf, Quinan.) 

Meanwhile the eye of the Faculty was kept open for a professor of 
Surgery, and it was not long before a willing candidate was found. 
This was Granville Sharp Pattison, a native of Scotland, who had 
held a subordinate position in the Andersonian Institute, at Glasgow, 
under the eminent anatomist, Allen Burns, and later become his suc- 
cessor. Mr. Pattison left Scotland, it was said, in consequence of a 
domestic difficulty with one of his colleagues, the particulars of which 


were not made public until some time at'ter his arrival in this 
country. He arrived in Philadelphia early in 1819 and remained 
there until the following year. He brought with him letters of 
recommendation from Sir Astley Cooper, Rev. Dr. Chalmers and 
others, which secured a favorable reception in professional and 
social circles. Being unable to secure a position in Philadelphia 
commensurate with his wishes and aspirations, and his pecuniary 
wants becoming pressing, he was fain to accept the chair of surgery 
in the University of Maryland, where on his arrival he was received 
with open arms as a great accession to the Faculty. There was a 
fine opening then in Baltimore for any one possessing the requisite 
qualifications of a first-class surgeon. The field of surgery was 
almost unoccupied, as Professor Davidge had already begun to with- 
draw from it on account of advancing age and failing sight, and Dr. 
Jameson had not yet come prominently to the front. The success 
that would have attended the advent of the right man was illustrated 
by the career of Prof. Smith only a few years later. Pattison, then, 
became the Professor of Surgery, and Davidge resumed the chair of 

Pattison had brought over with him the anatomical preparations 
which had been accumulated by Burns and had been bequeathed to 
him by the latter. This collection, like its owner, was extensively 
advertised in the medical journals and newspapers of the country. 
The influence which Pattison now exerted in the councils of the Uni- 
versity was paramount, and he used it to dispose of his collection. 
It was purchased by the Faculty for an anatomical and pathological 
museum, for $8000, and Practice Hall was erected shortly after (182 1) 
to give it accommodation. Pattison seems to have infused new 
vigor into the University. Whereas, at his arrival, the institution 
was burdened with debt, of which there was no prospect of pay- 
ment, and the building was unfinished and badly needing repairs, 
the means were speedily secured for meeting all expenses and more. 
In 1821 a "loan" was obtained from the Legislature of $30,000 at 
five per cent interest, to be paid annually by the Faculty. This loan 
was avowedly advanced for the purpose of relieving the institution 
of debt, and in order that it might be devoted strictly to the object 
intended the Legislature appointed a "commission" to see to its 
proper disbursal. This commission consisted of Reverdy Johnson, 
D. Hoffman, Wm. Howard, Maxwell McDowell, and others. Be- 
sides the state appropriation, some $7800 derived from the medical 

Professor of Principles nnd Practice of Medicine, 


lotteries were also turned over to these gentlemen. The funds thus 
provided were found to be sufficient to pay off the entire indebted- 
ness of the institution outside of the Faculty, including the cost of 
Practice Hall and the completion of "the splendid anatomical 
theatre and the extensive and convenient dissecting rooms attached 

The "Museum," thus inaugurated with so much expense and 
^clat, has continued to be a feature of the University to this day, but 
it has had its vicissitudes and h^s suffered much from neglect and 
indifference. Instead of being a workshop frequented by ardent 
disciples of ^sculapius, except for an occasional stranger led thither 
by curiosity, it is to be feared it has been left mostly to dust and 
silence. The necessity of constant supervision of such a collection, 
to see that specimens are properly labeled, to supply new alcohol 
and shelving as growth proceeds, and to look after catalogue, 
repairs, etc., has not been fully appreciated by the authorities of the 
University. Nor are liberal appropriations all that is necessary; 
the qualifications of the "curator" are all-important. To an ade- 
quate salary he should add devotion to his work and an enthusiasm 
which never flags. There have been times undoubtedly when the 
Museum was well kept, but the word "curator" does not occur with 
that frequency in the records of the institution that is to be desired, 
and it is a remarkable fact that in the last catalogue there is no allu- 
sion whatever to the Museum. Now that pathology has assumed 
such a predominance in medical education, an institution with the 

"^Medical i'i'^^^r^i'r, Philadelphia, July, 1S21. The following extract gives 
some idea of the financial straits of the University at the time this loan was 
effected : 

" In 1821 the institution was at its lowest ebb. Professor Davidge occupied 
two chairs ; the number of students did not exceed sixty ; a heavy debt of at 
least $38,000 hung over it. Executions to the amount of nearly $6000 were 
then pending. The buildings, which had never been finished, were in a state 
of gloomy dilapidation, and a heartlessness and despondency prevailed 
through the institution to such a degree that Professor UeButts with much 
feeling, informed me, after we had been visiting the buildings, that it was 
probable the institution could not last, more than another session unless some- 
thing could be done to rescue it from its peril. He asked me what could be 
done. My brief reply was. Go further in debt; get Dr. Davidge to resign one 
of the chairs, appoint an able professor to supply the vacancy, repair your 
buildings, erect a new building for a class-room, etc." (Extract from letter of 
Professor Uavid Hoffman to the Medical Faculty, dated Dec. 28, 1824. Arch- 
ives of the University.) 


rank of the University of Maryland can no longer afford to neglect 
so important a department, and it is gratifying to know that changes 
for the better are in contemplation. The subject of a Pathological 
Laboratory might well engage the attention and efforts of the 
Alumni Association, which could thus materially advance the 
standing and means of instruction of the Alma Mater, whose welfare 
its members should all have at heart.' 

Notwithstanding these remarks, which, with due regard to truth, 
must necessarily be disparaging, the Museum has a history which 
can be traced here and there in the scattered records of the Univer- 
sity. The latter has been particularly fortunate in the ability with 
which the chairs of anatomy and surgery have been filled, and it is 
not possible that such men as Davidge, N. R. Smith, TurnbuU, Ged- 
dings, W. N. Baker, Roby, Miltenberger, Hammond, Johnston, 
Miles, Tiffany and Michael have not felt a warm interest in a collec- 
tion of specimens illustrative of their lectures, or failed to add to it 
contributions of value which their extensive experience, both public 
and private, must often have placed in their hands. 

Of the character of Professor Pattison's collection but little infor- 
mation is given, further than that it consisted "of upwards of looo 
selected morbid and healthy specimens, and in variety, excellence 
and number was far superior to any other in America." It was duly 
deposited in the " handsome hall, elegantly furnished," which had 
been erected for its reception, and for some time constituted the 
chief attraction for visitors to the University. The apartment in 
which it was placed displayed it to the best advantage, being spac- 
ious and well lighted. The cases were arranged against the walls, 
and the specimens were all numbered and catalogued. The first 

' Seven or eight years ago a proposition was made in the Alumni Association 
to raise an endowment for a Laboratory, to be called the " N. R. Smith Patho- 
logical Laboratory," in honor of Maryland's great surgeon. Successful efforts 
(so it was reported) were then being made, in a similar way, at the Jefferson 
Medical College to establish the " S. D. Gross Pathological Laboratory." In 
view of the large number of our alumni who had attended Professor Smith's 
lectures and the affectionate regard in which his memory was held by them, it 
was thought not impracticable to raise a fund for the annual, if not permanent, 
endowment of a Laboratory, including the salary of the Director. But at the 
very beginning, before any plan of action had been settled on, some question 
arose as to the mode of appointment of the pathologist, and the proposition 
met with so discouraging a reception in a quarter where opposition was least 
expected that it was not further discussed. Let us hope it may yet be revived 
under more favorable auspices. 


notice of any addition to it was in March, 1823, when Capt. C. G. 
Ridgely presented " a collection of minerals from South America 
(Peru and Chili) ; also curiosities of the Incas.'" About the same 
time Gen. John Spear Smith made a second donation of minerals. 
In 1832 the Trustees appropriated $250 for the purchase for it of 
articles abroad by Professor Geddings, who in the following year 
acknowledges their liberality, through which " important additions 
have been made to the Museum and Library." The " Prospectus " 
of 1839 "offers to the student of pathological anatomy a large and 
valuable Museum, founded upon the cabinet of the late Allen Burns 
.... to which numerous additions have been made, especially 
beautiful preparations of the lymphatic system, superficial and pro- 
found, procured from Italy. The Museum contains magnificent 
models of the eye and ear in wax, which will greatly facilitate the 
study of the minuter parts of those delicate organs." In 1841 num- 
erous and valuable additions to the Anatomical Cabinet were 
received, and $65.35 were appropriated for the purchase of alcohol. 
In 1846 we find this notice : " The extensive and costly Anatomical 
Museum founded by the late Allen Burns has been, during the last 
session, greatly enlarged by the addition of numerous valuable 
morbid preparations, and it will be rendered still more efficient by 
the arrival of a complete set of the celebrated pathological models 
by Thiebert, ordered from Paris by Dr. Smith. They will be the 
only set in this country on this side of the mountains, and will rep- 
resent every form of diseased structure more accurately than can be 
done by any other mode of preparation, and are intended to render 
the lectures on surgery vastly more instructive than they could be 
made otherwise." In 1848 we are told that "During the past ses- 
sion a considerable collection of French models has been ordered, 
and a large number of drawings and casts have been added." In 
1855 the Museum was placed in charge of Dr. Christopher Johnston, 
Lecturer on Experimental Physiology and Microscopy (" lately 
returned from a prolonged residence abroad "), and an appropriation 
was made for its proper maintenance in accordance with his sugges- 
tions. In 1861, under the direction of Prof. Wm. A. Hammond, it 
was enriched by a collection of skulls, by French models, and by 
additions to the Materia Medica Cabinet. Microscopes were also 
provided, together with one of the largest collections of microscop- 
ical specimens in the country, containing specimens of all the tissues 

' American, 


and structures entering into the composition of the body. The next 
year the Museum, " ever an object of anxious care to the Faculty," 
received valuable osteological specimens illustrating comparative 

Notwithstanding the large amount of labor and money which are 
shown to have been expended on it, a recent visit to the ".Museum " 
shows that it is in a lamentable condition. A majority of the speci- 
mens, from want of alcohol or absence of any history, are worth- 
less. The writer counted between 600 and 700 that appeared to him 
to be in sound condition and of value. They were chiefly osteological 
and embryological, the latter including some interesting double and 
anencephalous monsters. It was gratifying to find some recent addi- 
tions, proof that life was not entirely extinct and evidence that 
regeneration was at least possible. The announcement has recently 
been made that the "Museum" has been placed under the charge 
of Dr. Charles W. Mitchell, Lecturer on Pathological Anatomy, 
whose thorough training at home and abroad is a guarantee of his 
fitness for the important trust.' 

One of the most important events during this period was the erec- 
tion of the Baltimore Infirmary (or " University Hospital," as it is 
now called), in 1823..* The need of a hospital in connection with the 

' In answer to a note of inquiry, Dr. Mitchell sent me the following, dated 
Sept, 29th, 1888 : " The Museum of the University has been sadly neglected 
during the past few years, but efforts are now being made to classify and 
put in order the specimens it contains, and additions are now constantly 
made from the dead-houses of the University and Bay View Hospitals. The 
material at hand will be employed throughout the sessions in my lectures on 
pathology, when fresh and preserved specimens will be exhibited to the class. 
The Museum at present contains about six hundred specimens, consisting of new 
growths, preparations of diseased joints and bones, monstrosities, illustrations 
of gross pathological lesions of viscera, etc. The most valuable specimens 
are those of joint pathology, I believe it is proposed during the present 
session to transfer the collection from its present location over to the room 
now used for dissecting. We hope during the present year to add largely to 
the usefulness of the Museum for the purposes of medical instruction." This 
hope has not yet (Sept. 1890) been realized, and I am informed that the Mu- 
seum remains still in statu quo. 

^ The corner-stone of Massachusetts General Hospital, at Boston, was laid in 
1818. " There was no institution with competent practical instruction in the 
Eastern section of the United States before this." [Some Account of the Medi- 
cal School in Boston, pamph., Boston, 1824.) Pennsylvania Hospital was 
erected in 1752, and Dr. Thomas Bond, of Maryland, delivered clinical lectures 
there the ensuing year — the first in America. 


College was early apparent to the Faculty. But clinical teaching did 
not then occupy the prominence it does now. Students were trained 
in the offices of preceptors, where they saw patients and put up the 
prescriptions ordered for them. Many of them had already been 
practitioners before entering upon a regular course of instruction. The 
sessions were brief — but four months — and it was doubtless thought 
that the student could make a better use of*his time in hearing 
didactic lectures and in studyingi his books than in attention to cases 
of disease, with which in the natural course of things he must s&on 
become familiar, if not already so. Therapeutics also were very 
simple then, consistingmainly of purgatives, calomel and venesection. 
An occasional clinic was, however, given at the Broadway (" Mary- 
land ") Hospital or the Almshouse, chiefly surgical operations.' Dis- 
pensaries in connection with colleges do not appear then to have 
existed ; that of the University has, indeed, been only a compara- 
tively recent addition to it. It is strange that the idea of utilizing out- 
patient practice did not occur to the early faculties : to us it seems 
quite natural. The Baltimore General Dispensary, founded in 1801, 
had been in successful operation for several years when the College 
of Medicine was instituted.'' Perhaps it was thought that the town 
was too small for two dispensaries. 

In order to afford the greatest facilities of access to students, the 
lot adjoining that occupied by the University was leased for the 
hospital. The lease was dated July loth, 1823, and was for 99 years, 
renewable forever. It was drawn by John S. Skinner, in favor of 
Professors Davidge, Potter, Hall, DeButts, Baker, McDowell and 
Pattison, as tenants in common.^ This property was subject to a 

'In 1S12 the City Hospital on Broadway had ico beds. Prof. Gibson was 
Consulting Surgeon. The centre building was then completed. The Alms- 
house also furnished a considerable amount of clinical material. Dr. James 
Smith reported 2016 inmates in the Almshouse during the year 1800-1. (Qui- 
nan's Annals.) 

-This institution has always been useless for clinical purposes, the interests 
of patients being the sole object had in view by its managers. 

2 MS. Records of University. The Infirmary lot " extended from a point 78 
feet west of the corner of Greene — ran west 75 feet, then south to Whiskey 
Alley 174 feet, then east 75 feet, then north 174 feet." These particulars are 
given in the copy of a mortgage made to John Sinclair, March 17th, 1S24 (MS. 
Records), for $4800 on the Infirmary, by the Professors above named. The 
mortgage is payable Oct. 20th, 1S30, with interest from Oct. 20th, 1S23. An 
effort was made (newspapers of the day) to induce the city to erect and main- 


ground rent of $200, which the lessees had (and still have) the power to 
extinguish at any time during the lease by the payment to the lessor, 
his heirs or assigns, of the sum of $3000. The building was erected by 
Mr. John Sinclair, at a cost of $1 1,589 ; the furniture, permanent and 
movable, cost $2520 additional, making a total of $14,109.' This 
amount was derived first from the private resources of the Professors ; 
when these failed, they secured a loan of $7000 from the Bank of Bal- 
timore. All this was done by the Professors in their individual and not 
jin their corporate capacity. The Infirmary was therefore thei r privat e 
property ; it did not belong to the Regents, nor was it under their 
^control, although it was the design to turn it over ultimately to them. 
Notwithstanding these circumstances the Trustees afterwards took 
possession of it, and not only refused to pay the Professors for it, but 
even refused to allow them the income derived from it. 

The foundation of the Infirmary building was laid June loth, 
1823, and the institution was ready for the reception of patients 
September 20th of the same year. Only acute cases were at first 
admitted. There were four clinical lectures each week, two medical 
and two surgical, and the students were at liberty, if they so desired, 
to attend at the daily visits of the physicians and surgeons. There 
were four wards, one of which was reserved for eye cases, instruc- 
tion in ophthalmic surgery forming a prominent feature of the course. 
There were two resident students, each of whom was required to 
pay $300 per annum, in advance, for board, washing, etc. It was 
calculated that the building would accommodate 160 patients, but 
this was doubtless an exaggerated estimate of its capacity. The 
visits of the medical and surgical staff were paid at noon daily, and 
the res ident students were required to accompany the professors iri_ 
their rou nds. The histories of patients were written out on admis- 
sion by the house students and read at the next visit of the medical 
attendant. The charge to patients was $3 per week, which included 
everything. No operations were allowed to be performed without 
consultation. The operating theatre * was in the rear, but attached 
to the main building. It was surrounded by elevated seats " capable 
of accommodating several hundred students." One of the early 

tain the Infirmary as a public institution, but the authorities thought that an 
almshouse was needed and not a hospital, and accordingly they built the 

'MS. Records of University. 

^ Until recently used as a chapel. 


regulations was that the bible should be read each day, audibly in 
in each ward. The Governor of Maryland was the President of the 
institution, and the Mayor of Baltimore Vice-President ; a number 
of prominent citizens constituted its Board of Managers, and the 
Examining Board of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Mary- 
land were ex-officio consulting physicians and surgeons.' 

The growth of the classes, which had been slow up to the close 
of the war with Great Britain, began to show a steady increase after 
1815. From 1820 to 1825 the increase was enormous. The latter 
has been considered the banner-year of the University, that in which 
it had the largest class ever known in its history. It is very hard to 
state precisely the number of students during the session of 1824-5. 
The Dean himself acknowledged that he did not know, and for the 
reason that many attended lectures who never matriculated. Accord- 
ing to Niks' Register it was 303 ; Professor Potter estimates it even 
higher, 320.^ It will have been observed that there was no break in 
the continuity of the sessions on account of the war with Great 
Britain, nor has there ever been one, from any cause, since the 
opening of the school.^ 

In the early portion of this period, from 1 812 to 1817, the graduates 
were required to publish their theses, but in the latter year the 
custom ceased, although required by the letter of the charter.^ The 
circumstances of the case seem to render such a regulation imprac- 
ticable. Some of the printed theses are still extant and are very 
creditable productions. The writing of a thesis has been altogether 
dispensed with for some years past ; and well it may be, for it is 
a useless regulation and one liable to great abuse, and the personal 
examinations, which are now being conducted with steadily increasing 

1 Announcement in newspapers of the day. By the end of the first decade 
four more wards had been added and the number of beds was 90. There were 
60-70 patients on an average, and four resident students. For the first few 
years the income of the Infirmary fell below the expenses, but in 1830 there 
was a net revenue of $2000. The Gray bequest yielded $300 per annum, and 
the Marine Department (sailors) $4000 per annum. (Notes by Prof. Hall, 
March 11, 1838, MS. Records of University.) 

2 Potter's Sketch. The University of Pennsylvania had this year 480 students, 
and Transylvania 235, all the other schools less. Harvard had loi in 1823-4. 

3 This cannot be said of the University of Pennsylvania. 

4 The same regulation prevailed at the University of Pennsylvania until 
1805 and seems to be still in vogue in the Universities of the continent of 


Strictness, indicate better than any other means the acquirements of 
candidates for the degree. 

The degree of Bachelor of Medicine continued to be given, in 
accordance with the charter of 1812, after one year's attendance on 
lectures and examination, but the number of those applying for it 
appears to have been exceedingly small, one or two each year; it 
never became popular, most of the graduates preferring to remain 
through two sessions and take the full degree. Honorary degrees 
were also conferred at the annual commencements on certain physi- 
cians, who, by their attainments, professional standing and length of 
service, seemed to merit the honor. Among the most distinguished 
of these was Ephraim McDowell, the ovariotomist, who received the 
honorary M. D. in 1825. 

Ephraim McDowell was born in Va., in 177 1, of Scotch-Irish parentage. 
Was taken to Kentucky by his parents when an infant. Attended the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh 1793-4. His first ovariotomy was perfoi'med in 1809; he 
operated thirteen times, with eight cures, four deaths, and one failure from 
adhesions. Died 1830, aet. 58. He wrote only two short articles descriptive 
of his operations, in the Philadelphia Medical Repertory, 1S17 and 1S19. (See 
Gross' Biog. Sketch.) 

The commencements during this period were held in Anatomical 
and Chemical Halls. The following interesting description of one 
of them (April 23, 1823) is given in the American: "Chemical 
Hall was fitted up very handsomely for the occasion, and crowded 
at an early hour by a highly respectable audience, made infinitely 
more interesting by much of the youth and beauty of the city and 
neighborhood, the gay decorations of whose dresses relieved the 
sombre solemnity of the scene, and produced a charm and an interest 
which the society and approbation of woman alone can impart. 
The procession entered the hall at 1 1 o'clock, and took possession of 
the seats allotted to them. First the gradiiates, two and two — the 
Dean of the Faculty of Divinity, followed by the Professors, two and 
two, the Dean of the Faculty of Law, followed by Professors in the 
same manner, the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, 
attended in the same way. Then the Dean of the Faculty of Physic. 
On Professor Davidge (the father of the institution) and Professor 
Pattison making their appearance, they were received with three 
distinct bursts of applause by the whole assembly. The Reverend, 
the Provost, followed the Professors and the Regents closed the 

.it the age 0/20 


procession. The Professors having taken their chairs with their 
respected Dean (Dr. DeButts) at the head of the table, Dr. 
De Butts read the 'Mandamus' and the Right Rev. Bishop fol- 
lowed by prayer. The young gentlemen were then asked a few 
questions by the learned body, touching the subject of the different 
theses; and having received their degrees, the commencement con- 
cluded with solemnity." The paper goes on to speak in compli- 
mentary terms of the appearance and conduct of the students, which 
were such that the mere fact of being a student at the University 
" is considered by our best society as a sufficient passport to their 
houses and hospitality." It was no wonder, then, that the commu- 
nity felt the deepest interest in the prosperity of their leading insti- 
tution, and contemplated " with pride and exultation " the high rank 
to which it had attained — a rank second to none other, at least in 
the New World. 

In 1822 Professor David Hoffman, LL. D., a lawyer of learning 
and ability, gave notice of his intention to deliver a course of lectures 
in the department of Law. The course did not actually begin until 
the following year, when a circumstance occurred which favored its 
successful inauguration. This was the sudden death, August ist, 
1823, of Judge Dorsey, who had a large and successful law school 
then in operation. Professor Hoffman lectured daily, and designed 
establishing a two-year course of ten months' each.' This depart- 
ment received only indifferent patronage, although it was aided 
largely by the University funds. Professor Hoffman sold his law 
library and furniture to the Trustees, but for some reason failed to 
deliver them, probably because he felt that he had some unsatisfied 
claim against the institution for money advanced. He ceased to lec- 
ture before the close of 1832. On the i6th of April, 1833, proceed- 
ings (" action of trover ") were begun against him by the Trustees, 
with a view to recover the library and furniture, but he gave bail 
and left for Europe without having delivered either. Judgment was 
obtained against him in the Baltimore County Court, but it still 
remained " unsatisfied " when the University was restored to the 
Regents in April, 1839.^ After the cessation of Professor Hoffman's 

' Fed. Gaz., Oct. i, 1824. 

-MS. Records of University. In 1S26 the Legislature, having assumed con- 
trol of the affairs of the University, undertook to direct the application of the 
balance of the $140,000 authorized by the Lottery acts. It appropriated 
$14,000 to the department of Law, that sum being considered a due proportion 


lectures there was no attempt to revive the department of Law 
until 1869. 

The close of this period, otherwise so distinguished in the number 
and importance of its events, was further signalized by a duel in 
which one of the Faculty participated. Our knowledge of this affair 
depends almost entirely upon tradition, although some facts relating 
to it have been derived from those who were contemporaries of the 
participants and placed in positions which gave them opportunities 
to learn the truth with regard to it. The failure of Prof. Pattison to 
get the much-coveted chair at the University of Pennsylvania led to 
estrangement between him and the professors there, which gradually 
deepened into open rupture and hostility. Prof. Nathaniel Chap- 
man, for some reason, became the particular object of his aversion. 
His removal to Baltimore and the honor of the chair of Surgery in 
the University of Maryland served only to fan the embers of his 
wrath, which seemed ready to burst forth on the slightest provoca- 
tion. On the i2th of October, 1820, he wrote to Chapman, asking if 
the latter was responsible for the statement that the former was the 
author of an anonymous letter received the previous winter by Chap- 
man through Dr. Eberle. He demanded an immediate answer. 
Chapman made no reply. Pattison determined to proceed to Phila- 
delphia at once for the purpose of demanding satisfaction, and 
sought the aid of Dr. Patrick Macaulay, of Baltimore, as his second. 
By Dr. Macaulay's advice he postponed his departure, and on the 
17th Macaulay addressed Chapman by letter. He told him that 
the letter which Pattison had sent had been written by his advice ; 
that he had twice persuaded Pattison to delay going to Philadelphia, 
and he now asked for some explanation as to Chapman's conduct 
and intentions. To this letter Chapman replied on the 19th. He 
began with an account of Pattison's candidacy for the chair of Sur- 
gery in the University of Pennsylvania. A vacancy had occurred in the 
chair of Anatomy there, by the death of Professor Dorsey, to which 
Professor Physick had been transferred by the Trustees, May ist, 
1819. This transfer, which was made against the wishes of Physick, 
was designed to open a way for Gibson. Pattison had been apprised 

of the whole amount. Of the $14,000, $5000 were paid to the Professor of 
Law for his law library, and the balance was invested, with a view to the sub- 
sequent erection of necessary buildings. Meanwhile, a building was secured 
for temporary use at an annual rental of $400. {Joint Memorial of Trustees of 
University and Baltimore College, to the Legislature, 1830. Pmpht.) 


of this action by his brother, who then resided in Philadelphia, and 
had been advised by him to become a candidate for the position. 
Accordingly he forwarded his application and letters of recommen- 
dation. On the vote being taken he was defeated, Physick and 
Chapman strenuously supporting Gibson. He was notified of his 
defeat on landing in New York. He now settled in Philadelphia, 
opened a private school, and sought to secure some position in 
the University. He at this time declined a chair at Transylvania 
University (with a salary of $1^00), to which he had been reguiarly 
elected, and also an offer from Baltimore. He received many atten- 
tions from the profession in Philadelphia and his prospects for 
advancement seemed bright. But his arbitrary manner, and a claim 
to anatomical discoveries which were found to belong to another, 
estranged his new-found friends, and he was forced, a few months after 
his arrival, to accept the Baltimore offer, which still remained open to 
him. Chapman went on to speak of the motives which led Pattison 
to leave his native country. He said that it was in consequence of 
an odious deed and an incensed public opinion ; that he had seen the 
proof of a trial in which Dr. Ure, one of Pattison's colleagues in the 
Andersonian Institution, at Glasgow, had obtained a divorce from his 
wife on the ground of improper relations with Pattison.' For these and 
other reasons Chapman refused to have any intercourse with Pattison. 
On the receipt of this letter by Macaulay, Pattison's rage knew no 
bounds. On the 23d he went to Philadelphia and posted Chapman as 
a liar, coward and scoundrel. He was forthwith arrested, but after a 
short detention was released. Chapman claimed that it was through 
his influence and intercession that he was set free. Pattison vigorously 
defended himself against the charges that had been brought against 
him. He endeavored to shield himself by attacking the jurisdiction 
of the court in Edinburgh before which the case had been tried and 
by making it appear that the difficulty was merely one between the 
rival schools of Baltimore and Philadelphia. He had the good 
fortune and address to enlist the sympathy of his colleagues and a 
large part of the community here in his behalf, and presenting his side 
of the case to a committee of prominent citizens he was exonerated 

^ In September, 1S21, Chapman published an " Official Transcript of Proceed- 
ings in Case of Divorce of Andrew Ure, M. D., v. Catherine Ure for Adultery 
with G. S. P." This trial took place January 30th, 1819, in the Consistory 
Court at Edinburgh. The documents are in the Md. Histor. Society's Library 
and can there be consulted by any one who desires to do so. 


from all blame. At this time (according to his own statement) 
Pattlson was not twenty-eight years old, and claimed not to be "a 
professed duelist.'" Qhapman endeavored to justify his declination 
of the challenge in a pamphlet which he published in November, 
1820. He said that he had received no formal challenge, but 
even if he had, the disparity of age,^ the inequality of social con- 
dition, the claims of a numerous family, and the obligations imposed 
by his public station, would have prevented his acceptance. " It 
really would seem," he added, "under any circumstances, not quite 
fit to have introduced my course of lectures with the spectacle of 
a duel. The parents and friends of the several hundred young 
men confided to our care require of us very different things, and 
assuredly had I yielded on this occasion I should have had to 
encounter the heaviest censure, and perhaps a more decisive step 
from those discreet and elevated men under whom I have the honor 
to hold my appointment. With Mr, Pattison it is entirely different. 
He is an adventurer with a tainted reputation which he hoped to 
repair," etc. The discussion, thus begun, was continued for some 
time. Among others Professor Gibson took part in it, handling 
roughly Pattison's claims to anatomical discovery. But it was not 
till four years after Pattison's arrival in America that this diffi- 
culty involved anything more serious than a battle of words. ^ 

The Cadwaladers, of Philadelphia, have been distinguished for 
their standing and courage for two hundred years. The first of the 
name emigrated from Wales, where he occupied a respectable posi- 
tion among the middle class. The next was a physician of eminence. 
General John Cadwalader of the third generation was a gallant 
soldier of the Revolution and the trusted friend of Washington. He 

1 Pattison's career in Baltimore was not a very reputable one in a moral point 
of view. He led a "gay" life and so undermined his health thereby that 
when he left here his recovery was considered doubtful. He is said to have 
" taken so much mercury that he was afraid to take hold of the door-bells, for 
fear of an electric shock " (statement of a gentleman still living). There are 
traditions still extant of his amours with ladies of fashion. 

'■^ Yet Chapman was only a little over forty at this time, having been born 
May 28th, 1780. 

3 Pattison's own statement in the Lancet. This is the nearest approach to the 
exact date of the duel that I have been able to find and would indicate that it 
occurred about 1S23. The newspapers, as far as my investigations have gone> 
are entirely silent regarding this affair, and there is no mention of it in works 
professing to give an account of American duels. 


fought a duel with General Conway, the leader of the cabal against 
Washington, on the 4th of July, 1778. The result was that Cadwal- 
ader escaped unhurt, but Conway received a wound in the mouth 
which was supposed to be mortal, and believing himself to be dying, 
he made a full confession of his guilt. General Thomas Cadwalader, 
a son of the last, was born October 28th, 1779, and died October 
31st, 1841. Upon him devolved the duty of maintaining the honor 
of his native city against our belligerent Scotchman. He and Pro- 
fessor Chapman were brothers-in-law, having both married daughters 
of Col. Clement Biddle, and he became accidentally involved by 
resenting an insult offered to Chapman by Pattison in his presence. 
The result was a challenge and a hostile meeting, of which few of the 
particulars have come down to us. The duel took place somewhere 
in Delaware and both parties displayed great coolness and unflinch- 
ing courage. Cadwalader was severely wounded, the ball of his 
opponent's pistol entering his " pistol arm" near the wrist, traversing 
the entire length of the forearm and lodging in the head of the ulna ; 
it remained there throughout his life, causing great irritation, impair- 
ing his health and it was thought actually shortening his life. Pat- 
tison escaped without injury, but a ball passed through the skirt of 
his coat near the waist. 

An interesting episode of these years was the conferring of an 
honorary academic degree upon an eminent foreigner. In 1824 
Lafayette visited America. His progress was one continued series 
of ovations, and each section vied with the others in its efforts to 
heap the greatest amount of honors upon the nation's benefactor 
and guest — the distinguished Frenchman. The authorities of the 
University, as the leading school in the city, determined to confer 
upon him a literary title. Accordingly he was invited to visit the 
institution on the 9th of October, 1824, and there, in Anatomical 
Hall, in the presence of a noted assembly, he received from the 
hands of Right Reverend Bishop Kemp, Provost, the honorary 
degree of LL. D., " with a diploma and a handsome silver box in 
which to enclose it." He made "a feeling reply," and was then 
shown over the. buildings.' 

^Federal Gazette. This appears to have been the first instance of the con- 
ferring of this degree ; among those who received it later were Hons. John P. 
Kennedy, Reverdy Johnson, George W. Dobbin and Wm. Pinckney Whyte. 
The first hon. M. D. and D. D. were given in 181S, the first hon. A. M. in 1S23. 
The hon. non-medical degrees have been given very rarely. 


A few words regarding the diploma of the University seem best 
suited for this place. The same diploma has been in use from the 
beginning, altered only to conform to the changed conditions conse- 
quent upon the conversion of the College into a University in 1812. 
The following is a copy of one of the diplomas conferred in 1812: 

Collegium MediciiKS Terrce Mar ice 
Omnibus ad quos hce litera pervenerint^ 


Quum vir ornatus et summis animi dotibus instructus, Corbinetis 
Amos, postguam pleno gradu arti medicce sluduisset, nos honores 
academicos poposcerit, segue periculiim sui facere in rebus tnedicis 
paratum ostenderit, per universavt eum. medicinam examinavimus. 
In guo periculo ami scientiarum, ac inedendi artis se abunde perihim 
probaverit, nos dictum Corbijietcm Amos Medicines Doctorem cre- 
andum et declarandum ce7isuim2is, etimque Medicines Doctorem 
creavimus et declaravimus, et his Uteris Doctorem constituiimis, 
atgue apud onnies haberi et appellari voluijuus, eigiie faciiltatem 
plenissimam damns de re inedica docendi et co?is2ilta7idi, et denigue 
tain medicines theoretices guam practicee munera ubicimgue terrarum 
exercendi et omnes siniul honores, et jura et privilegia, ei concedi- 
nitis, quez jnedicines Doctori usguam gentitmi conceduntur. 

In guorum fidem Uteris hisce sigillo Collegii commicni munitis 
nomina nostra stibscripsimus. 

Datum Urbe Baltimoriensi Mensis Mali die quarto Anno Domini 

Carolus a. Warfield, Presses. 

Joannes B. DaVIDGE, M. D. 'X Profess. Anat. et Chirurg. 

Jacobus Cocke, M. D. J ^' P^'ysioU simui docentes. 

Elisha DeButts, M. D., Chimies Profess. 
Nathaniel Potter, M.D., Theoretices Medicines 

et Praxeos Prof. 
Samuel Baker, M. D., Profess. Mat. Med.' 

After 1812, "Collegium Medicinse " becomes " Academia," and 
the name of the " Praeses " is omitted, whilst the names of the Pro- 
vost and the professors in the other departments are added. 1 he 

'This diploma is still in existence and in a perfect state of preservation. 
Dr. Warfield, b, 1751, d. 1813, was the leader in the burning of the Peggy 
Stewart, at Annapolis, at the beginning of the Revolution. 


earlier instrument is accompanied by a large oval seal, containing 
the impression of a winged and semi-nude female, who appears to 
be officiating at an altar upon which there are serpents. The margin 
of the seal contains the words " Sigillum Commune Collegii," etc' 

We approach now a period in the history of the University of 
extreme interest— one in which chartered rights were ignored by 
our highest legislative tribunal, private property seized and held in 
defiance of the protest of owners, and the principle gravely asserted 
that what the Legislature has ^created it has the right to destroy. 
This may appear to be exaggerated language, but a statement of the 
facts will show that it is not. 

Prior to this event there were differences in the Faculty which the 
opposite party endeavored afterwards to represent as most threat- 
ening to the welfare, if not to the existence, of the University. It 
was said that the institution was ruled now by one faction, now 
by another; that the factions were more intent upon securing the 
advantage of each other than upon advancing the welfare of the 
University ; that there was no system or discipline, and that 
the medical department used all the funds in its own mainte- 
nance, ignoring completely the other departments, which yet were 
coequal with it and which the State designed should progress /arz 
passti with it. A crisis was reached under the following circum- 
stances : Prof. Davidge had always taken private students, by whom 
he was much venerated and beloved.^ He had evening " conversa- 
tional meetings " at his residence, which were very popular and well 
attended. Lately he had associated Prof. DeButts with himself in 
these extra-mural courses.^ There may have been a tinge of jealousy 
in the feeling with which Professors Davidge and DeButts' private 
courses were regarded by the other members of the Faculty. The 
grounds of opposition, however, were stated to be these: that they 
were unauthorized by the Regents ; that they imposed double fees 
and double duties; and that those in charge assumed to teach 

' The diploma was probably copied from that of some European school, 
most likely Edinburgh University. 

2 " His affectionate regard for the pupils." The Fed. Gaz. calls him the 
" Father of the University." 1824. 

3 These courses were called "Medical and Chymical Conversations." The 
class became so large in 1824 that it could not be accommodated in the private 
ofifices, and Craig's schoolroom was engaged for its meetings. The " con- 
versations " were held every Wednesday and Saturday nights. i^Fed. Gazette, 
Oct. 20, 1824.) 


branches prescribed to their colleagues and thus came into conflict 
with the latter, creating parties and fomenting dissensions among 
the pupils." The majority, feeling that their prerogatives were 
infringed upon, appealed to the Regents for redress. The Board 
of Regents decided against the minority and unanimously resolved 
" that no professor should, during the session of the classes, deliver 
any lecture to the pupils of the College and receive compensation 
therefor, except officially ex cathedrd.'''^ This decision naturally 
gave great umbrage to the two professors for whom it was intended, 
who declared that they were restricted in their rights. They did not 
allow the matter to rest here. A movement was secretly set on foot 
with a view to turning over the University to the control of the state. 
Prof. Potter gives a graphic picture of his first discovery of this 
scheme. He had gone down to Annapolis, in company with Prof. 
DeButts, to look after some matter in the Legislature pertaining to 
the University.^ They had spent ten days there, performing the 
duties assigned them. On the eve of his departure for home, Prof. 
Potter learned of the proposition to change the government of the 
school. He was " surprised and mortified." No intimation of such 
a design had ever been made to the Faculty or Regents. He 
" expressed his abhorrence to his colleague, who was silent." He 
deferred his departure and remained several days at Annapolis. 
DeButts was represented as the prime mover in the scheme. There 
were several plans afloat and the minds of members were not at 
all made up as to the best one. In one respect he found them, 
however, quite unanimous, and that was in the most irreconcilable 
prejudice against the. Regents and Faculty. In this crisis Prof. 
Potter appealed to the city's representatives. These were divided 
in sentiment, one, Mr. B. C. Howard, advocating the change on the 
ground of expediency, the other, Mr. John S. Tyson, opposing it as 
unconstitutional. The Speaker took the remarkable position — in 
which he was seconded by some members — that whatever the Legis- 
lature had the power to create it had also the right to destroy. In 
such a frame of mind the result was not doubtful. Thejoint com- 
mittee of the two houses brought in a bill, and notwithstanding the 
adverse opinion of the highest legal authorities it passed both 
branches of the Legislature. 

' Potter's Sketch. « Jdem. 

3 Probably to oppose the granting of a charter for the founding of Wash- 
ington College. See further on. 

Professor of Obsletrics. 


It is not necessary to give the full text of this act. The preamble 
reads, "Whereas, experience has shown that the public good, and 
the proper government and discipline of the University of Maryland, 
require important alterations in the act of incorporation, therefore, 
etc." The Board of Regents is abolished and the members of the 
several Faculties, except professors,' discontinued. The government 
of the institution is transferred to a board of twenty-one Trustees, 
upon whom are conferred all the duties and powers previously 
belonging to the Regents, and' who are made responsible " foj all 
debts due by the University," and " for contracts heretofore made 
by the said Regents," just as the latter had previously been." The 
Governor of the state is made ex-officio President of the Board, 
which has the power to appoint and dismiss the Provost, professors 
and lecturers at pleasure. In case of a vacancy in any professorship 
the remaining professors are required each to nominate a successor, 
but the Board are not restricted in their choice to such nominations. 
The pecuniary affairs of the institution are placed unreservedly in 
their hands and they control all expenditures. Vacancies in the 
Board are to be filled by appointment of the Governor. It is 
expressly stipulated that the Medical Faculty and their successors 
are not to be exonerated from the payment of the interest upon the 
$30,000 loan of 1821.^ 

The Regents did not submit quietly to these proceedings of the 
Legislature. The act was passed March 6th, 1826. On the 17th of 
the same month a regular meeting of the Board of Regents was 
held, at which a resolution was adopted, with but one dissenting 
voice, that a committee of five should be appointed to obtain the 
opinion of counsel upon the constitutionality of the act. Another 
resolution was unanimously adopted, directing the committee, if the 
opinion should be that it was unconstitutional, to prepare an address 

^ This did away with all the Law Faculty except Prof. Hoffman, with the 
Divinity Faculty entirely or with one exception, and with an uncertain number 
of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. 

-The names of the Trustees appointed were: John Eager Howard, Theo- 
dorick Bland, Stevenson Archer, Thomas B. Dorsey, Roger B. Taney, Robert 
Smith, Ezekiel F. Chambers, Robert Gilmor, Dennis Claude, James Steuart, 
Reverdy Johnson, John P. K. Henshaw, James Thomas, George Roberts, Bene- 
dict J. Semmes, John Nelson, John C. Herbert, Nathaniel Williams, Isaac 
McKim, Henry Wilkins and William Frick. Among these are some of the 
most distinguished names in the history of the state. 

^ From MS. certified copy of act in the Records of University. 


to the Governor and to the Trustees, informing them of the fact, 
and requesting them to defer acting until the act could be recon- 
sidered by the Legislature, and in the event of the Trustees deter- 
mining to proceed, to adopt such legal measures as might be deemed 
necessary to resist the operation of the act.' 

In accordance with their instructions the committee'' selected 
William Wirt, the Attorney-General of the United States, John 
Purviance and Daniel Webster, as the counsel to be consulted, whose 
opinion was rendered May 21st, 1826. This document reviews the 
career of the University from its foundation in 1807, showing that it 
began without funds, that it was maintained upon the individual 
credit of the professors, who, disappointed in the receipts of the 
lotteries, were compelled to borrow large sums from the banks in 
order to meet the expense connected with the purchase of ground 
and the erection of buildings, and that the act of 1825 changes the 
entire government of the University without its assent or approval. 
After a careful and deliberate consideration they had no hesitation 
in giving it as their decided opinion that the late act was a manifest 
violation of the rights created by the original acts of 1807 and 181 2, 
and a direct infringement of that article of the Constitution of the 
United States which forbids any state from passing a law impairing 
the obligation of contracts.^ 

Having obtained this opinion, the committee of the Regents pro- 
ceeded on the 22d of May — before the corporation of the Trustees 
had gone into operation — to communicate it formally to the Gover- 
nor and to each of the Trustees, requesting a suspension of action 
on their part until the next meeting of the Legislature, when appli- 
cation would be made for its repeal. " Should it be deemed inex- 
pedient, however, to comply with this request, we are prepared in 
behalf of the Regents, to enter into such arrangements with you as 
will produce the speediest judicial decision upon the constitutionality 
of the law by the proper tribunal ; and for this purpose, we beg 
leave to say, that any communication addressed to the Rgt. Rev. 

' Decision of Supreme Court, Chief Justice Buchanan. Regents vs. Trustees, 
1839; also circular of Regents' Faculty to members of the House of Dele- 
gates, 1838. 

'^ Which consisted of Rgt. Rev. James Kemp, Rev. Dr. Wm. E. Wyatt, 
Messrs. Jonathan Meredith and Edward Pinkney, and Dr. Maxwell McDowell. 

2 From copy of the printed opinion republished by the Regents' Faculty, 
Sept. 1837. 


Bishop Kemp, as chairman of the Committee of Regents, will receive 
their immediate attention." ' There was no reply to this communi- 
cation, and on the appointed day the Trustees took formal and 
unopposed possession of the University. Fifteen days were given 
to the professors to decide whether they would apply for reap- 
pointment in their former chairs or not.^ All of the members of 
the Faculty of Physic, and of each of the other Faculties, were duly 
reappointed and accepted under the new Board, "and from that 
time until September, 1837, the' corporation of Regents ceased^ to 
exert its corporate functions." '^ The professors adopted this course, 
first, because otherwise they would have lost their positions, which 
they were loath to do after all the labor and sacrifice to which they 
had submitted in founding and developing the school; second, 
because they were well aware that a contest would lead to disorgani- 
zation and cause the loss of a large number of their students ; 
third, whilst fully convinced of the justice of their cause, they natu- 
rally hesitated to assume the incalculable expense of testing the 
validity of the law in the courts, expense which would have to be 
met out of their private resources, while the Trustees would have the 
funds of the college, and perhaps of the state, also, to draw upon.* 
The four faculties, however, made a formal protest against the action 
of the Trustees.'^ 

Before leaving this interesting period let us spend a few moments 
in contemplating the position attained by the University at its close. 
Eighteen years had now elapsed since the Regents had met at Dr. 
Davidge's house to organize the infant institution and it had been 
announced that the lectures of " Davidge, Shaw and Cocke " had 
already begun. Without funds, we saw them boldly assuming 
uncertain responsibilities and erecting a stately building, fit memo- 
rial of the strength and perpetuity of their design. We saw them 
devising successful plans for raising funds, providing an expensive and 
almost unequaled chemical and philosophical apparatus, paying off 
the balance of debt, purchasing a costly museum and erecting 
" Practice Hall " for its accommodation, and then leasing ground 

'Circular of Regents' Faculty, 1838. 
2 Potter's Sketch. • 
^Opinion of Chief Justice, 1839. 

■* The suit instituted in 1837 was two years in the courts and is said to have 
cost the Regents' Faculty $8000. 
5 Potter's Sketch. 


and erecting another building to serve as a " School of Practice." 
We found classes increasing until they were numbered by the hun- 
dreds. Finally, although there were evidences of want of harmony 
(which a little firmness on the part of the Board would probably 
have soon rectified), we reached the end of the period with the 
conviction that a great success had been achieved and that a season 
of prosperity had been entered upon, the limits of which could not 
be foreseen. There was a debt, it is true, of several thousand 
dollars recently incurred in the erection of the Infirmary, but this 
could easily and soon have been met by the remaining proceeds of 
the lotteries and the large income from the classes. Suddenly, by 
a most extraordinary and arbitrary exercise of legislative power, the 
sky is overcast, and in place of the sunshine of confidence and hope, 
dark shadows of doubt and despair cover all things. 

James Kemp, Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Maryland, was born in Aber- 
deenshire, Scotland, 1764, and graduated at Marischal College, Aberdeen, 
1786. Came to the United States in 17S7, and for two years was tutor in Dor- 
chester County, Md. Was ordained priest, 1789. In 1790 became rector 
of Great Choptank Parish and remained there over twenty years. Became 
associate rector of St. Paul's Church, Baltimore, 1813, and was consecrated 
suffragan bishop, 1814, being placed in charge of the churches on th© Eastern 
Shore. In 1816, on the death of Bishop Clagett, he succeeded to the Bish- 
opric of Maryland. Was Provost of the University of Maryland, 1815-1826. 
His death took place in Baltimore, as the result of a stage accident, Oct. 28th, 
1827. Bishop Kemp received the degree of S. T. D. from Columbia College in 
1802. (See Appletoii's Cyclopedia of American Biography.) 



THE evil effects of the new regime were not immediately apparent, 
and for a time matters went bn, to all appearances, smoothly^ 

Durine the same session in which the Board of Trustees was 
created, a law was also passed providing for the disposition of the 
remainder of the proceeds of the lottery of 1816. From the funds 
first obtained after the passage of the law, fourteen thousand tv^o 
hundred dollars were appropriated to the use of the Professorship of 
Law, " to be expended under the direction of the Trustees, in the 
erection or purchase of suitable buildings, and procuring a library and 
other accommodations." From the next proceeds three thousand 
eight hundred dollars were appropriated to reimburse the professors 
who had erected the Infirmary, conditional upon their transfer of the 
title of that building to the Trustees, free of all incumbrance except 
ground rent. Next, six thousand five hundred dollars were appro- 
priated for the purchase of chemical apparatus. Next, two thousand 
dollars were appropriated for the purchase of apparatus for the 
Faculty of Arts and Sciences. And lastly, the residue was appro- 
priated for such use as the Trustees might determine upon.^ 

In the summer of 1826 Professor Pattison went abroad, ostensibly 
on account of his health, which was said to have been impaired by 
the climate of America. He never returned to Baltimore, and the 
year after his departure he received an appointment in the Univer- 
sity of London. Professor Davidge accordingly assumed charge of 
both the chairs of Anatomy and Surgery, with Dr. John Buckler as 
adjunct professor in the former department. 

Granville Sharp Pattison was born about 1792,'' near Glasgow, Scotland, 
at whose University he is said to have received his education. At the age of 
eighteen he was assistant to Prof. Allen Burns, and on the death of the latter 

1 See footnote 2, p. 49. 

- 1791 is given as the date of his birth in the obituary notices, but he says 
himself, writing Nov. 20th, 1820 (correspondence with Chapman), that he 
would then "soon be twenty-eight." This would make the year of his birth 
more likely 1793. 


succeeded to the chair of Anatomy, Physiology and Surgery in Andersonian 
Institution, at Glasgow, a medical school which had been recently organized 
there. He is said to have enjoyed considerable eclat as a youthful lecturer. 
In 1S19 he came to America and opened an anatomical school in Philadelphia. 
He declined the chair of Anatomy in Transylvania University, at Lexington, 
Kentucky, but in 1820 accepted the offer of the chair of Surgery in the Uni- 
versity of Maryland. In 1826 — "on account of bad health and uncongeniality 
of climate" — he left Baltimore, never to return. In July of the following year, 
on the organization of the University of London, he received the appointment 
of Professor of Anatomy. Later his duties were extended to include Surgery. 
From the very first his lectures appear to have been entirely unsatisfactory to 
his students, many of whom refused to attend them and preferred serious 
charges of incompetency against him. Among the specified complaints were 
that he had an impediment in his speech, that his voice was monotonous, his 
grammar and knowledge of classics defective and his anatomical acquirements 
superficial. During the session of 1830-31 the dissatisfaction became so great 
that his colleagues "offered to pay him an annual stipend out of their own 
salaries, for a certain number of years, if he would retire." He refused their 
offer, regarding the amount proposed as too small. The expedient was next 
tried of appointing Professor Bennett to teach those subjects in his department 
which were most complained of, but neither did this avail, and on July 23d, 
1831, "he was dismissed from his chair, as recommended by a select com- 
mittee of the Council."^ In 1832 he arrived in New York, on his way to Phila- 
delphia, where he had been elected Professor of Anatomy in Jefferson Medical 
College. He retained this position until 1841, when he joined in founding 
the Medical Department of the University of New York. He occupied the 
chair of General, Descriptive and Surgical Anatomy in that institution until 
his death, which took place Nov. 12th, 1S51, after a short illness of "obstruc- 
tion of the ductus communis choledochus." Professor Pattison was the 
author of The Register and Library of Medical and Chirtcrgical Science ; he 
edited, with notes, editions of Burns on the Surgical Aiiatoiny of the Arteries 
of the Head and Neck, Masse's Anatomical Atlas, and Cruveilhier's Anatomy ; 
he was one of the editors of the Americati Medical Recorder, and wrote a 
number of articles in the periodicals. He received the honorary degree of 
M. D. late in life. It is hard to reconcile the events in London with the 
exalted estimation in which he was held as a teacher and lecturer in America. 
[In preparing this notice recourse has been had to Allibojie, N. Y. Journal of 
Medicine, 1S51, London Laticet, pamphlets at Historical Society, etc.] 

Professor Davidge held the chair of Surgery until 1827, when his 
advancing years and failing eyesight admonished him to resign it. 

^ Professor Pattison's career, both in London and America, is fully described 
in the London Lattcct of 1831, and letters are published from him, the com- 
plaining students and others. He claimed that his income from his profes- 
sorship and practice while in Baltimore amounted to more than ;fio,ooo per 


This necessitated the election of his successor, and Dr. Nathan R. 
Smith, Professor of Anatomy in Jefferson Medical College, Phila- 
delphia, then a rising young surgeon of thirty, became the successful 
candidate for the position.' The election of Prof. Smith deserves to 
rank as an epoch in the annals of the University. Of commanding 
presence, cultivated and comprehensive intellect and imperious dis- 
position, bold, original, self-confident, brooking no rivals — he was for 
nearly half a century the central figure in its faculties. No man ever 
reigned so completely in its councils as he did. The language of 
Louis XIV, when speaking of France — Vetat, c'estmoi — might almost 
have been applied to his relations to the University. 

The year 1827 is also memorable for the founding of the Wash- 
ington Medical College — the first rival of the University. The chief 
founder and leading spirit of this school was Dr. Horatio Gates 
Jameson, a native of Pennsylvania, a graduate of the University of 
Maryland, 1813, a bold, able and original surgeon and a voluminous 
medical writer.^ The following were, doubtless, the considerations 
which led to the founding of this school. The population and trade 
of Baltimore at this time were developing at an extraordinary rate, 
and the country at large was experiencing a greater degree of pros- 
perity than it had ever known before; the school already established 
had been successful beyond all expectations of its founders; the 
faculty of that school had recently exhibited evidences of want of har- 
mony which seriously threatened its future success ; there bad been 
unpleasant relations between Jameson and members of that faculty, 
in which he claimed that he had been treated with great injustice 
and discourtesy ; and finally, something must be allowed for the 
natural ambition of a man conscious of the powers and abilities 

^ His competitor was Richard Harlan, one of the surgeons to the Phila- 
delphia Almshouse, "a naturalist," and, according to Chapman, "perhaps 
unrivalled in comparative anatomy in the United States." He had already 
delivered one course of lectures on surgery. Davidge threw his influence 
successfully in the scales for Smith. In the course of a suit brought against 
him for malpractice (pamphlet at Lib'y of Med. and Chir. Faculty of Md.), 
B. W. Dudley, the founder of the medical department of Transylvania Uni- 
versity, and its Professor of Surgery from 1817 to 1851, stated that in August, 
1827, he was unanimously recommended by the Faculty and elected by the 
Trustees to the chair of Surgery in the University of Maryland. If that were 
so, he must have declined. 

"^ His associates were Samuel K. Jennings, Wm. W. Handy, James H. Miller, 
Samuel Annan, and John W. Vethake. 


which Jameson possessed and longing for a field in which he could 
display them.' Very naturally, the faculty of the University did not 
regard with favor the attempt to found a rival school. According to 
Jameson, they not only referred in contemptuous terms to himself 
and colleagues, but they appointed a committee to visit Annapolis 
and oppose the granting of the charter. This was during the winter 
session of 1825-26, the year in which the act changing the govern- 
ment of the University was passed.^ The charter was granted not- 
withstanding this opposition, and the new college was opened in the 
fall of 1827 in a building on North Holliday street, between Lexing- 
ton and Saratoga. At the close of the first session degrees were 
conferred on twelve graduates.^ 

It may be of interest to consider the effect of the new school upon 
the old. At first it had the advantage of novelty, and of the energy 
which accompanies almost all new undertakings ; from time to time 
it had teachers of unquestionable ability ; it succeeded, in a surpris- 
ingly short time, in securing a building which was capable of sup- 
plying all needed accommodations for both college and hospital, 
and being situated in the eastern and unoccupied part of the city, 
close to the site of the present Johns Hopkins Hospital, we may infer 
that it possessed all possible advantages of location. On the other 
hand the University was suffering from the incubus of the Trustees. 
From having lost control, and from the consciousness of the wrong 
that had been inflicted upon them, the Faculty no longer had that 
enthusiasm and personal interest which had nerved them for their 
earlier labors and successes. The patronage was divided and many 
students who would have attended the University joined its rival. 
The competition for students must have exerted an unfavorable effect 
upon the requirement and fees of each, for while " competition is the 
soul of trade, "its effect upon medical education is only deteriorating 
and pernicious. The classes at the University fell off greatly, 

1 He had been thwarted in a prospect which at one time seemed open to him 
of a place in the University (see Jameson's synopsis of the Hintze trial and 
the accompanying papers, Am, Med. Recorder, Jan. 1829). 

^Jameson's Synopsis. It is likely that this was the "business" that Pro- 
fessors Potter and DeButts went to Annapolis to transact, of which the former 
speaks in his Sketch (see p. 56). 

^ After 1831, two courses of lectures were required of candidates for gradua- 
tion (public notice of the day). A similar requirement did not prevail at 
Harvard University until 1S34, when the course was "lengthened to thirteen 
weeks" [Med. Examiner, Boston, 1834). 

Professor of Maiiria Meiiica. 

THIRD period! 65 

although in the whole history of the institution there were never 
connected with it teachers of more renown than at this period. 
While the existence, therefore, of two schools did not have the 
effect, anticipated by some,' of destroying both, it led to the suspen- 
sion for many years of one, and did, unquestionably, exert a very 
deleterious effect upon the welfare of the other. 

On the 2d of February, 1828, a duel was fought at Bladensburg 
between two of the students of the University, which resulted fatally 
to one of the participants." These were Samuel J. Carr, of South 
Carolina, and William Bond Martin, of Maryland, who had roomed 
together and been warm friends, until a trifling difificulty arose 
between them and converted them into deadly enemies. Owing to 
some delay in the receipt by Carr of a remittance from his friends 
at the South, the expense of purchasing fuel for their room had 
devolved upon his friend. The latter, after waiting some time, 
demanded repayment for the amount advanced. This led to sharp 
words, which resulted in Carr's declaring that the other was no 
gentleman. The hot young blood of those days could not brook such 
an insult in silence, and resort was had to the method in vogue for 
settling questions of that kind. A challenge was sent by Martin and 
accepted by Carr. General Walter Gwynn was Carr's second and 
Frederick Pinckney Martin's. Pistols were chosen as the weapon 
and the classic field of Bladensburg as the place of meeting. It is 
said that strenuous efforts were made by the friends to accommodate 
matters, and that Carr, both before and after reaching the field, 
expressed his willingness to repay the debt and make such repara- 
tion as he considered consistent with his honor, but that the success 
of these praiseworthy efforts was thwarted by the unreasoning oppo- 
sition of the brother of the challenger, who would hear of nothing 
but satisfaction by the code. According to tradition Carr was an 
expert marksman and had had experience previously in such 
encounters, and when his adversary refused upon the field to accept 
the satisfaction which he offered, he exclaimed, " Then die if you 
will ! I shall put a ball through you right here," pointing to his 
forehead. He was true to his word, for at the first fire young 
Martin reeled and fell into the arms of his second, his brain pierced 
by a ball entering at the very spot which Carr had indicated. There 
was much excitement the next day in front of the Fountain Inn, on 

^ As Davidge — Jameson's Synopsis. 

2 Balto. Gazette and Daily Advertiser ^ Feb. 4th, 1828. 


Liprht Street, when " the mutilated body " of the dead youth was depos- 
ited there by his second. From Baltimore it was conveyed by 
steamer to Cambridge, on the Eastern Shore, where the extremely 
unusual spectacle of a steamer approaching drew large and curious 
crowds, many of whom had never seen such a strange sight before, 
to the water's edge. Among the spectators came the father of the 
dead youth, the Chief Judge of the Fourth Judicial District of Mary- 
land,' little suspecting that he was to meet the corpse of his son. 
The elder brother, who had acted the part of so unwise an adviser, 
afterwards himself became a distinguished Judge in the Baltimore 
City courts'" and was noted for his integrity of character and extreme 
conscientiousness, but the event in which he had been a participant 
dominated his life ever after and bitter remorse destroyed his peace 
of mind. It is said that when the facts became known public senti- 
ment sided with Carr and that he would not have been prosecuted 
had he remained in Maryland. He thought it more prudent, how- 
ever, to leave the state for a time. The Faculty met after the duel 
and formally expelled him from the University. It is said that even 
before that he had been an ardent admirer of Miss Mary Polk, the 
beautiful stepdaughter of Professor Davidge, who was also a cousin 
of Martin's. She must have reciprocated his affection, for notwith- 
standing Davidge's opposition she ran away with him on the 30th 
of September following and they were married, although she was 
then only about fifteen. Carr's subsequent history is of interest. In 
1829 he was 5th Auditor of the Treasury, and in 1831 United States 
Consul to Tangiers. Returning later to Maryland he resumed his 
medical studies at the University, the Faculty having condoned his 
offense, attended his second course of lectures and received his 
diploma in 1834. The subject of his thesis was " Lepra Tubercu- 
losa," a disease with which he had become familiar during his resi- 
dence in the East. On graduating he settled on Red River, in 
Louisiana. He was appointed Military Storekeeper, U. S. A., in 
1842, and died at Pikesville Arsenal, near Baltimore, Oct. 24th, 
1847, aged 45. He is represented to have been a man of talents 
and scholarship. After his death his widow, still a celebrated 
beauty, married the eminent lawyer, David Dudley Field, of New 
York ; she died only a few years ago at the Carrollton Hotel in this 
city, preserving traces of her earlier charms to the last. This and 
the Pattison-Cadwalader affair complete the record of such events at 

1 Hanson's Old Kent of Maryland. ^ Judge Robert N. Martin. 


the University, and let us hope that no future historian of her annals 
may find it necessary to add to the melancholy record.' 

Professor Smith had hardly become well settled in his chair when 
the University had to part with her founder, Professor Davidge. It 
was fortunate that in losing her earliest friend she was able to find so 
worthy a successor in the stalwart young champion from the bleak 
New England hills, who had come to cast his lot here under her 
shadow. The cause of Professor Davidge's death was a malignant 
growth of the face, originating irf the antrum of Highmore ; it was, 
at the time, commonly spoken of as a " fungus of the Antrum." The 
disease first showed itself in January, 1829, when he was forced to 
discontinue his anatomical lectures, which were given during the 
remainder of the session by Professor Smith. The tumor developed 
rapidly and its growth was accompanied by excruciating pain, from 
which he could obtain only partial relief by wineglassful doses of 
laudanum. He bore his sufferings with great fortitude, finding com- 
fort only in the consolations of his religious convictions. Twice 
during the short career of his disease he was taken to Philadelphia 
to consult the learned Physick, who, however, could do nothing 
for him. Death came finally to his relief at his residence on 
Lexington street, on the 23d of August, 1829. Although Professor 
Davidge had passed the period of his greatest usefulness and his 
place as teacher was not difficult to supply (even better, perhaps, 
than he had himself supplied it), nevertheless the feeling with which 
we contemplate his loss to the University is almost personal. He 
was not a man of extraordinary ability and he was far from infalli- 
bility, but he had qualities which commanded respect, reverence 

^ Some have declared that the real cause of this duel was a rivalry for the 
affections of Miss Polk and that the dispute over the wood was merely the pretext 
for a rupture between the two friends. A lady who remembers the event and 
knew the parties intimately denies this, but it is not at all unlikely, notwith- 
standing Miss Polk's youthf ulness. Former office students of Professor Davidge 
declare that he took part "either as principal or second " in one or more 
duels, but I have found no evidence to confirm their statement. On the con- 
trary, Dr. Alexander H. Bayly, of Cambridge (who attended lectures with 
Carr), says that he took the lead in securing Carr's expulsion from the Col- 
lege in 1828. I have thought that he may have been present at the Pattison- 
Cadwalader affair as surgeon, but I have no evidence of it. Dr. Macaulay 
was probably Pattison's second on that occasion. The facts with regard to 
the Carr-Martin duel have been gathered from many sources and with diffi- 
culty, scarcely any written record of it remaining. 


and love. He was a man of upright character and unswerving 
integrity, of strong moral and physical courage, a good citizen, 
faithful and affectionate in his domestic relations, an enthusiastic stu- 
dent and a finished scholar. It is a regrettable fact that no portrait 
of him was ever made and that his relations and services to the 
University have not suggested to his successors some memorial in 
his honor in the institution which owes its existence and a large 
share of its success to him. 

John Beale Davidge was a native of Annapolis, where he was born in 
1768. His father was an ex-captain in the British army and his mother was 
Miss Honor Howard, of Anne Arundel Co., a relative of Col. John Eager 
Howard ; he was their only child. At an early age he lost his father and, 
being in straitened circumstances, his mother wished to apprentice him to a 
cabinetmaker. But he resolved to have an education, and obtaining aid from 
friends and fortunately coming into possession of some slaves through the 
death of a relative, he entered St, John's College at Annapolis and received 
from it the degree of A.M. in 1789. He began the study of medicine with 
'Urs. James and William Murray, of Annapolis, continued it for a short time at 
Philadelphia and then spent several years at Edinburgh, where he devoted 
himself especially to the study of anatomy, for which he always evinced a 
strong liking. On the voyage to Scotland, which was made in a sailing vessel, 
he was accompanied by Drs. Hosack, Brockenborough and Troup, all of 
whom became eminent practitioners afterwards in America. It is related that 
they encountered very rough weather and were compelled to work hard at the 
pumps to keep the vessel from sinking. From motives of economy he took 
his degree (M. U.) at Glasgow University and not at Edinburgh. The date of 
his graduation was April 22d, 1793. About this time he married Miss 
William Stuart, of the Firth of Solway, a lady of high social standing, several 
years his senior.^ He practiced first for a short time in Birmingham, Eng- 
land, then returned to Maryland, and, after a brief residence in Frederick and 
Harford counties, selected Baltimore for a permanent home in August, 1796.'' 
In 1797 a severe epidemic of yellow fever raged in the city and there was a 
public discussion of the disease in the newspapers by the physicians. Dr. 
Davidge bore a prominent part in this discussion, and early in the following 
year republished his views in a volume which, though faulty in style, was 
favorably noticed in the journals and was freely quoted from in later works 
upon the subject. In 1801 the Baltimore General Dispensary was founded 

^ This lady bore a male appellation, it is said, because her parents had 
no sons ; her sister was named John. Their place was called " Physgil," a 
name which Professor D. afterwards gave to his country-seat in Harford 

^ " Offering his professional services to the inhabitants of Baltimore and 
its vicinity, particularly in the practice of midwifery." 


and he was one of its first attending physicians. In 1802 he began to give pri- 
vate courses of lectures to medical students, and these courses were continued 
annually until 1S07, when, being joined by Drs. Cocke and Shaw, his school 
became the "College of Medicine of Maryland." In 1805 he delivered the 
first annual oration before the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland, 
in accordance with a regulation adopted in 1803 creating the oifice of " orator." 
From 1S07 to 1812 he lectured on Surgery and Institutes; from 1813 to his 
death he held the chairs of Anatomy and Surgery, one or both. He also lec- 
tured during the earlier years on Obstetrics. He died in 1S29 from a malig- 
nant tumor of the face and his remains were interred in Loudon Park Ce^me- 
tery. Professor Uavidge was twice married, his second wife being Mrs. 
Rebecca Troup Polk, widow of Josiah Polk, of Harford County, Md., who sur- 
vived him with four children, a son by his first wife and three daughters by 
his second. 

In person Professor Davidge is represented to have been short and stout, 
with blue eyes, a florid complexion and homely, rugged features, small 
hands and feet and a graceful carriage. He walked with a slight limp in con- 
sequence of an accident which happened to him in 181S. He was scrupulously 
neat in his dress, and his manners were grave and dignified and calculated to 
repel familiarity. He drove a carriage and pair and had a large practice. 
Notwithstanding a certain irritability of temper he was much beloved by his 
acquaintances and reverenced by his students, who spoke of him as "the 
Father of the University." He had great influence throughout the state and 
was well suited to be the founder of a college. He spoke with deliberation 
and in choice language and was an incessant student. As an operator he was 
slow and cautious ; his most important operations were a total extirpation of 
the parotid gland, ligation of the gluteal artery for aneurism, and ligation of 
the carotid for " fungus of the antrum." He invented a new method of ampu- 
tation which he called the "American." His lectures are described by Pro- 
fessor Lunsford P. Yandell as "models of simple elegance."^ As a writer he 
was stiff, affected and obscure and fond of using obsolete modes of spelling and 
expression. He traveled upon grammatical stilts (so to speak) rather than 
the limbs which custom and taste have provided for our literary locomotion. 
Consequently his writings made but little impression upon the times in which 
he lived and were destined to an early oblivion. As illustrations of his style 
may be cited the expressions " feverous disease " for fever, " ephidrosis " for 
sweating, "extreme carotid" for external carotid, "surgery" for office, 
" autumnal endemial epidemick of tropical climates " for yellow fever. The 
following sentence occurs in his work upon yellow fever, published in 179S : 
"Leaving the slippery declivity of hypothetical change, we introduce our 
readers to the more unequivocal and inflexible data of practical experience, 
where feeble theory is supplanted by more certain practice, where the sick 
bed triumphs over the reveries of the closet." "He seemed to forget the 
English idiom," says Prof. Yandell, " the moment he took pen in hand." He 

^ Trans. Internat. Med. Congress, 1876. Prof. Y. was an alumnus of 1825. 


had very positive views on medical subjects. He devised a classification of 
diseases — his '■'■ A^osologia Methodical'' which, according to the above authority, 
was greatly superior in simplicity and convenience to Cullen's, then in use. 
He believed menstruation to be a secretion of the uterus, excited by ovarian 
irritation, and erred in thinking this view original with himself. He opposed 
the support of the perineum, on the ground that "nature is sufficient for her 
own processes," and declared himself against the speculum because it 
"smacked of immoral curiosity." Hemorrhage was arrested by retraction 
of the vessel, not by its contraction and the coagulation of blood. He 
opposed Rush's unity of disease and severely condemned his sanguinary 
treatment of yellow fever : " Rush called the medical mind back to the almost 
antiquated system of depletion." Davidge treated yellow fever by moderate 
venesection and calomel or mercurial ointment. He recommended that the 
lancet be used "two or three times, sometimes five or six," which will only 
appear moderate when compared to the twelve or thirteen venesections prac- 
ticed during the epidemic of 1797. However, to show that he was no enemy 
of the lancet, he tells us that he had taken forty to fifty ounces of blood at one 
sitting in eclampsia, and from a thin and very delicate woman had taken one 
hundred ounces in three days. Black vomit he regarded as a morbid secre- 
tion chiefly derived from the liver. In the efficacy of mercury he shared the 
implicit faith of the profession of that day. "Whenever a free salivation 
takes place" (in yellow fever), " the patient is safe"; "perhaps no person 
ever died after the full establishment of ptyalism." The amount of mercury 
given must have been very large, as he advises sufficient " to produce four or 
five passages daily," and gave glysters to promote its action. " If purges 
cannot relieve the patient, his chances are truly melancholy," he adds. He 
explains this effect by supposing that " calomel establishes an action in the 
system the opposite to that of the fever, and since no two general actions can 
exist at the same time, ptyalism takes the place of the morbid one which 
ceases." As to the essential nature of yellow fever, he regarded it as indige- 
nous, propagated by the atmosphere and non-contagious, merely a variety or 
aggravated form of "bilious remittent." He regarded phthisis pulmonalis as 
a scrofula of the lungs. He wrote much if not well. Besides his thesis {Dis- 
sertatio Physiologica de Catisis Catamenioriim, Birmingham, 1794) and many 
articles in the medical journals, he wrote Nosologia Methodica (in Latin), ist 
and 2d editions, 1812 and 1813 ; Physical Sketches, 2 vols., 1814 and 1816; 
Treatise on Yellow Fever, 1798 ; Treatise on Ampictation, 181S, and edited Ban- 
croft on Fevers, 1821, and a quarterly journal entitled Baltimore Philosophical 
Journal and Review, 1823 (of which only the first number appeared). " He 
was a devoted father and husband, a chivalric gentleman, a man to be singled 
out in a crowd." (Some of these details were obtained from his daughter, 
Mrs. Sarah N. Dunkel, and from his private pupils.) 

Professor Davidge (with the full consent of the Trustees) had 
effected an arrangement for Dr. Turnbull to deliver the anatomical 
lectures during the session of 1829-30, but after his death it was 


ignored and in September, 1829, public announcement was made of 
the existence of a vacancy in the chair of Anatomy and competition 
was invited. The result was that the appointment was conferred 
upon Dr. John D. Wells, of Boston, who then held a similar position 
in Berkshire Medical Institution, Massachusetts, and in October the 
introductory lectures were delivered by a full Faculty. Dr, Wells 
was not made full professor, however, until the close of the session, 
and he did not long enjoy the honor. Returning to Boston after the 
conclusion of the course, he died there on the 25th of the ensuing 
July, of tuberculosis, "a victim to the cause of science." Prof. Smith 
pays a glowing and beautiful tribute to his memory, which evidently 
comes from the heart and shows how deeply he had been impressed 
with the beautiful character and accomplishments of the young Boston 
anatomist. In perusing these annals we find much that is common 
to the three men, Cocke, Godman and Wells. They all had youthful 
enthusiasm, learning, eloquence, amiability, and high aspirations, 
and, though so brief, we may profitably study their lives and find 
much in them worthy of imitation. 

John Doane Wells was born March 6th, 1799, graduated at Harvard 1817, 
and took his medical degree at the same institution in 1820. He was elected 
Professor of Anatomy in Eowdoin College in May, 1821. He spent the period 
from June, 1821, to December, 1822, in Paris, was physician to the Boston 
Dispensary from 1S23 to 1S26, and received the appointment of Professor of 
Anatomy in Berkshire Institution in September, 1S26. He was elected Lec- 
turer on Anatomy in the University of Maryland in September, 1829, and full 
Professor the following May. He died in Boston, July 25th, 1S30. In accord- 
ance with his request, a post-mortem examination of his body was made by 
Dr. Warren, and tubercles were found in the lungs, brain and spinal cord. 
"To few — very few — has Nature been so bountiful in those gifts which con- 
stitute the orator. His language was beautiful, chaste and forcible, and was 
uttered with graceful ease and fluency. His voice was peculiarly clear and 
audible, his emphasis and inflexions uncommonly happy. His action was 
animated and impressive." (See Professor N. R. Smith's Memoir, Baltimore 
Monthly Journal of Medicine afid Surgery, 1830-31.) 

The, Anatomical Chair, having thus again become vacant, was filled 
by the appointment, as Lecturer, of Dr. Benjamin Lincoln, of Burling- 
ton, Vermont. Dr. Lincoln had been a pupil and friend of Professor 
Wells, who entertained a very high opinion of his abilities as a 
lecturer and anatomist, and it was through the recommendations 6i 
the latter that he obtained his positions in the Universities of Ver- 
mont and Maryland. His lectures here seem to have given great 


satisfaction both to the students and professors, and the latter 
requested his permission to nominate him to the professorship, but 
he declined, and early in the spring of 1831 returned to Burlington, 
preferring, as he said, the obscure New England village, with a mere 
pittance, to all the honors and emoluments Baltimore could offer. 

Again it became necessary to make an appointment, and com- 
petition was announced to be open to all comers. There were now 
several candidates for the honor,' which (for local reasons, it was 
said) was conferred upon Dr. Thomas H. Wright, of Baltimore. 
Dr. Wright was a physician of high local standing, an able practi- 
tioner and the author of many excellent articles in the American 
Journal of the Medical Sciences, based upon his experience as 
attending physician to the Almshouse; but he was not particularly 
devoted to the study of anatomy and there was no special reason 
why he should have been chosen for the position. TurnbuU now 
comes again into notice and for the last time. Prof. Wright, having 
accepted the appointment, proposed that TurnbuU should be made 
Adjunct Professor of Anatomy. Much feeling was excited by this 
proposition; the students held meetings in favor of and in opposition 
to it, and the occasion was declared by them to be a " crisis " in the 
history of the University, The proposition was rejected and Dr. 
Wright at once withdrew from the Faculty.^ 

Duncan Turnbull was a native of Scotland. He was invited to Baltimore 
by Prof. Pattison and made Demonstrator of Anatomy in 1821. He held this 
appointment until 1826. He obtained his M. D. degree at the University of 
Maryland in 1825. His academic training, like that of his patron, is said to 
have been defective, but he wielded an "unrivaled knife" in the dissecting 
room. His educational defects were no doubt the cause of his not being pro- 
moted when vacancies occurred repeatedly in the Anatomical chair. Being 
thus foiled in his expectations he opened a private dissecting room on North 
Paca St., near Fayette, where he delivered lectures on Anatomy and Pathology 
for several years. He married a Baltimore lady, and a year or two after these 
events removed to the South, where he died — between 1832 and 1840. His 
widow survived him many years and has died recently in Baltimore. 

The date of the birth of Thomas H. Wright is unknown. He was at Elk- 
ridge Landing in 181 1 and described an epidemic fever then prevailing there 
(Balto. Med. and Philosoph. Lyceum). He received the honorary degree of 

^viz. : Drs. John D. Readel, Dunglison, Webster, of Philadelphia, Geddings, 
then Adjunct Professor of Anatomy in the Med. College of S. C, and Caspar 
Morris, of Philadelphia (Baltimore America?i, May 6th, 1831). 

2 Sept. 1831. 

Professor of Anatomy and Physiology. 


M. D. from the University of Maryland in 1819. In 1827 he had private 
students. In 1S31 he was elected to the chair of Anatomy in the University, 
but resigned before lectures began. He was physician to the Almshouse for 
several years, up to 1833, and contributed numerous articles to the Am. Jovr. 
of the Med. Sciences (of which he was a collaborator), and to the Maryland Med. 
Kecorder, between 182S and 1S33, based on his experience there. He died in 
1856, Dr. Wright was a man of marked force of character, grave, cautious, 
conscientious and deliberate, habitually using long words and technical lan- 
guage — one of the last of the old theoretical school (see notice of him in the 
newspapers by Ur, F. Donaldson, his articles, etc.), ^ 

For the fourth time within two years an election was held, and 
the learned Geddings of South Carolina was unanimously chosen : 
would that his high scientific attainments and profound erudition had 
been longer vouchsafed to the University and to Maryland ! 

Another vacancy had just occurred, which had deprived the Uni- 
versity of one who had shared its fortunes from the earliest period of 
its existence, and who had shed great lustre upon it by his eloquence 
as a lecturer, his skill in experimentation, and his deep knowledge 
of the physical sciences. I refer to the death of Prof, Elisha DeButts, 
which took place April 3d, 183 1. 

Elisha. DeButts was born in or near Dublin, of a respectable family, of the 
class known as "the landed gentry," His father was an officer in the English 
army. When a youth his family emigrated to America and settled in Sharps- 
burg, Md. He attended school near Alexandria, where his uncle, Dr. Samuel 
DeButts, resided, and began the study of medicine under the direction of the 
latter. He then entered the University of Pennsylvania, where he graduated 
in 1805, the subject of his thesis being "An Inaugural Essay on the Eye and 
on Vision." After practicing for several years on the Potomac opposite Alex- 
andria, he selected Baltimore as his permanent home. He held the chair of 
Chemistry from 1809 to the period of his death. In 1830 he was sent to 
Europe by the Board of Trustees to procure chemical apparatus for the Uni- 
versity, While abroad he lectured with great eclat before the Royal Insti- 
tution of London, He died April 3d, 1831, of pneumonia, brought on by expo- 
sure in attending a friend to his door on a cold day in his slippers. Professor 
DeButts was tall and spare and had a cast in one eye. He was an accomplished 
musician^and artist and possessed some poetical talent. His conversational 
powers were remarkable, and he had the happy faculty of simplifying the most 
abstruse subjects and rendering the driest interesting to his audience. His lec- 
tures were prepared with great care, and he kept himself thoroughly conver- 
sant with all the advances made in his department. He was of a sensitive and 
retiring disposition and wrote but little, but there is frequent written mention 
and many an unwritten tradition of his eloquence and learning. His health 
was never robust and he died in the prime of life. Prof, DeButts wrote only 


two short articles, viz : "An Account of an Improvement made on the Differ- 
ential Thermometer of Mr. Leslie" (1814), Am. Philosophical Soc. Traits. I, 
1818, pp. 301-306, with plate; "Description of Two New Voltaic Batteries," 
Silliman''s Journal, VIII, 1824, pp. 271-274. "As a teacher of chemistry, 
whether we look at the learning and perspicuity of the lectures in which he 
inculcated the lessons and doctrines of philosophy, or at the brilliancy and 
success of the experiments by which he illustrated them, he was perhaps 
unequalled, certainly unexcelled. The community have often listened witlj admi- 
ration and delight to the exhibitions of pure classical taste, the coruscations 
of a sparkling but chastened imagination, the bursts of commanding eloquence, 
and the simple but learned reasoning by which his introductory lectures to 
his annual course were characterized ; and the many physicians who have been 
educated at the University of Maryland will long hold in grateful remem- 
brance the distinguished ability with which this beloved professor implanted 
in their youthful minds the seed of knowledge. In the case of the deceased 
the brightest beauties of the understanding were accompanied by the most 
exalted virtues of the heart. Like Bacon, Newton, Locke and others — the 
most eminent philosophers, like Boerhaave, Gregory, Hey, Good and others — 
the most distinguished of the medical profession, he sought to have all his 
talents sanctified by the spirit of religion and to lay his literary honors at the 
foot of the Cross. In his estimation as in theirs, it is the highest honor of man 
to be the servant of God, the purest and most valuable philosophy is a knowl- 
edge of religion and the faith of the Gospel. In the little circle to which only, 
owing to his retiring habits, he was well known, the memory of his person 1 
virtues will be fondly cherished. To his family his death will be an irreparable 
loss. The republic of letters will mourn the loss of one of its brightest orna- 
ments, and the Church of God one of her most sincere members and devoted 
friends." [Dr. Henshaw's obituary. Dr. H. was rector of St. Peter's P. E. 
Church, of which Prof. DeB. was a vestryman ; he afterwards became Bishop of 
Rhode Island.] The Fed. Gazette speaks of " a highly important discovery" 
made by Prof. DeButts during the session of 1823-4. It appears to have been 
something relating to electricity. (See biographical sketch in Maryland 
Medical Journal^ Sept. i, 1882.) 

There were several applicants for his chair, all able and well-known 
men of science.' His mantle fell upon Professor Ducatel, who had 
held a similar position in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, then just 
reorganized, and who was in every way worthy of the honor, which 
he held for six years with signal ability. 

No further changes took place in the personnel of the Faculty until 
1833, when there were two resignations, viz. Professor Samuel Baker 
and Professor McDowell. The former was succeeded by Professor 

^ They were Professors Patterson, of the Univ. of Va., Franklin Bache, of 
Philadelphia, and Ducatel, of Baltimore. 


Robley Dunglison, of the University of Virginia; the chair of Insti- 
tutes remained vacant, the Professors of Anatomy and Practice 
agreeing- to discharge its duties jointly. The members of the Fac- 
ulty bound themselves, in consideration of the withdrawal of Prof. 
McDowell and in view of the money which had been advanced by 
him for the expenses of the University, to pay him an annuity of 
^looo for ten years if he should live so long.' In taking this rather 
remarkable step — making up fron; their own salaries the full value, 
at least, of his professorship — the Faculty doubtless appreciated tKe 
negative value of the services rendered by their colleague. The 
Trustees repudiated all responsibility of the University for this debt, 
but, conforming to a stipulation made by the Faculty, resolved that 
the diploma-fees (which were at this time restored) should stand 
pledged for its payment.^ 

Samuel Baker was born in Baltimore, Oct. 31, 1785. His father, William 
Baker, emigrated from Germany when a young man and married here a lady of 
Irish extraction. After receiving a classical education he began the study of 
medicine under Drs. Littlejohn and Donaldson. He took his M. D. degree at 
the University of Pennsylvania in 1S08, offering a thesis on " Chorea." In 
the same year he married Miss Sally Dickens, daughter of Rev. John Dickens, 
of Philadelphia. In 1S09 he was elected Professor of Materia Medica in the 
College of Medicine of Maryland and held that position until the spring of 
1833, He was President of the Baltimore Medical Society, and at the time of 
his death, which occurred from disease of the heart, Oct. 16, 1835, ^^ held a 
similar office in the " Medico-Chirurgical Society of Baltimore," of which he 
was also the founder. He was chairman of the Board of Directors of the 
Library of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty, and as such was the founder 
of that collection in 1830, $500 being then appropriated for the purchase of 
books, on a resolution to that effect offered by him. He continued to preside 
over the Board and to take a profound interest in the Library until his death. 
Two of his sons became Professors in the University. He was a zealous 
Methodist, possessed great influence in the community and had a large prac- 
tice. A portrait of him appeared in the Md. Med. and Surg. Journal, Vol. I, 
1S40. Prof. Dunglison (notice in the Am. your. Med. Sci.) says he was an 
amiable and excellent physician, courteous, attentive, benevolent, laborious, 
exemplary and public-spirited, strenuous in co-operating in every proposition 
for the advancement of the University which he had helped to found, a pattern 
of religious and moral goodness. Multitudes, he says, crowded to his funeral, 

^ Before the resignation was offered a bond was executed by Professors 
Potter, Hall, Smith, Geddings, and Ducatel to secure the payment of this 
annuity, a wise procedure, as was subsequently proven. The last payment of 
this annuity was made Nov. 20th, 1842. 

' Regents' Minutes. 


testifying to the value and extent of his services and to the excellence of his 

Maxv^tell McDowell was born in 1771 and died in 1848 [Quinan). He 
was in Kentucky in 1798, and in York, Pa., in 1804. In 1808-9 he became a 
Licentiate of the Med. and Chir. Faculty, and in 1810-11 was attending physi- 
cian to the Baltimore General Dispensary. From 1814 to 1833 he was Pro- 
fessor of Institutes in the University, and in 1820 and 1825-1827 Dean of the 
Faculty. From 1S36 to 1841 he was President of the Medical and Chirurgical 
Faculty, declining a re-election in the latter year. He received the hon. 
M. D. from the University of Maryland in 1S18. He was a Presbyterian. He 
wrote articles on the "Treatment of Burns by Cold Water," 1800 [Quinan), 
the " Pathology of Diabetes Mellitus," 1840, and a very curious one (Balto. 
Med. and Physical Recorder, 1809), '"^ which he gives grounds for believing 
that there is some occult and more direct mode of communication between the 
alimentary canal and bladder than by the blood. The fact that anatomy fur- 
nishes no proof of such a medium presented no obstacle to his acceptance of 
such a theory. Dr. McDowell is represented as a man of very ordinary 
acquirements and but little force, the inferior in these respects of all his col- 
leagues. His chair was considered as of secondary importance. 

Prior to this time, students rarely took all the tickets two years in 
succession. It had been customary from the earliest years of the 
University to take only four tickets (usually Anatomy, Surgery, 
Chemistry, and Practice) the first year and all the tickets the second 
or graduating year. At this time a change in the regulations was 
effected, of which, doubtless, the withdrawal of Professor McDowell 
was an essential part. The Faculty adopted a resolution requesting 
the Trustees to make a rule requiring the students henceforth to 
take all the tickets both years. The Trustees acceded to this 
request, and ever since this requirement has been enforced. The 
previous custom, however, as may be observed from a perusal of 
that document, is not a violation of the charter of 181 2. 

Professor Dunglison, whose writings were already beginning to 
give him a national reputation, was not long here before he had a 
call to a larger field. In 1836 he received and accepted the appoint- 
ment of Professor of Institutes in the Jefferson Medical College of 
Philadelphia, and for thirty-odd years thereafter he was one of the 
leading medical teachers and writers of that city. 

RoBLEY Dunglison was born at Keswick, Cumberland Co., England, in 
1798. He commenced practice in London in 1S19. He received the degree 
of M. D. at the University of Erlangen in 1824 and was called from London 
the same year to found the medical school of the University of Virginia. He 


was also Chairman of the Faculty of that institution. In 1833 he was called 
to the University of Maryland, as Professor of Materia Medica, Hygiene and 
Medical Jurisprudence. In 1836 he became Professor of Institutes in Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, a new chair specially created for him there. 
In 1868 he retired from that position as Emeritus Professor and died the 
following year. He was an LL. D. of Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Penn- 
sylvania, and a member of numerous literary and scientific societies. Pro- 
fessor Dunglison was one of the most prolific of American medical writers. 
He wrote numerous volumes, contributed largely to periodical literature, and 
for several years edited himself a medical journal in Philadelphia. His be,st 
known work is his Dictionary, which has gone through more than twenty 
editions and is now edited by his son. He was " one of the foremost teachers 
and writers of his day " (Gross. See also Quinan's Annals). According to 
Allibone, the sales of his principal works to 1858 exceeded 100,000 volumes. 

Professor Dunglison's place was supplied by the election of Dr. 
R. E. Griffith, of Philadelphia, a well-known writer upon Materia 
Medica and Pharmacy, who held it only one year. 

Immediately after the close of the session of 1836-37, Professors 
Geddings and Ducatel presented their resignations. Their motives 
in doing so are not upon record, but they had relation to the 
unsettled condition of the University. 

Eli Geddings was born in Newberry District, S. C, in 1799. He received a 
classical education at the Abbeville Academy, and commenced the study of 
medicine in that town in 1S18. Two years later, after examination, he was 
licensed to practice by the Examining Board of the state, and he entered at 
once on professional life. He attended his first course of lectures at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, 1821—22. He moved from Abbeville to Charleston 
in September, 1824. He received his medical degree in 1825, at the close of 
the first session of the Medical College of S. C. He was now appointed 
Demonstrator of Anatomy in the College. For a year, 1826-27, he attended 
the hospitals in Paris and London. In 1828 he resigned his demonstratorship 
and opened a private school of Anatomy and Surgery in Charleston. He 
delivered courses of lectures to his pupils on Pathology, Practice of Medicine 
and Surgery, and Clinical Lectures at the Almshouse Hospital. In 1S31 
he was elected to the chair of Anatomy and Physiology in the University 
of Maryland. About this time he also received offers of professorships 
at Jefferson Medical College, the University of New York, the Cincinnati 
Medical College, and the University of Louisville. In 1S37, at the com- 
mencement of the troubles in the University of Maryland, he resigned his 
chair here and returned to Charleston, where a new chair of " Pathological 
Anatomy and Medical Jurisprudence " had been created for him in the 
"Medical College of the State of S. C." In 1841, on the death of Prof. 
Wagner, he became Professor of Surgery. From 1849 ^o ^^53 ^^^ held the 
chair of Practice, but resumed that of Surgery in the latter year. In 1S5S he 


resigned, but on the premature death of Prof. P. C, Gaillard shortly after, was 
persuaded to assume the duties of the chair of Practice. During the war, 
which put a stop to the college courses, he held an appointment as surgeon in 
the C. S. A. and was a member of a board for the examination of medical 
officers. On the burning of Columbia at the close of the war his entire 
library, which had been sent there from Charleston for safety, was destroyed 
by fire. This was one of the finest private collections in the country. About 
the same time his surgical instruments and apparatus were stolen. On the 
return of peace the College was revived, mainly through his efforts, and he 
assumed his former chair. In 1871, owing to advancing years, he was com- 
pelled to resign. He was now elected Emeritus Professor, but continued to 
give clinical lectures until nearly the period of his death, which occurred at 
Charleston, after a brief illness, October 9th, 1878. Professor Geddings was 
a man of vigorous frame and strong intellect, indefatigable industry, a 
laborious student, with remarkable powers of acquisition and retention. A 
certain apparent sternness of manner concealed beneath a warm heart and 
glowing human sympathy. Pie upheld inflexibly the dignity and honor of his 
profession. He occupied the loftiest position as a skillful physician and 
enjoyed almost the monopoly of consultation practice in Charleston, where he 
was regarded as the Nestor of the profession. He contributed copiously to 
the American Jour, of Med. Sciences, his book reviews especially evincing 
critical judgment and scholarship. He commenced in 1833 a quarterly journal, 
the Baltimore Medical Journal, which he changed to a monthly in 1835, giving it 
then the name of the North American Archives of Medical and Surgical Science, 
Pie was a liberal contributor to the American Encyclop(rdia of Practical Medi- 
cine and Surgery, edited by Dr. Isaac Hays, of Philadelphia. He had also 
prepared the manuscript of a work upon the Practice of Medicine, which he 
was on the point of publishing at the outbreak of the war; it perished in the 
flames at Columbia with his library. (See A Biographical Sketch of the Pro- 
fessional Career of the late Prof. Eli Geddings, M. D., presented to the Med. 
Soc. of S. C, by Drs. F. M. Robertson, T. L. Ogier and J. P. Chazal, a com- 
mittee appointed for the purpose. Charleston, 1878.) 

Jules Timoleon Ducatel was born in Baltimore, June 6th, 1796, being the 
eldest son of Mr. Edme Ducatel, a prominent French pharmaceutist. After 
receiving an education at St. Mary's College he entered his father's store, but 
this employment not proving congenial, he was sent to Paris to complete his 
scientific studies- He spent four years, from 1818 to 1822, there, making many 
distinguished friends and travelling extensively over Europe. In 1824 he 
married a lady of wealth, but shortly after meeting with financial reverses, he 
was obliged to utilize his scientific attainments in his support. His first 
engagement was as Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Mechanics' Insti- 
tute. He next obtained the chair of Chemistry and Geology in the Faculty of 
Arts and Sciences in the University of Maryland, and in 1831, on the death of 
the lamented DeButts, he was with great unanimity and against most eminent 
competitors elected to the vacancy in the Medical Faculty. He resigned this 


chair in 1S37, at the beginning of the disruption in the school. From 1S32 to 
1S41 he held an appointment from the Legislature as State Geologist, and in 
the discharge of this office furnished a number of reports and maps. In addi- 
tion to the above positions he also held for some years the chair of Chemistry 
in St. John's College, at Annapolis. In 1843 ^"^ 1846 he took part in expedi- 
tions of exploration to the Upper Mississippi and Lake Superior. He was 
taken ill after the latter of these and never recovered his health. He died in 
Baltimore, suddenly, of congestion of the lungs, April i, 1849, aged 52. Pro- 
fessor Uucatel had an amiable and generous disposition. Lie was an ardent 
and enthusiastic student of nature and «,vas ever ready to impart his knowledge 
to others. He was foremost in all social and scientific enterprises and was 
one of the founders of the Maryland Academy of Science and Literature. He 
was a high authority on Geology. His principal works were contributions to 
Silliman'' s American Journal of Science and Arts, X\\& Reports liho^t referred to, 
and a Manual of Practical Toxicology. He also edited for some years a weekly 
literary paper, and, towards the end of his life, began the publication of a 
Physical History of Maryland. He was a member of the American Philo- 
sophical Society, of the Royal Geological Society of Paris, of the Georgofili 
of Florence, and of other distinguished bodies. (An extensive notice of Pro- 
fessor Ducatel appeared in the Amer. Jotirnal of Science and Arts, N. S., Vol. 
VIII, p. 146, signed by A[lexander], who was his associate in geological work.) 

We approach now the great revolution of 1837, and in order to 
give a clear insight into all the circumstances connected with the 
secession of the Regents' Faculty, the formation of another school, 
and the long and famous suit of Regents vs. Trustees, it will be 
necessary to trace somewhat minutely the previous relations of the 
Faculty and the Trustees. It will be remembered with what a bad 
grace the Faculty submitted to the authority of the Trustees in 1826, 
and how they were only deterred by the most formidable obstacles 
from testing the legality of the law deposing them from their rights. 
They tried to nourish into vitality a faint hope that things might not 
all go as badly as they anticipated. They were forced to make 
application for their former positions, which had been declared vacated 
by the Trustees, and to receive them back from the hands of the 
latter. This was a humiliating proceeding for them and did not 
leave them the better disposed towards the new rulers who had been 
imposed upon them. They felt keenly, too, the loss of the privi- 
leges and authority which they had enjoyed for so many years, 
and realized painfully the inferior position to which they had been 
reduced. A feeUng of irritation and hostility on the part of the 
Faculty was, therefore, only natural under the circumstances, and it 
was heightened by the opinion of the eminent legal counsel whom 


they had consuhed. The attitude assumed by the Trustees was not 
calculated to bridge over the chasm. There was no social inter- 
course between the two bodies ; the Faculty were never consulted, 
but, as it seemed to them at least, " studiously avoided." According 
to Professor Potter, the Trustees " never interchanged an opinion 
with them on any subject connected with the interests of the school. 
They were inaccessible except by letter, and held the opinions of the 
Professors in contempt." 

Prof. Davidge did not fare better at the hands of the Trustees, in 
regard to his private classes, than with the Regents. Although he 
made personal application for the restoration of the lost privilege, 
Dec. 9, 1826, and although his application was seconded by the 
students, the appeal was in vain. This must have been a bitter dis- 
appointment, for it was upon this very point that he had been 
tempted to apply to the Legislature for the act of 1825.' 

In December, 1826, an event occurred which intensified the bitter- 
ness of feeling already existing in the minds of the Faculty. A 
student, named Adreon, brought a friend into the yard for the pur- 
pose of showing him some anatomical preparation which he had 
made. This was against the rules and he was stopped by the jani- 
tor at " the inner gate." An altercation ensued, in the course of 
which strong language was used by both parties and the janitor 
struck the student. The latter did not return the blow, but preferred 
charges against the janitor of insulting language and personal vio- 
lence, and the case was examined into at the office of Mr. Roger B. 
Taney, who was then the Vice-President of the Board. The janitor 
made the most humble apology, pleading that he had a wife and 
large family dependent upon him, and recalling his good character 
and services in the position, which he had held " from nearly the 
commencement of the college." He acknowledged his imprudence, 
for which there was no justification, and humbly begged for mercy. 
This was humility enough, but the sequel leaves us in more than 
doubt as to its sincerity. The apology was accepted and he was 
allowed to retain his place." 

In 1827 (" without shadow of right or law " 0> the Professors were 

1 Yott&x'& Sketch. " They" (Davidge and Ue Butts) " magnanimously acknowl- 
edged it" {i. e. their error), "and were the first to complain, and repented in 
sackcloth and ashes." 

^Minutes of Trustees. 

2 Prof. Hall, MS. Records of University. 


deprived of the graduation fees, of which they had alone retained 
possession in the transfer of the revenue of the University. This 
item of income was claimed by them as a special perquisite of their 
chairs and an inalienable right of their office. They looked upon 
it as due them for the time and labor required in the examinations 
and for certifying in the diploma to the standing and capacity of the 
candidate.' It was restored to them in 1833, when it was estimated 
that the loss incurred by the Faculty amounted to $6405, viz. 427 
graduates (from 1827 to 1833 inclusive) at $15 each.' It woufd 
appear that this large amount had not been turned into the Univer- 
sity treasury, but that during this interval the graduation fee had 
been actually abolished.' 

In Dec. 1828, Professor Potter made the observation that some of the 
students, instead of proceeding after his lecture to the room of the next 
lecturer, were in the habit of going to the apartments of the janitor. His 
suspicions were aroused and he determined to investigate. Accord- 
ingly, one day he unexpectedly entered the janitor's room and found 
several students engaged in gambling and drinking, or, to use his 
own language, "regaling themselves with spirit and cards." Now it 
was against the law of the Regents for the janitor to sell liquor, and 
he privately reproached him for it. The janitor first denied, then 
became angry and finally used insulting language.^ Professor Potter 
preferred charges against him and demanded his discharge, adding 
that he had already been guilty of an offense and had, therefore, 
forfeited all claim to further indulgence. The committee of the 
Trustees, charged with the examination, dictated a letter of apology, 
which having required the janitor to sign, they sent to Professor 
Potter. They also passed a regulation forbidding the janitor in 
future " to sell liquors of any kind, fruit, nuts, cigars or tobacco, or to 
permit the students to play at cards or any other game in his house 
for money or any other thing." Potter was not satisfied with this 
action nor with the note of apology, and wrote a sharp letter to the 
committee, which they refused to receive and directed it to be 
returned ,to the writer. They determined, nevertheless, that it was 

' Potter's Sketch. 

2 Prof. Hall, MS. Records of University. 

2" The only school in the U. S., so far as known, which has had the good 
sense and magnanimity to abolish the ' graduation fee,' is the Medical Col- 
lege of the University of Maryland" (Dr. Benjamin Hxizo\x\^ Hints on the 
Present State of Medical Education, etc., Burlington, 1833. Pampht.). 

■» " Gave the lie." Potter's Sketch. 


necessary to inquire into the conduct of the janitor, generally and 
in this particular instance. Professors Davidge, DeButts, Smith, 
Hall, Baker and McDowell, and two of the students, were summoned 
before the committee and bore unanimous testimony to the capa- 
city, general good conduct and valuable services of the janitor, but 
Professor Smith thought he had been wanting in respect to him upon 
one occasion. The janitor was summoned and examined as to this, 
but the committee were satisfied that he had been guilty of no dis- 
respect ; he was accordingly ordered to resume his duties. But war 
had now been declared, and it was " war to the knife and the knife 
to the hilt." In a contest of Potter vs. Janitor there could not be 
any doubt as to the result. The latter threatened personal violence 
and would have carried out the threat but for the intervention of the 
Professor's friends among the students, whom he could scarcely 
restrain from "sacrificing" the irrepressible subordinate, " I had to 
go armed," he says, " for the remainder of the session. The class 
clamored so loudly for justice that the Trustees had to meet and 
request the janitor ' to beg my pardon or say he was sorry for what 
he had said.' He was kept in office till spring, selling whiskey and 
brandy in defiance of all authority. Early in the spring he offended 
them and was ejected for another offense, after annoying me, as the 
instrument of their revenge, for half the session."' This is not 
quite correct, for we have it upon record that although Professor 
Smith made a second complaint against the janitor the following 
spring, it was not until three years later (Jan. 1832) that he was 
forced to resign his position. This was in consequence of another 
complaint made by one of the students and accompanied by a request 
from the Faculty for his immediate removal. His " resignation " was 
accordingly presented and accepted, and the Dean was instructed to 
take charge of the keys until the vacancy could be filled.'' 

During the session of 1829-30 Professor Smith '•' converted to his 
own use a part of the dissecting room without the knowledge or 
consent of the Demonstrator." This would be thought nothing of 
nowadays, but in the time of the Trustees that officer was not with- 

1 Potter's Sketch. 

"Trustees' Minutes. The writer well remembers how, many years after 
these events, the venerable Mr. Peter Smith insulted one of the graduates 
because he would not purchase a tin case for the reception of his diploma, 
that worthy seeming to regard as a perquisite of his high office the profit 
(probably enormous) which he realized from the said sale. 


Processor oj^ Principles ami Practice of 
Medicine atid Hygiene. 


out authority. He objected and the Trustees ordered restoration 
to be made. This circumstance probably left its impress and tended 
to widen the breach between the two bodies. 

It will be remembered that the act appointing the Trustees pro- 
vided that they should assume entire charge of the pecuniary affairs 
of the institution and pay off all of its debts, with one single excep- 
tion ; this was the interest on the $30,000 loan of 1821, amounting 
to $1500 annually. The members of the Faculty of Medicine were 
required to give bond for the regular payment of this interest and they 
continued to pay it for many years.' It is hard to comprehend what 
justification could have been found for the imposition of this burden 
upon the Faculty. The money had been borrowed for the purpose 
of paying off the debts of the University incurred in the erection of 
buildings, and it had been faithfully devoted to this purpose under the 
direction of a " commission," appointed by the same Legislature 
which had made the loan. The University, therefore, having been 
benefitted by it and not the Professors in their private capacity, it 
was clearly a debt of the corporation which the Trustees should have 
assumed like any other debt. The Faculty, being now deprived of 
all control over the income of the corporation, had lost the means of 
paying it upon which they doubtless originally relied, and were 
compelled to make it up from their private resources. Nevertheless 
this did not deter them from assuming the bond for the payment 
of the annuity to Professor McDowell in 1833.^ 

The Infirmary constituted another source of dissatisfaction. It had 
been erected, not by the Board of Regents nor by the Faculty, but by 
several Professors, who had contributed liberally from their private 
means, and when these failed had borrowed money from the banks 
to defray the expense, and the deed to it stood in their names. Yet 
the building was seized by the omnivorous Trustees and held despite 
the protest of these gentlemen, who were further required to contri- 
bute their services to it as attending physicians free of charge. As 
the establishment had now been taken possession of by the state, as 
state property, the several Professors made out a bill against the 
Trustees for the entire amount of the private funds which they had 
expended in its erection and maintenance. The latter refused to 
pay any portion of this claim, and an appeal was made to the Leg- 

1 Until 1838, or later. 

^ The graduation fees, restored to the Faculty in 1S33, nearly sufficed to 
make up the amount due on the bond. 


islature, which passed an act requiring them to make a settlement. 
With great reluctance the Board then appointed a committee of 
three ' to investigate the accounts of the University and report what 
if any sum was due the Professors for funds advanced. Professor 
Hall was appointed on the part of the Faculty to confer with the 
committee. After a protracted and exhaustive examination, extend- 
ing back to the year 1807, the committee reported on the nth of 
October, 1830, that $15,474 were due the Professors.^ According to 
Prof. Potter there was a suit still pending in 1838 for the recovery of 
this debt, in whole or in part. 

The management of the Infirmary was severely criticised. Pro- 
fessor Potter contrasted the entire absence of expense for offices, 
stationery, etc., under the Regents, with the extravagance of the 
Trustees' government with respect to these items. The latter had 
(for example) a Secretary of the Board, the son of the Vice-Presi- 
dent, who received $250 per annum. Later, the chairman of the 
Committee on the Infirmary received $200 for his services ; still 
later, as the income of the Infirmary increased, the same officer was 
given the title of "Superintendent" and $400 a year, and at last he 
became " Governor " with $800 salary.^ This officer had absolute 
control over the affairs of the institution. Patients were admitted 
and discharged by his command; he appointed the subordinates; he 
purchased the supplies and medicines for the inmates ; he handled all 
the funds and paid out money, and one of the senior students served 
as his secretary. According to Professor Potter, the medicines were 
inferior in quality and were purchased wherever they could be gotten 
at the lowest rates. The Professors were compelled to use their own 
instruments, and they could not obtain even so necessary an article 
as leeches." 

Professor Potter even " carried the war into Africa," and detailed 
various proceedings of the Board of Trustees which, if true, were 
highly discreditable. For instance, he states that in order to get rid 
of opposition the "schemers in the Board" had its number reduced 
by the following device: Three of the members were Judges of judi- 

' Messrs. Gwynn, McCuUoh and Williams. 

"^ Potter's Sketch. According to a report of Mr. J. H. B. Latrobe, in 1852, 
the Infirmary was transferred to the Trustees in 1832, on the latter assuming 
the debt due the bank which was then threatening its sale. 

2 Mr. Solomon Etting held these offices, 

^ '2 qKXzx's, Sketch. 


cial districts of the state and were "true friends of the school," In 
order to get rid of them they passed a resolution that absence from 
four successive meetings vacated a seat.' Then, finding that these 
gentlemen had been absent three meetings, they appointed the 
fourth on a day on which the Judges were to sit and thus expelled 
them from the Board. Again, the Regents had made a contract 
with Messrs. Yates & Mclntyre, lottery brokers, which stipulated 
that they should pay over to the Regents $2000 every four months 
until the privilege was exhausted. Although the amplest security 
was given and the terms strictly and honorably complied with, the 
Trustees annulled this solemn obligation and substituted a specific 
annual sum.^ 

The charge was also made against the Trustees that they ignored 
the wishes of the Faculty as to the appointment of professors. With 
reference to this, it may be said in their behalf that they were not 
bound by the act appointing them to conform to such wishes; but 
as a matter of fact they did comply with every request of the Faculty 
upon this subject up to May, 1837, except in the case of Professor 
Ducatel, and the wisdom of his appointment was not questioned by 
his colleagues, by whom he was much beloved. 

I may here allude to the attitude of Professor Potter towards the 
Trustees. He seems to have been the most bitter against them of 
the members of the Faculty, and also the most obnoxious to them, 
" because uniformly, without reserve, at all times and in all places, 
exposing their acts."' The affairs of the University were freely dis- 
cussed with the students, who naturally sided with the Professors and 
laid the blame on their opponents. The Trustees are said to have 
" declared that should either of the Professors, in their intercourse 
with the students, speak disrespectfully of them or their acts, they " 
(the Professors) " should forfeit their chairs and be expelled from 
them." To this. Professor Potter says he made reply publicly, that 
if they would let him appear before their Board he would give them 
the opportunity to resort to still more extreme acts of tyranny.* 

Early in 1837 the Faculty endeavored to secure the passage of an 
act by the Legislature, giving them seats in the Board of Trustees, 

1 Acts of Legislature, Ch. LXII, 3. 

2 Potter's Sketch. Is it likely that skillful financiers would relinquish a legal 
contract from which they were to receive large profits, without full compen- 
sation ? 

3 Potter's Sketch. 
* Potter's Sketch. 


" with power to vote on all matters appertaining particularly to the 
medical department, and on the appointment and removal of a pro- 
vost, professor, lecturer, tutor, demonstrator, or other officer con- 
nected with said department, or on questions relative to their duties 
or the duties of any of them, or on the establishment, alteration or 
abolishment of a professorship, lectureship or any other office in said 
department, but not to vote on fiscal questions or on business of 
other departments.'" The Trustees of course opposed this measure 
and presented a memorial giving the reasons why it should not be 
passed. They carried their point and it was rejected. 

But the circumstance that particularly precipitated the crisis was 
the appointment of Dr. Henry W. Baxley to the chair of Anatomy, 
as the successor of Professor Geddings. Dr. Baxley first became 
connected with the Faculty in 1834 as Demonstrator, succeeding 
Dr. Samuel Lyon. At that time Dr. Augustus L. Warner had a 
private dissecting room on Cider Alley, just in the rear of the Uni- 
versity, but on his election to a chair at the University of Virginia 
it passed into the hands of Dr. William N. Baker, a graduate of the 
class of 1832 and son of Professor Samuel Baker. Young Baker 
had been well educated, and possessing a fine address and marked 
social qualities, was a general favorite. His students were warmly 
attached to him and his rooms were more frequented than the dis- 
secting rooms of the college. Dr. Baxley, on the other hand, was 
devoid of sociability and stood much upon his dignity and the pre- 
rogatives of his office. A certain amount of rivalry thus sprang up 
between the two dissecting classes, and as Baker had such personal 
attractions and was so much liked by the students, with whom the 
Faculty kept up the most friendly relations during the difficulties 
with the Trustees, and especially as he was the son of one of their 
colleagues and of a founder of the school, in time the Professors 
began to give the preference to Baker. 

Woe to the teacher who incurs the displeasure of the class in a 
medical college ! Medical students are an especially rough set to 
deal with, although the classical description of Bob Sawyer and Tom 
Allen, fortunately, no longer applies to them in this day. In the 
first place they are men and cannot be disciplined like boys, and 
again there is more freedom and license in medical than in other 
schools. Much, therefore, depends upon a teacher's tact and per- 
sonal qualities. Slight deviations from etiquette and good breeding 

^Copy of proposed bill, MS. Records of University. 


had better be overlooked or touched upon h'ghtly and pleasantly, 
else there will certainly be a " row." In the days of which we write 
students were less tractable than now and it required a vast deal of 
patience and self-control to deal successfully with them. 

The first difficulty which Dr. Baxley had was with a student in 
February 1835. In a communication which he addressed to Pro- 
fessor Geddings on the 3d he complained of the conduct of one of 
the students, a Mr. Gilmer, of Virginia, during the previous day's 
lecture on anatomy. He charged this gentleman with " taking his 
seat, a seat appropriated to the Demonstrator of Anatomy, and whi6h 
he had been accustomed to use during the session, and refusing to 
give it to him." He says that the offense was all the more censur- 
able because committed in the presence of the entire class and the 
professor. On being refused his seat he states that he left the room. 
He desires to know " what course he should pursue." He received 
a reply to the effect that Mr. Gilmer disclaimed any intended disre- 
spect and said that he was not aware of the seat having been appro- 
priated, and that had it been solicited in a proper manner he would 
not have retained it. In answer to this Dr. B. states that he simply 
presented himself before the seat, which he had been in the habit of 
occupying every day, and which Mr. G. had relinquished on a similar 
application, by manner, on a former occasion. He was now directed, 
however, to " go on." He adds that " he would have considered it an 
improper surrender on his part of the rights of the station he held 
and a culpable indifference to the respect due to that station from 
the pupils of the school, to do other than plainly intimate a con- 
sciousness of those rights and the determination to require that 
respect to be observed." He accordingly replied : " I will occupy 
this seat, sir ! " to which receiving the answer " No you won't, sir ! " 
he retired as above stated, intending, if necessary, to bring the matter 
to the attention of the authorities of the University, "alike compe- 
tent and disposed to secure becoming subordination." He says that 
he has heard that Mr. G.'s conduct before and after the transaction 
did not accord with his statements to Prof. Geddings, and he must 
therefore request a written disavowal from him, or a written state- 
ment of that disavowal by the Dean (Prof. Dunglison). The latter, 
as being probably most easily obtained, was accordingly given, and 
matters were thus, in appearance at least, accommodated for the 
time. But it is probable that this affair left unpleasant impressions 
with this and subsequent classes. Prejudices are easily excited and 


linger long, and students do not always judge according to the right 
where their classmates are concerned.' 

We find no record of any other open difficulty during Dr. Baxley's 
incumbency of his office. He seems, however, to have been on 
intimate terms with the Trustees, and this was sufficient to make the 
members of the Faculty look upon him with distrust and to have 
given rise to the charge by Professor Potter that Professor Geddings 
had been " banished by intrigue, injustice and envy.'"' 

It was known to the Faculty that Dr. Baxley was the choice of 
the Trustees for the chair vacated by Professor Geddings. They 
unanimously favored the appointment of Dr. Baker. Baxley had 
now become so offensive to them that they had determined not to 
remain in the Faculty if he were admitted. At a meeting held in 
the Infirmary, on the 2d of May, 1837, the "arbitrary and inju- 
dicious acts of the Trustees and the unconstitutionality of the act of 
1825" were discussed. At a later meeting Prof. Hall reported the 
opinion of counsel on the probable success of a suit and urged that 
one be entered upon. It was unanimously resolved that if the 
Trustees should make an appointment to the chair of Anatomy of 
"an individual" now proposed by them, in direct opposition to the 
nomination of the Faculty, the Professors should resign, and the 
resignations were then placed in the hands of Professor Hall, the 
Dean, to be used in accordance with the resolution. As soon as the 
official announcement was received of the obnoxious appointment 
having been made the resignations were delivered to the Chairman 
of the Board, Drs. Potter and Hall, senior members of the Faculty, 
in resigning their appointments under the Trustees, expressly retained 
those formerly held from the Regents under the charter of 1812.' 

Having declared themselves independent of their late masters, no 
time was lost in reorganization. The two senior members consti- 
tuted the nucleus, the direct successors of the last Faculty under the 
Regents, and they elected Professors Smith and Griffith to the same 
chairs in the revived Faculty which they had just resigned. Pro- 
fessor Hall was made Dean and, as Secretary of the old Board of 
Regents, was directed to call a meeting of the same, a majority of 
them being still alive. In accordance with the notice the Regents 
met and resolved to obtain further advice from counsel as to the 
legality of holding lectures the next sesssion under the old charter. 

>MS. Records of University. ^Potter's SkeicA. 

3 Minutes of Regents' Faculty, 1S37-9. 


Professor of Diseases of Women and Children, and 

Clinical Medicine. 


The gentlemen thus consulted (Messrs. Martin, Mayer and Evans) 
declared that the Faculty of the Regents were the legitimate Faculty, 
and as such had full authority to lecture and confer degrees ; the 
" Faculty of Law " entirely concurred in this opinion. 

A few weeks after the secession of the Faculty, Professor Griffith 
resigned, having received a call to the University of Virginia. 

Robert Eglesfield Griffith was born in Philadelphia, Feb. 13th, 1798, 
graduated in medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in 1820, and was 
physician to the Philadelphia Board 'of Health, 1834-36. He was a wejl- 
known and prolific writer upon botany, conchology and medicine. On the 
resignation of Professor Dunglison in 1836 he was called from Philadelphia, 
where he resided, to fill the vacancy, and delivered one course of lectures 
here on Materia Medica and Therapeutics during the succeeding session. His 
introductory was published by the class. On the rupture which took place 
between the Faculty and Trustees, in 1837, he adhered to the Regents' Faculty, 
but shortly after, having received an appointment as Professor of Theory and 
Practice, Obstetrics and Medical Jurisprudence, in the University of Virginia, 
he resigned his chair here. He died in Philadelphia, June 26th, 1850, having 
been in bad health for some years previously. He was elected a member of 
the American Philosophical Society in 1828. His best-known works were his 
Medical Botany, 1847, and Universal Formulary, 184S (2d edition, 1856). He 
also edited the works of Taylor, Christison, Garrod and others (Allibone, etc.) 

Dr. Samuel G. Baker, a younger son of the former professor of 
that name, was elected to fill the vacancy in the chair of Materia 
Medica. The departments of Anatomy and Physiology were as- 
signed, for the ensuing session, to the Professor of Surgery, and Dr. 
John Byrne was appointed Demonstrator. An advertisement of the 
course was ordered in accordance with these arrangements, and Pro- 
fessors Smith and Baker were constituted a committee to contract 
with the owner for the use of the southern part of the Baltimore 
House (S, E. corner Baltimore and Hanover streets), formerly 
known as the " Indian Queen Hotel," and to prepare the same for 
the reception of the classes. In accordance with a resolution adopted, 
Drs. Potter and Hall were named as a committee to co-operate with 
other committees from the faculties of Law and of Arts and Sciences, 
in the management of the impending suit. On the 4th of October, 
Dr. Wm. E. A. Aikin was elected Professor of Chemistry and was 
authorized to purchase chemical apparatus on the credit of the 
Faculty to the extent of $500. 

The counsel selected by the joint committee to carry on the suit 
were Messrs. Meredith, Evans, Mayer and R. N. Martin, all promi- 


nent lawyers of that period. They were requested to have the suit 
docketed as soon as possible during the current term of the Balti- 
more County Court. A retaining fee of $150 was proposed and 
accepted by all except Mr. Evans, who declined any fee for his 

Any account of this period would be incomplete without some 
allusion to the "outrage" committed on the night of the 21st Sep- 
tember, 1837. This was a successful attempt by the Regents' 
Faculty to get possession of the University buildings. From depo- 
sitions taken subsequently by the Executive Committee of the 
Trustees,' and especially from the statements of the janitor, the 
following- account of this transaction is obtained : Prof. Samuel G. 
Baker called at the house of the janitor, Thomas Maguire, within 
the University walls, at the northern extremity of Practice Hall, and 
finding him out, left word with his wife that he wished to see him at 7 
o'clock. Accordingly, at that hour Maguire repaired to the Doctor's 
office, where he was told that the Doctor would soon be in and to 
take a seat. He waited until 8 o'clock without accomplishing the 
object of his visit. Then on returning home he was surprised to 
find the outer gate fastened. He rapped and his name was demanded 
by a voice within. He gave it and was told that he could not enter. 
The gate was then opened and he saw Prof Smith within. Prof. 
Baker now came out and walked with him down the alley to the 
tavern at the corner of Paca and German streets. Here they met 
Prof Hall. The two Professors then told him that the steps they 
had taken were adopted in accordance with the advice of their 
counsel and with the object of getting possession of the property of 
the University. He then went to the Infirmary and reported what 
had taken place to the Governor of that institution. Here he found 
his wife and a woman who lived with them. They had been sent out 
on various pretexts when the premises were seized, and being unable 
to get back had gone to the Infirmary. The Trustees were con- 
vened the next morning, when Mr. Nelson was directed to examine 
into the proceeding and make arrangements for the recovery of the 
buildings from "the trespassers," and Messrs. Reverdy Johnson and 
McMahon were employed as assistant counsel. The property was 
held until the afternoon of the 23d, when the janitor was told by 
Prof Hall that they had determined to give it up for the present 
and let the matter take its regular course in law, and that he could 

'Minutes of Regents' Faculty. ''Minutes of same. 


get the keys. He then went to the gate and saw two of the students 
shutting up his house. They offered him the keys but he refused 
them, preferring that they should be left, as agreed with Professor 
Hall, at a neighbor's. He then went for Mr. James W. McCulloh, 
one of the Trustees, and Prof. Baxley, and accompanied by them 
got the keys and examined all the buildings. They found some 
articles missing from the Museum which had been claimed by 
members of the Regents' Faculty as private property. They found 
in one of the rooms of his house three vessels that had contained 
liquors and a coarse bowie-knife made out of a part of an old sword, 
which one of the young gentlemen afterwards called for. This 
account was corroborated by other witnesses. Thus ended this brief 
reign of martial law, and fortunately without the shedding of blood. 
Had there been any resistance on the part of the Trustees, or any 
attempt to recover possession by force, it is probable that the 
writer would not be able to chronicle so happy a termination of the 

The term of the Indian Queen school began at the usual time, the 
last Monday in October. Nearly all the city students attended it, 
whilst students from the counties and other states, who would form- 
erly have resorted to Baltimore, were diverted by the distractions 
here to other cities.' There was a very noticeable reduction in the 
total number of students attending the institution as now represented 
by its two divisions. The Regents' lectures were delivered in a 
large dining-room, which was divided into two compartments by a 
curtain. Professor Aikin occupied the apartment formerly used by 
the barber and had a class of 13.' The introductory lecture was 
delivered by Professor Samuel G. Baker and was upon the question 
then uppermost in the minds of himself and colleagues — the Univer- 
sity and its recent difficulties. He refers to the enthusiastic interest 
manifested in the Regents' school and the widespread sympathy of 
their fellow-citizens, and compares the entrance of the Trustees to 
Burr's visit to Blennerhasset. He speaks of " a few master-spirits 
of faction " admitting into their secret conclave an inferior officer of 
the school, whose pliancy adapted him to any service, and gravely 
and deliberately planning an entire revolution in the organization of 
the medical department. That this lecture was in bad taste cannot 
be questioned, but we must remember that feeling was running high 
at the time of its delivery and that the author was smarting under 

' Memorial of Trustees, Feb. 1838. 'Oral communication to author. 


the sense of great injustice, and it was but natural that there should 
be an exuberance of sentiment and expression in one so young. 

The Trustees opened their session about the same time " to a 
beggarly array of empty benches,'" the introductory lecture being 
delivered by Prof Baxley, and printed at the request of his colleagues. 
The Faculty consisted of the following : H. Willis Baxley, Prof, of 
Anatomy and Physiology ; Henry Howard, Obstetrics and Diseases 
of Women and Children ; M. A. Finley, Principles and Practice of 
Medicine ; Robt. E. Dorsey, Materia Medica ; W. R. Fisher, Chem- 
istry ; John F. May, Principles and Practice of Surgery; Ellis 
Hughes, Demonstrator.' 

Of the members of the Trustees' Faculty H. W. Baxley had perhaps the 
widest reputation. He was born in Baltimore, in 1803 ; graduated at the 
University in 1824; was a founder and Prof, of Anatomy in the Baltimore 
College of Dental Surgery, 1839, and was Professor of Surgery in Washington 
Medical College, Baltimore, 1842-7 ; Professor of Anatomy, Medical College, 
Ohio, 1850, and of Surgery, 1852 ; Government Inspector of Hospitals, 1865, 
and died 1875. He traveled extensively in Southern Europe and in the 
Pacific, and wrote books describing those regions (see Quinan's Medical Annals 
for list of writings). Henry Howard was from Brookville, Montgomery 
County, Md. He was born in 1791. On the resignation from the University 
of Virginia of Prof. R. E. Griffith in 1839 he was appointed to the vacancy in 
that institution, and held his chair there for about thirty years, or till near the 
period of his death, which occurred March 2d, 1874. Robt. E. Dorsey, of 
Baltimore County, graduated at the University in 1819. Died 1876, aged 80. 
M. A. Finley was from Washington County, Md. John Frederick May was 
an eminent physician of Washington city. After leaving the University in 
1839 he became Prof, of Anatomy and Physiology in Columbian College, 
Washington. William R. Fisher was born in Philadelphia in 1S08. He 
came to Baltimore in 1827 and established a pharmacy about 1834. He was 
one of the leading spirits in the Maryland Academy of Science and Literature. 
He delivered two courses on chemistry in the University, but in the spring of 
1839 he was attacked with partial hemiplegia. He then returned to Phila- 
delphia, where he recovered sufficiently to accept a professorship in the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy. He died October 25th, 1842, aged 34. He had 
a medical degree. He had formed a plan for a College of Pharmacy in Balti- 
more, but his sudden illness and departure prevented his carrying it out. He 
was "highly cultivated"; "accomplished and eloquent"; "ever ready to take 

' Potter's Sketch. 

^ Baxley's lecture. " The chairs in which the professors recently labored 
are now occupied by strangers, having in vain been offered to almost every 
prominent medical man in Baltimore and to many in other places " (Circular 
of Regents' Faculty, 1837). 


the lead in anything useful and scientific "; "the gifted son of Pennsylvania " 
(see notice by Dr. Thomas H. Buckler, Maryland Medical and Surgical Journal, 
October, 1839). Ellis Hughes was from Annapolis. He held the Demon- 
stratorship for a brief period, being then succeeded by Dr. E. J. Chaisty. 

During the following winter the Regents' Faculty presented a 
memorial to the Legislature praying for the repeal of the act of 1825, 
and to this the Trustees offered a counter-memorial, in which, whilst 
acknowledging the failure of thejir session, they declared that " the 
character and talents of their Faculty were such that the University 
by another season would fully resume its former standing." ' At the 
end of this session commencements were held and sixteen students 
received diplomas, ten of whom belonged to the Regents' school.^ 

Early in July, 1838, Professor Smith resigned his chair and 
accepted the chair of Practice in Transylvania University, at Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky.' Professor Hall was then elected Professor of 
Surgery for the ensuing session, " to give as complete a course as his 
attention to the department of Obstetrics, etc., would allow, by 
lecturing every day, and on certain days twice." Dr. William N. 
Baker was elected Professor of Anatomy and Physiology.* 

During the session of 1838-39 twenty-four students attended the 
Regents' Faculty, of whom nineteen were from Maryland, and there 
were seven graduates ; the number in the Trustees' school is not 
known.^ The lectures at the Indian Queen were closed somewhat 
prematurely, as the proprietor began to pull down the old building 
over the heads of the class. 

Meanwhile the suit against the Trustees had been tried in the 
County Court and decided in their favor. An appeal was taken, 
and early in 1839 the masterly decision of the three judges of the 

'Minutes of Trustees. "It remains to be seen whether the Trustees can 
bestow upon them " (/. e. their Faculty) "the reputation and public patronage 
for which some of the late incumbents have expended the best part of their 
lives and no small portion of their fortunes " {C/>trM/a;r of Regents' Faculty, 
beginning of session of 1837-38). 

^MS.'list of matriculants. 

'Trouble began in Transylvania University in 1837, from an attempt to 
remove the school from Lexington to Louisville. Professor L. P. Yandell and 
others seceded and successfully established a new school in the latter city. 

* Minutes of Regents' Faculty. 

* Washington College had this session 53 students and 17 graduates {Am. 
Jl. Med. Set.). 


Court of Appeals who heard it ' was delivered by Chief Justice 
Buchanan, The question was as to the constitutionality of the act 
of 1825. The opinion of the judges contained the following decla- 
rations and decision : That the University had none of the charac- 
teristics of a public corporation, which it had been claimed to be. 
It was not created for political purposes and was invested with no 
political power; it was not an instrument of the state, created for its 
own uses; its members were not officers of the state, or subject to 
state control in its management, and none of its property or funds 
belong to the state. The state was not its founder, it was merely 
the creator by virtue of the act of incorporation. In its creation the 
state gave it the capacity to acquire and hold property, and what- 
ever property the corporation has is its own, to be managed and 
disposed of by the Regents for the uses of the Institution in such 
manner as they may judge most promotive of its interests. No 
donations or endowment by the state could make it public, but it 
nowhere appears that any such have been made. The interest- 
bearing loan of 1821 can scarcely be called an endowment; it is 
rather a loan to a private corporation. The authority to raise money 
by lottery certainly was not ; it was a mere privilege costing the 
state nothing. But if it were a public corporation its debts were the 
debts of the state, contracted by the state's own officers, which the 
state was bound to discharge instead of lending money for that 
purpose and taking security for the payment of interest on it. The 
corporation is as much private as the individuals were before the act 
of incorporation was passed. The charter of the University is a 
contract between the state and the corporation. The Constitution 
of the United States says no state shall pass any law impairing the 
obligation of contracts. The franchises of the University are vested 
rights and cannot be taken from the Regents by any act of the 
Legislature without the assent of the corporation. The state had 
plighted its faith that the franchises should remain inviolate. If the 
state had the right at will to revoke this grant, it had the same right 
in relation to railroads, canals and other corporations, which would 
not be pretended. The act of 1825 aims to strip the corporation of 

^Judges Buchanan, Stephen and Spencer. The other three composing the 
bench (Archer, Dorsey and Chambers) retired from the case, being debarred 
by the fact that they had been members of the Board of Trustees. The 
Regents were represented by Messrs. Evans, Mayer, Martin and Meredith, the 
Trustees by Messrs. Reverdy Johnson and Nelson (Univ. Records). 


Regfents of all privileges and powers conferred upon it by the act 
of its creation — to destroy the old and create a new corporation in 
its place, giving to the latter all the powers and privileges of the 
former, with others additional and important. It deprives the 
corporation of Regents of the capacity to acquire and hold prop- 
erty ; it even goes so far as to take from them the property they had 
already acquired and give it to others, whom it connects with the 
political power of the state, by making the Governor president and 
authorizing him to fill vacancies.* Not only the Constitution of the 
United States had been violated, but the fundamental principles of 
right and justice. The Legislature has no right, without the assent 
of a corporation, to alter its charter or take from it any of its fran- 
chises or property ; these are private property, regarded as such by 
the law, and are under the safeguard of the same principle that pro- 
tects and preserves the property and rights of individuals. Vested 
corporate and individual rights rest for protection on the same 
principle. The act of 1825 was a judicial act, a sentence that con- 
demned without a hearing. It is necessary to declare judicially a 
forfeiture before the Legislature can act. The franchises can only 
be surrendered by deed to the state. Those of the Professors who 
accepted appointments under the Trustees merely joined another 
corporation, there was no evidence that they offered to resign from 
the corporation of Regents, or of any acceptance of their resigna- 
tions by the said Regents. The acceptance of positions under the 
Trustees did not amount to resignations of those under the Regents, 
and did not dissolve or suspend the latter corporation. Therefore 
the act of 1825, being contrary to the Bill of Rights and to the Con- 
stitutions of the United States and the State of Maryland, was null 
and void.' 

The author has given this lengthy epitome of the Court's decision 
because it settles authoritatively many points with reference to the 
status of the University, and gives a clearer idea than the reader could 
otherwise have of its scope and functions ; and because it is a docu- 
ment that applies not to that one time and occasion only, but will stand 
for all time. Moreover, it determines momentous questions of 
general interest to the public, no less than to those for whom it was 
originally pronounced. 

Immediately after the decision was rendered the Regents met and 
prepared a memorial for presentation to the Legislature, then in 

^Printed opinion of the Court. Pamphlet. 


session. In it they asked the state to direct her agents, the Trustees, 
to surrender their property to them. But the Trustees were still 
unwilling to abandon the fight and determined to resist to the last. 
It seems that they apprehended another " outrage " by the Regents' 
Faculty, for on the 15th of January, 1839, they passed a resolution 
authorizing the employment of" watchmen and other proper guards 
for the protection of the buildings and premises." They also pre- 
sented, on the ist of March, a memorial to the Legislature,^ in which 
they said that, as agents of the state, they held certain " fee-simple 
and leasehold property, viz. the Medical College and its adjacent 
buildings, the Infirmary purchased in 1832 by the Trustees with 
state funds for $12,000,^ together with the lot adjoining thereto,^ 
also purchased with state funds by the Trustees in 1833 for $6000, 
and the Baltimore College surrendered and conveyed to the Trustees 
in 1831, the whole property being valued at $87,916.67 ; as also 
certain personal property derived from the state funds, to the amount 
of $18, 000; excepting therefrom a special bequest of $5000 by Mr. 
Gray to the Trustees for the use of the Infirmary in 1833, and a few 
articles of minor importance. They therefore pray the state, in view 
of the preservation of its rights in its own property, thus acquired 
and held, not by any legislation to surrender up the possession of 
the same, as asked by the Regents, but to leave the rights of others 
thereto to be inquired into by the tribunals." 

The two memorials were referred to a joint committee of the 
two houses, who brought in a lengthy report, reviewing the origin of 
the questions at issue, recognizing fully the " individual merits and 
hazards " of the Professors in founding and maintaining the insti- 
tution, and recommending the passage of a bill restoring the property 
to the Regents in accordance with their just request. This bill was 
accordingly passed.* 

' Minutes of Trustees. 

"^ This was less than the cost, according to a statement of Professor Hall, pre- 
viously referred to. 

3 This was the corner lot, since covered by an extension eastward of the 

* In passing the act of restitution the Legislature required the Regents to 
" certify to the Treasurer of the state that the property and estate of the 
University shall never be disposed of or converted to any other use than that 
of Medical Science or the Arts and Sciences generally, without the consent of 
the General Assembly of Maryland," which, in the event of a violation of this 
obligation, shall have power to "take possession of and control and direct the 

Professor of Diseases of the Eye and E(ir. 


On the ist of April Mr. Solomon Etting, the " Governor " of the 
Infirmary, resigned, and on the 6th of the same month Dr. Ashton 
Alexander, Provost of the Regents, addressed a communication to 
Mr. Nathaniel Williams, transmitting a certified copy of the act of 
the Assembly above referred to, together with a copy of the certifi- 
cate transmitted by the Regents in pursuance of the 5th section of 
the same, and notifying him that the Regents had appointed Charles 
F. Mayer, Esq., A. B. Cleveland, M. D., and R. W. Hall, M. D., a 
committee with authority on their behalf, " to receive all the estate, re^l 
and personal, including all stocks, monies, evidences of debt and 
choses in action, in the hands or under the control of the Trustees, 
and that the said committee would be in attendance at the University, 
April loth, at 10 A. M., to accept the transfer." Mr. Williams 
replied on the 8th that the Regents or a portion of them had taken 
actual possession of the College and Infirmary some days before,' 
and that he had not therefore deemed a formal transfer necessary ; 
that the stocks, money and evidences of debt were in the posses- 
sion of the Treasurer of the Trustees, who was ready to hand over 
the same, " on the suit in chancery of Potter and others against the 
Trustees, and the two suits brought by the Regents against him, all in 
the Baltimore County Court, being entered satisfied or stricken off"; 
that the only chose in action belonging to the Trustees was an unsat- 
isfied judgment in the said court against David Hoffman, Esq., 
which was in charge of William Gwynn, Esq.* 

On the 9th of April the committee met Mr. Joseph B. Williams, 
the Treasurer of the " late " Board of Trustees, and received from 
him the following : 

said property and estate for the purpose of promoting general science." 
There was much debate in the Board of Regents as to compliance with this 
requirement. It was finally decided to issue the certificate, Messrs. Meredith, 
Hoffman and Hall voting in the negative. Another act, passed the same 
session, makes valid all the diplomas granted by the Medical Faculty, from 
1826 to 1839 inclusive. When it was found that the state had no control of 
the University of Maryland there was some suggestion made in the Legisla- 
ture of a'" State University," but it was not carried out. 

•There was some hesitation in taking possession, when Mr. Geo. W. Milten- 
berger and two other students went to the back gate and rapped. The Janitor 
was called out and the party slipped in and locked the door on the inside. 
The Faculty were then notified and came in. The Trustees made no attempt 
to eject them (oral communication from Prof. Miltenberger). 

^Minutes of Trustees. 


" I. A certificate of stock of the State of Maryland, signed by 
George Macubin, Treasurer Western Shore of Maryland, date 8th 
December, 1829, for $5000, bearing interest at 5 p. c, redeemable 
after the 31st of March, 1844, being the proceeds of a bequest of 
$5000, made by George Gray, in favor of the Trustees of the Univer- 
sity of Maryland for the Baltimore Infirmary. 

2. A certificate of stock of the State of Maryland, dated May 
nth, 1837, for $1000, with 5 p. c. interest, redeemable after 1843. 

3. A certificate of the B. & O. R. R. for $6000, July 25th, 1836, 
bearing 6 p. c. interest. 

4. A certificate of the B. & O. R. R. for ^4000, August 4th, 1836, 
bearing 6 p. c. interest. 

5. $1791.49, balance of money remaining in the said Williams' 

These arrangements being consummated, the Faculty had the 
satisfaction of securing possession of the college premises suffi- 
ciently early to hold their commencement in the college building on 
the 1 2th of April, 1839, and there to confer their degree upon the 
seven graduates. The keys of the Academic Department were 
turned over to the Regents early in May. 

Thus ended the reign of the Trustees. They fought hard for 
place and power, and they are not responsible for having been the 
representatives of wrong and injustice. They displayed energy, 
capacity and forbearance that under other circumstances would have 
insured success and honor. They had insurmountable obstacles to 
contend with, and we must judge them impartially and with due 
regard to the difficulties of their position. They had under them a 
hostile Faculty, who took every opportunity to arouse against them 
the prejudices of their classes and of the community. They defended 
themselves with vigor and intelligence. In their memorial to the 
Legislature, dated March 7th, 1837 — objecting to the admission to 
their Board of members of the Faculty — they declared that the insti- 
tution at the time of their advent was in a state of anarchy and the 
charter ignored ; in confirmation of which statements they pointed 
to representations made by members of the Faculty themselves, and 
to the report of the joint committee of the two houses appointed to 
examine into the state of the University. According to this report, 
although $100,000 had been expended, only two of the four facul- 

^ Minutes of Trustees. All attempts to secure from the Trustees a statement 
of accounts were in vain. 


ties — those of law and medicine — had gone into full operation, whilst 
all the funds had been applied by the Faculty of Physic to their own 
benefit, none being appropriated to the other departments; the 
charter was radically defective, and the Regents met irregularly 
and at long intervals, and had neglected to makes rules and regula- 
tions for the discipline of the University as required by the charter. 
They pointed to the advantages of having an independent board to 
manage the affairs of the institu^tion — "a board free from the influ- 
ence of personal interest, and therefore looking to the promotioi? of 
the general good, removed from the operation of prejudice or par- 
tiality by official station, and therefore unbiased in extending justice 
to all those employed in performing the detailed duties necessary to 
the fulfillment of the whole design ; a government which now pre- 
vails and has been found to be productive of the happiest results in 
all the Universities of this country." The then prosperous condition 
of the University, with reference to pecuniary affairs, they said, was 
admitted by the Faculty, who yet intimated that the gradual diminu- 
tion in the classes had been due to their misgovernment. In answer 
to this, they said that the classes during the previous eight years had 
varied but little, and they attributed the loss of patronage previous to 
that time to the resignation of Prof. Pattison, whose personal popu- 
larity had attracted so many, and to the rapid multiplication of 
medical schools. In answer to an objection from the Faculty to 
their requiring all students to take the ticket of the Demonstrator 
once at least before graduation, on the ground that this obtained 
in no other school in the United States, they quoted Prof. Dunglison 
to the effect that most of the schools require one year's attendance 
on the clinics, and some the same on practical anatomy, in addition 
to two courses of the professor of anatomy. In the University of 
Edinburgh, the candidate for the degree of M. D. was required to 
have attended one course of dissections and one of anatomical demon- 
strations, and two of these were required for the degree of surgeon.' 
But as the Demonstrator in the University was also a "lecturer," 
there was no choice in the matter, as the charter prescribed attend- 
ance as a duty. As a matter of simple justice, too, it was demanded, 

' Practical Anatomy was not absolutely imperative at the University of 
Edinburgh until 1833 [Hist. Sketch of Edinburgh Anatoni. School, by John 
Struthers, 1867). It was not until about 1848 that the schools in this country 
began to make it compulsory, the University being either first or second to do 
so. See note further on. 


since the Faculty had required that the Demonstrator should pay 
one-seventh of the current expenses of the school. 

These objections lose much of their weight on close inspection. It 
is true that the Medical Faculty had used the funds for their own 
department, but then they raised these funds — by direct contribution, 
by loan, or by successful management of the lotteries. The other 
faculties had the same opportunity as they, but made no effort. 
Nothing could be expected from the Divinity Faculty, organized as 
it was, and as for the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the Trustees had 
themselves made no great progress in the building up of that. The 
" anarchy " was probably an exaggerated expression ; at any rate it 
did not appear to keep away students, who flocked to the school in 
greater numbers during the period of so-called anarchy than during 
the period of presumably correct government which succeeded 
under the Trustees. The defects of the charter and the neglect of 
the Regents did not warrant the radical measures adopted so incon- 
siderately in 1825. There was no reason to suppose the institution 
would have been in a less prosperous condition in 1837, with refer- 
ence " to pecuniary affairs," if the Faculty had remained in control ; 
on the contrary, had they not been interfered with, it could easily be 
supposed, that with larger classes and a greater income, their finan- 
cial resources would have exceeded those of the Trustees. The 
objection with regard to the Demonstrator seems well taken, but 
even here we must recollect how long ago that was and make some 
allowance for the undeveloped training of those days. With regard 
to the best method of government of the school, it became an 
abstract question by the decision of the court. Granted that the 
mode of government selected was not the best, still success under 
this plan is not impossible, nor is it unknown. There is always a 
conservative element in every faculty which tends to preserve the 
equilibrium between extremes, and public sentiment, if not con- 
sciousness of right, is becoming an ever stronger check upon 
irresponsible boards of medical teachers. 

A few brief additions will complete the history of this period. 
The amount authorized to be raised by the lottery of 1807 was 
$40,000, and by that of 1816 $100,000.' The amount actually real- 

' The first act was passed during the session of 1807 -S ; there were two sup- 
plements to this, one in 1808-9 (merely providing for a change of commis- 
sioners), the other in 1811-12. The $100,000 act was passed Jan. 4th, 1816. 
It required that $50,000 of the amount should be used for chemical and scien- 



ized from these enterprises up to 1830 was $77,000. Adding to this 
the $30,000 loaned by the state and further sums borrowed or 
advanced by the professors, and we have an aggregate of about 
$117,000, which was applied as follows :' 

For lot on which medical buildings stand, with 

enclosure, . 
The said buildings, . 
Chemical apparatus, 
Medical library, 
Anatomical museum, 
Infirmary — building, . . $15,000 00 

furniture, . . 2,500 00 

$15,600 00 

65,000 00 

8,300 00 

2,600 00 " 

8,000 00 

17,500 00 

$117,000 00 

During the session of 1828-9 it was found that these lotteries 
interfered with other revenues of the state from the same source and 
the Legislature became desirous of putting a stop to their further 
operation. Accordingly a conference was held with a committee of 
the Trustees, as the result of which a bill was passed directing the 
State Treasurer to pay over to the Trustees $5000 yearly until the 
balance of the amount previously authorized to be raised was 

Mention has been made of the Gray legacy. This was $5000 
bequeathed to the Infirmary in 1829 by a patient, Mr. George Gray, 
presumably from gratitude for care and attention received during 
his residence in it. This bequest was used by the Medical Faculty 
for the erection of the corner addition to the Infirmary in 1852, 
which was secured by a deed executed to the Board of Regents. 

In December, 1836, a new seal was procured, in accordance with 
a resolution of the Board of Trustees adopted in 1833. It is 
described as " bearing as a device the arms of the State of Maryland 
on a shield, with a shield appended thereto by a chain with the 
words ' University of Maryland, incorporated A. D. 1812.' "^ 

In March, 1837, the University was assessed $63.39 for opening 
Lombard street.^ 

tific apparatus and anatomical preparations, the balance to pay off the debts of 
the institution, to build and to furnish the buildings. See p. 20, note. 

^ Joint memorial of Trustees to Legislature, 1830. 

- Minutes of Trustees. ^Minutes of Trustees. 


An event which was regarded with much interest at the time was 
the opening of the Academic or Literary Department in 1830. The 
Faculty of 1812 had been continued with more or less alterations up 
to 1826, but had never actually discharged the duties of their office. 
On the advent of the Trustees they were removed from office and 
successors appointed. An effort appears to have been made in 
Dec, 1828 to put this department in operation, for, according to 
the Minutes of the Trustees, " an appropriation not exceeding $400 
was made to rent rooms and furnish them in the central part of the 
city to accommodate the Professors of Geology and Mineralogy,' of 
History and of Moral Philosophy and the professors of the other 
departments not connected with the Medical Faculty, and the pro- 
fessors in said departments were required to proceed to the discharge 
of the duties of their professorships.'"^ The results of this essay 
were, however, extremely meagre, and it was not until 1830 that any 
real advance was made. In that year a joint memorial was pre- 
sented to the Legislature by the Trustees of the University of Mary- 
land and the Trustees of the Baltimore College, asking that the two 
might be united, the latter to surrender its charter and turn over its 
property to the Trustees of the University. The college which it 
was thus proposed to absorb originated from Mr. James Priestley's 
Academy on " St. Paul's Lane "; it was chartered in 1803, and was 
organized in 1804 by Bishop Carroll and others with the aid (of 
course) of a lottery. In 1811 it was moved to new quarters on Mul- 
berry street, where it had a brief career. In 1821 it was reopened, 
but again languished.^ In compliance with the joint memorial the 
Legislature passed a bill turning over the property and franchises of 
the college, conditional upon the payment of a debt of $7000 which 
rested upon it. This condition was complied with by the Trustees, 
and due preparations having been made, the department of Arts 
and Sciences was opened with a faculty of eleven professors in the 
fall of the same year, by a public address delivered by Mr. John P. 
Kennedy, Professor of History. In the course of this address Mr. 
Kennedy made an admission which foreshadowed the failure of the 
effort. He said " there is no hope of an adequate reward " (for the 
professors) ; " the Faculty do not expect that."" Now, teachers 

'J. T. Ducatel was professor of mineralogy and geology. 

'^ Minutes of Trustees. 

^ Joint Memorial, 1830. 

*Mr. Kennedy's printed address. 


cannot work without pay, and generally need it pressingly on 
account of their poverty. Their enthusiasm may cause them to per- 
severe for a time, but some compensation is necessary to secure per- 
manent effort. So the venture had a brief career,' and in 1851 it 
was again " reorganized," to pass through another short phase of its 
existence. In 1854, at the solicitation of the Faculty and in order 
to advance the college to the " highest grade," the Regents per- 
mitted a mortgage of $5000 to be placed on the property. This 
amount was accordingly raised and used to erect a third story ajad 
otherwise improve the building. In 1876 a committee reports that 
all teaching has been suspended and the building is partly unoccu- 
pied. In 1878 an act was procured by the Legislature authorizing 
the sale of the property and the application of the proceeds to the 
general uses of the University. In 1883, on the opening of Cathe- 
dral street, it became necessary to remove the building, which had 
long ceased to be used for purposes of instruction except the law lec- 
tures. The net amount received by the Regents from damages and 
from the sale of side lots, after paying off the mortgage of $5000, was 
$21,000. Of this amount the Medical Faculty received $13,200, to be 
used in " paying off mortgage and other outstanding debts," and the 
remainder went to the Faculty of Law. It is not likely that there will 
ever be another attempt to revive this department. 

Roger Brooke Taney, jurist, son of a planter, was born in Calvert Co., 
Md., March 17th, 1777. He graduated at Dickinson College in 1795, read law 
in Annapolis, and was admitted to the bar in 1799. Was elected to the House 
of Delegates from his native county in the same year, being the youngest 
member of that body. Moved to Frederick city in 1801 ; in 1806 married a 
sister of Francis Scott Key. Was a member of the State Senate in 1816. 
Removed to Baltimore in 1823 and became the head of the bar of that city. 
From 1826 to 1839 was Provost of the University of Maryland. In 1827 was 
appointed Attorney-General of the state and in 1831 Attorney-General of the 
United States (under Andrew Jackson). Became Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of the United States, March isth, 1836, succeeding John Marshall. 
Received LL. D. from St. John's College, Annapolis, in 1859. Died in 
Washington, October 12, 1864 (see Appletoii's Cyclopadia of American Biog- 

1 We read of it in 1836-7, Mr. John Prentiss being the Principal (Minutes of 
Trustees), and in Dec. 1840 the Dean (Rev. John G. Morris) reports about 
fifty students in the collegiate department and the number gradually increasing 
(Minutes of Regents). In 1S52 it had thirty-six scholars and two active pro- 
fessors {Id.). It seems to have had its greatest success just after the late war, 




THE Faculty being once more in possession of their property and 
rights, set to work with energy to repair the shattered fortunes 
of the institution. They found it in a very different condition from 
that in which it was when taken possession of by the officers of the 
state. One of their first acts was to issue a circular announcing their 
restoration and urging the friends and alumni of the school to unite 
with them to help build it up again. A marked and immediate 
improvement in the size of the classes attests the success of their 
efforts. The following figures represent the numbers in attendance 
and the graduates from 1838 to 1841: 1838-39 (Regents' class), 24 
students, 7 graduates; 1839-40, 60 students, 14 graduates; 1840-41, 
91 students, 30 graduates.' 

At the time of the restoration the Faculty were in arrears to Dr. 
McDowell for two installments of his annuity, viz. for 1837 and 1838, 
and he waS pressing them for payment, having obtained judgment 
on their bond in the Baltimore County Court in Sept. 1838. 
The Faculty induced the Regents to pay this indebtedness out of 
the funds of the University, on the ground that two of those who 
had signed the bond (Messrs. Potter and Hall) had claims against 
the institution greater than their share of the bond. At the same 
time the Regents paid the counsel fees incurred in the recent suit 
and appropriated $2140 for needed repairs on the College and 
Infirmary buildings. In order to meet these expenses certain of the 
stocks which had been received from the Trustees were disposed of. 
The increasing receipts of the medical department soon came to the 
aid of the Regents, but the condition of the Infirmary continued for 
several years a source of much anxiety. In April, 1840, the Board 
of Regents were forced to adopt the temporary expedient of issuing 
certificates of indebtedness to their creditors, " as no funds were 
available and they were unwilling to mortgage or sell the property 

•Matriculation List, MS. Records of University. 





Professor of Physiology and Clinical 

Professor of Diseases of tlte Nervous System. 


of the University." The janitor was notified to cease acting as there 
were no means of paying his salary. On motion of Professor Aikin 
a committee was appointed to solicit aid from the citizens for the 
University." At a meeting held by the Regents, Nov. 4th, 1842, 
there was some talk of mortgaging the property of the University 
in order to pay the increasing debt of the Infirmary, which amounted 
at this time to $3340, with but $448 in the hospital treasury. This 
debt had accumulated within two years, for there was none at the 
restoration, and yet it represented' only "ordinary " expenses. The 
board passed a vote of censure upon the managers for this evidence 
of gross mismanagement, and authorized a ground rent to be created 
for the purpose of meeting these new obligations. The embarrass- 
ment was further increased by the failure of the state to pay any 
interest on its stock this year (1842).'^ But, on the other hand, the 
Faculty were much cheered up by the passage of a resolution by the 
Legislature, the following winter, releasing them from further pay- 
ments of interest upon the $30,000 loan made by the state in 1821 ; 
they record their appreciation of this "generous act " in the cata- 
logues of this period. By this time, however, they had repaid nearly 
the entire amount of the loan in interest, which amounted to $1500 

During the session of 1839-40 the duties of the chair of Surgery 
were discharged jointly by Professors Hall and William N. Baker. 

On the 27th of March, 1840, " ordinances " were adopted by the 
Board of Regents for the government of the University. Previous 
to that the proceedings of the board, strange as it may seem, appear 
to have been carried on without any other rules than those which 
the judgment of its members at the time imposed. Frequent 
attempts were made to secure action on this important matter, and it 
is curious to note in the minutes of the board the evident indisposi- 
tion to deal with it. The first committee on a code of laws, of which 
mention is made in the Regents' minutes, was appointed May 29th, 
1815. March i8i8, this committee having failed to report, a new 
committee was appointed. Again, in March 1821, it was found 
necessary to appoint athird committee, which finally, on October 29th, 
182 1, presented a report, but no action was taken upon it. During the 
government of the Trustees affairs were conducted in a more orderly 
manner. One of the first acts of the Regents, on the restitution in 1839, 

^Regents' Minute Book. ^Regents' Minute Book. 


was the appointment of a committee to prepare ordinances. On the 
3d of January, 1840, their report was presented and "discussed" 
and a substitute was offered ; both report and substitute were 
"laid on the table." They were taken up March 12th of the same 
year and referred to another committee. After being discussed 
March 20th and 27th, the amended rules were at last adopted on the 
latter date with but one dissenting vote. After all this " to do" over 
them they seem to have been almost a dead letter and the meetings 
of the board were held very irregularly, sometimes after intervals of 
several years. 

Early in the fall of 1840, before his departure for the West, Pro- 
lessor Smith delivered a course of lectures on surgery.' Before the 
close of the following session he resigned his chair in Transylvania 
University and was then re-elected to the full professorship of Sur- 
gery here. 

The year 1841 was notable for the death of the two Professors 
Baker. Their places were supplied by Professor Samuel Chew, in 
the chair of Materia Medica, and Dr. Alexander C. Robinson as 
Lecturer on Anatomy. 

William Nelson Baker, the oldest son of Prof. Samuel Baker, was born 
in Baltimore, January 17th, 181 1, He graduated in the Academic Department 
of Yale College in 1830. He attended lectures in the University of Maryland 
during the two following years, obtaining his degree in 1832. He evinced 
great aptitude for anatomy, the study of which he prosecuted with Dr. Turn- 
bull. On graduating he became associated in practice with his father. When 
Dr. A. L. Warner was called to a professorship in the University of Virginia 
in 1834 he took charge of the Anatomical Rooms which had been occupied for 
four years by ihat gentleman, in the rear of the college building, and during 
the two succeeding years, if not longer, lectured to a large class. In 1838 he 
became Professor of Anatomy in the Regents' Faculty. He also shared with 
Prof. Hall in the duties of the Surgical Department. He died February i6th, 
1841, having just attained the age of 30. He is represented as having been a 
man of great personal beauty and attractiveness, talented, and with every 
promise of the most brilliant future as a lecturer, anatomist and surgeon. 

Samuel G. Baker, a younger son of Prof. Samuel Baker, was born in 
Baltimore, Oct. 2d, 1814. He took his literary degree at Yale College, 1832, 
and his medical degree at the University of Maryland, 1835. In 1837 he suc- 
ceeded to his father's old chair in the University. He was the youngest 
professor the University has ever had, being at the time of his election but 

1 Prof. Wm. N. Baker also delivered a course on the same subject later in 
this session. 


22. He delivered the introductory the following November. His death 
occurred Aug. ist, 1841. Like his brother he was handsome, talented and 
popular, and these qualities made both much sought after in social circles. 
Habits of dissipation were thus contracted which early cut short their prom- 
ising careers. The fatal example of the elder failed to prove a warning to the 
younger and but a few months intervened between their untimely deaths. 

In 1842 it became necessary to fill the chair of Anatomy. Pro- 
fessor Smith urged the candidacy of Dr. Robinson, whilst others 
thought he lacked the necessary experience for the important posi- 
tion.' In this dilemma the name of Dr. Joseph Roby, of Boston*^ 
who already held professorial honors in New England, was pre- 
sented with very high recommendations. The Demonstrator of 
Anatomy, Dr. Miltenberger, was commissioned to proceed to the 
North to hear Dr. Roby lecture, who on his return presented so 
favorable a report that Dr. R. was duly elected and installed in the 
chair. He more than sustained the high reputation which his pre- 
decessors had conferred upon it and proved a most popular and 
successful lecturer. 

The year 1843 will be ever memorable for the death of the vener- 
able Professor Potter, which occurred on the 2d of January, in his 
73*^ (?) year- He continued in the discharge of his professorial 
duties up to the period of his brief illness, literally a relic of the past, 
for he had long survived the stage of intellectual acquisitiveness and 
aspiration and had no sympathy with the revolution in diagnosis and 
pathology that had been steadily progressing for a score of years. 

Nathaniel Potter, the son of Dr. Zabdiel Potter, was born at Easton, 
Talbot Co., (Eastern Shore of) Md., in 1770. His ancestors were from Rhode 
Island. He was the intimate friend and for several years the favorite pupil 
of the great Rush. He was educated at a college in New Jersey. He obtained 
his medical degree at the University of Pennsylvania in 1796 and began prac- 
tice in Baltimore the next year. From 1807 to 1843 he was Professor of 
Theory and Practice of Medicine in the University of Maryland. Although 
subject to gouty attacks, his death was sudden, occurring during a fit of 
coughing, January 2d, 1843.^ Dr. Potter was in many respects a remarkable 
man, and. it is a strange freak of fortune that no memoir of him has ever 
appeared. Even the exact date of his birth has passed into oblivion. When 
we recall his learning, his courage, his skill, his eminent reputation as a teacher, 

^ MS. Records of University. 

^ It is said that he died with words of prayer on his lips {^Patriot, Jan. 11, 
1843). The burial permit states that he died from "strangulation." Miss 
Potter says that he had been subject to the gout. 


and his steadfastness in adversity, we can give him no secondary place in the 
history of the medical profession of Baltimore and in the annals of this insti- 
tution. His fame was at least national and his opinions were everywhere 
received with deference. His s.tudents looked upon him as an infallible 
authority. The late Dr. John R. Ward told the writer that the man who could 
secure and publish those sere and faded lectures, which he continued to deliver 
with commentaries until death stopped him, would make a fortune. Beliefs 
with him were rules of faith. He acted upon his convictions without wavering 
or misgiving. His earnestness was vital, his faith in the resources of medicine 
was implicit. Is it any wonder that such a man, in the days when the natural 
history of disease was not thought of, leaned upon his lancet and calomel as 
the staff of professional life ? Yet there is proof that he taught that small 
doses of calomel were better than large ones.' He shared in that wonderful 
skill in diagnosis which, without other aid than eye and touch, enabled our 
forefathers to reach almost unerring conclusions, and which fill us even now 
with astonishment. His prognoses are still spoken of by the older citizens as 
prophetic. He displayed his courage by making himself the subject of experi- 
ments with the secretions from yellow fever patients, ^ thus establishing the 
non-contagious character of that disease, and later by his firmness in dealing 
with the Trustees. His steadfastness was shown by his unwavering attach- 
ment to the University throughout his long connection with it. He loved it 
with the most passionate devotion. Threats, ridicule, indifference, adversity, 
poverty — nothing — could shake his allegiance. He was the pillar that, Atlas-like, 
bore it safely along amidst the perils that threatened every moment to engulf 
it in ruins. He gave his best energies, his means and his choicest years to its 
service. When thwarted in his plans the "Father" of the University wavered 
for a while in his attachment, but Potter's affection was always true as the 
needle to the pole. When oppression became unbearable and the dark days 
of the suit came and all despaired, he was determined and hopeful. Who 
does not rejoice that he was permitted to live to see the fruition of his hopes 
and efforts? and who does not sympathise with him when, old and poor and 
friendless, he still lingered on the stage of life, like some massive but inert 
ruin? His latter days were clouded by adverse pecuniary circumstances which 
embittered his existence. He became irritable and peevish and disposed to 
brood over his unrequited labors. He felt keenly the decline of his fortunes 
and readily took offense at any allusion to the subject. When at last the 
thread of life was cut in twain, the charity of his friends had to be invoked to 
secure for him a final resting place in Greenmount Cemetery, where, unmarked 
by-any stone or device, his remains still lie. In person Dr. Potter was of 

' Thesis of M. Rowan, of Va., on " Hepatitis," Baltimore, 1815. 

'He tied a piece of muslin dipped in perspiration of a patient dying with 
yellow fever around his head (1797) and kept it on all night, breathing the 
fetid odor. He inoculated himself (179S) with the perspiration of a yellow 
fever patient in the last stages of that disease. He also inoculated himself 
with pus from such patients. (Potter's Memoir on Contagion.') 


medium height, of full figure and ruddy complexion. He was fond of cards 
and given to swearing. He varied the tedium of his lectures by anecdotes 
which often brought down the house. Some of these taxed even the credulity 
of the students, who would express their skepticism by ahems, ohos, by whist- 
ling and in other ways. To these he would reply by saying, " I'm d — d, gentle- 
men, if it ain't so." In his last years he was compelled to give up his house 
on Lexington street and take a smaller one on St. Paul street, and when he 
died he left his family in very straitened circumstances. He was twice 
married. One daughter still survives him, a very old lady, happily well pro- 
vided for by some friend who left her a bequest at her death. Ur. Potter was 
a liberal contributor to medical literature. Besides his thesis on Arsenic' 
1796 and 1805, he edited a quarterly journal, 181 1, wrote a work on Contagion, 
1818, and on the Locnsta Septentrionalis, 1839, edited Armstrong on Fevers, 
1821, and Gregory'' s Practice, two editions, 1826 and 1829, published a sketch 
of the University, 1838 (often referred to in this work), was a coeditor of the 
Md. Med. and Sicrg. Journal, 1839-43, and contributed many articles to the 
periodicals, 1802-1843.' 

Prof. Roby was called upon to finish the course on Practice, which 
he did with great credit to himself and satisfaction to his colleagues 
and pupils. The following spring the chair was filled by the elec- 
tion of Dr. Richard S. Steuart. 

The impeachment of Prof. Hall took place this year (1843). For 
several years past there had been complaints on the part of the 
students of the inadequacy of his lectures. His pecuniary embar- 
rassments were also said to be very great, and so distracting as to 
prevent that attention to his professorial duties which their satis- 
factory discharge required. In May the members of the Faculty '^ 
addressed a letter to him requesting his resignation and assigning 
as the ground for the request their loss of confidence in him. They 
also took away from him the department of hygiene, to which, as 
was alleged, he had devoted undue attention during the course, to 
the neglect of the more important departments of his chair.' 

Hall protested against the latter indignity, claiming that it was a 
violation of the charter. In reply to the letter he returned a spirited 
answer. He upbraided his colleagues with ingratitude, told them 
that he held such letters in contempt and had refused himself on 
previous occasions to sign them, and that such a precedent could 

^The sources from which this notice is drawn are too numerous to quote. 
They are partly from Miss Mary A. Potter. 
^ Aikin, Smith, Chew, Roby and Steuart. 
2 Hall's Impeachment. Pamphlet. 


only become a source of discord and a vehicle of insult and injustice, 
under dictates of personal dislike or for trifling causes. He said that 
he could prove by documents that he had spent more than $28,000 
on the University and he claimed vested rights in it.' 

The charges against him were drawn up by three members of the 
Faculty and presented to the Regents. They were as follows : 

" I. Refusing to comply with the regulations of the Faculty; 

2. Incompetency. 

3. Loss of the confidence and respect of the profession." 

The first charge relates to a regulation of the Faculty requiring 
that all the receipts from students' fees, etc., should be turned over 
to the treasurer, who, after deducting the amount necessary to pay 
the McDowell annuity (now several years in arrears) and meet the 
other expenses of the institution, should turn over the balance 
remaining, if there were any, in due proportion to the several 

The 'Regents returned a reply stating that the charter only pro- 
vides for the vacation of a chair upon a formal impeachment and 
with the assent of three-fourths of the whole number of Regents. 
That the grounds of impeachment, which were not stated in the 
charter, must be determined by the Board. The charges were 
referred by the Board to a committee of three of their members, 
Messrs. J. H. B. Latrobe, chairman, George W. Dobbin and Charles 
F. Mayer, with instructions to examine witnesses, take their sworn 
testimony, and present the same to the Board without comment. 

The trial excited great interest in the profession of Baltimore. 
Professor Hall courted it. A large number of physicians, 43 accord- 
ing to Hall,^ testified before the committee, and their evidence shows 
that much personal feeling was aroused. Dr. John Buckler and 
others of his former students gave the accused credit for " original 
views " on puerperal fever, eclampsia, placenta praevia and non- 
support of the perinseum, which were subsequently the current and 
accepted views of the profession on those subjects, but were then at 
variance with the opinions of the day.^ 

The testimony was taken and returned to the Board, whereupon 
the vote of those: present being taken resulted in 14 to 2 in favor of 
the first and second charges and 13 to 3 in favor of the third charge. 

1 Prof. Hall's letter, MS. Records of Univ. ^ His letter, MS. Records. 

^Hall's Impeachment. Pamphlet. 


This not being the requisite three-fourths of the entire Board 
required by the charter, the result was favorable to the defendant.' 
Prof. Hall looked upon Prof. Smith as the chief instigator of his 
impeachment and his feelings were so wrought up that a personal 
encounter resulted. This occurred at the Infirmary, where the two 
happened to meet. Prof. Hall drew a cane and leveled a blow at 
his adversary, who, seizing the handle, drew out the sword which it 
contained. The latter then had his assailent at his mercy, but mag- 
nanimously refrained from making- use of his advantage. During 
the session of 1845 and 1846 Dr. Wm. H. Stokes, who had just 
returned from abroad, was engaged by the Faculty to deliver the 
lectures on Prof Hall's branches, so that two courses were going on 
that session at the same time. Prof. Hall's death in 1847 put an 
end to these dissensions and gave the Faculty an opportunity to 
select a more congenial colleague in Professor Richard H. Thomas.^ 

William H. Stokes was born in Havre-de-Grace, Maryland, 1812, took 
A. B. at Yale 1831, and M. D. at the University 1834. Resident Physician 
Maryland Hospital for Insane 1834-35, surgeon U. S. A. 1S37-40. After a 
visit to Europe was made Lecturer on Obstetrics in the University 1843-44, 
Professor in Washington University 1846-50. Visiting Physician to Mt. Hope 
Retreat since 1842, but retired from active duty since 1887. 

Richard Wilmo t Hall was a son of Dr. Jacob Hall, who served as surgeon 
in the Revolution and died in Harford Co., Md., in 1812. He was born in the 
same county in 1785, obtained his medical degree at the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1S06, settled in Baltimore in 1811, during the war of 18x2 was 
surgeon in the militia, rendered important service during the political riots in 
Baltimore in that year,^ was appointed Adjunct Professor of Obstetrics in the 
University of Maryland in 1812, and was full professor of the same branch 
from 1813 to 1847. He delivered the annual oration before the Medical and 

1 The Regents' Minutes, after announcing the result of the vote, are singularly 
silent regarding this impeachment. Judge Dobbin, to whom I wrote, is unable 
to supply any information. Prof. Aikin told the writer that the defendant was 
cleared by one vote, his brother's, who was a member of the Board. There 
were some twenty-odd members in the Board belonging to the several faculties. 
Prof. A. seemed to have changed his mind regarding the case, for although his 
name was attached to the charges, he told the writer that the trial ought never to 
have taken place and he thought Prof. H. had been treated with great injustice. 

'Among others who were candidates for the position were Drs. C. C. Cox, 
of Easton, Md., and G. C. M. Roberts, of Baltimore. The title of the chair was 
Midwifery and Diseases of Women and Children. 

'According to Scharf's Chronicles, 1874, he rescued from death a number of 
citizens whose lives were at the mercy of the infuriated mob. 


Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland in 1815. He died September 14, 1847, after 
a protracted illness. Few men have been better known in the profession in 
Baltimore than Professor Hall. In the affairs of the University, during his 
long connection with it, his activity was incessant. He was Secretary of the 
Board of Regents ; twice he held the office of Dean ; he was usually selected 
to go to Annapolis to look after the interests of the University in the Legis- 
lature, and he represented the Faculty in their pecuniary transactions with the 
Trustees. In figure he was stout and tall ; he had a florid complexion and 
was very handsome. He had very courteous and attractive manners. Either 
from bad management or extravagance, or both, he was almost always embar- 
rassed in his pecuniary affairs, and it is said that he had been known to visit 
his patients with a constable seated in his carriage beside him. An anecdote 
illustrating at once his charming manners, the pressure to which he was sub- 
jected and the coolness with which he accepted the situation, is related and is 
worth preserving. The writer has received it through several sources and 
there is no doubt as to its authenticity. A gentleman who had loaned him a 
considerable sum of money went to his house one evening with the declared 
purpose of not leaving it until he had received payment of the amount due 
him. He was received with the utmost affability by his fascinating host, who 
knew the object of his visit. He was feasted and entertained and so com- 
pletely charmed that he not only did not insist upon the liquidation of the 
debt, but actually loaned his host an additional sum equal to the amount 
already due him. Professor Hall made a number of contributions to medical 
literature (see Quinan's Anitals for a list), including a translation from the 
French (1S14) of Baron Larrey's Memoirs of Military Surgery. He displayed 
ability as a surgeon and performed some difficult and unusual operations. 
Toward the close of his life he largely lost the respect and confidence of his 
colleagues and of the profession, and was impeached by the former in 1843 ^'^'^ 
neglect of his professorial duties and incompetence. He defended himself 
with vigor, and notwithstanding repeated attempts to dislodge him retained 
his chair up to the time of his death in 1847.1 

Dr. Richard S. Steuart never lectured. He tendered his resigna- 
tion October 30th, in consequence of a difference of opinion regard- 
ing the case of Prof. Hall.^ It was accepted, and Prof. Roby delivered 
the lectures upon Principles and Practice of Medicine again the 
following session. 

^Among the manuscript records of the University there is a bill and receipt 
for lodging, etc., of Prof. H. while on a visit to the Legislature, at Annapolis, 
December 14, 1812, It is made out in £, s. and d. It was one of the vouchers 
of items of expense handed in to the Committee of Finance of the University, 
October 8, 1840. Another bill, dated at Annapolis, January, 1814, includes 
" barber and toddy." 

"^ His letter of resignation, MS. Records of University. 

Professor of Operative Surgery. 


Richard Sprigg Steuart was of Scotch descent and both his father and 
grandfather were physicians. He was born in Baltimore in 1797, was educated 
at St. Mary's College, served as aide-de-camp in the battle of North Point, 
1814, commenced the study of medicine with Dr. William Donaldson, and 
graduated at the University in 1822 ; was Professor of Practice in the same 
1S43, President of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland 184S-51, 
Vice-President of American Medical Association 1849, Superintendent of 
Maryland Hospital for the Insane 1828-42 and 1869-76, and founder of Spring 
Grove Asylum. Died 1876, aged 78. He was an enlightened physician, a 
public-spirited citizen and a courteous gentleman. He early adopted advanced • 
views in regard to the insane, to whose relief he devoted his life and means. 
(See Quinan's Medical Annals, and Baltimore, Fast and Present, 1871.) 

Early in 1844 Professor Elisha Bartlett, of Massachusetts, was 
elected to the chair of Practice and accepted. He had held chairs in 
several of the leading schools of the United States and had just 
resigned a position in Transylvania University, where he succeeded 
Professor Smith, to accept the appointment in Baltimore. He was a 
writer and lecturer of most distinguished ability, and his early loss 
by the University would have been very deeply felt had it not been 
that his mantle fell on such an able successor. 

A notable event of this year was the institution at the University of 
a course of lectures on Pharmacy under the auspices of the Maryland 
College of Pharmacy. On the 20th of April a communication was 
received from a committee of the College,^ proposing to deliver a 
course of at least sixteen lectures in one of the lecture-rooms of the 
University, provided permission were given the College to occupy a 
small room for their meetings and for the arrangement of their 
cabinet of specimens. The fee for the course was to be five dollars. 
On the 24th the Faculty were notified by their Dean that the 
arrangement had been consummated and that the College had insti- 
tuted a chair of Practical Pharmacy.^ The lectures of this course 
were delivered by Dr. David Stewart, an eminent pharmaceutist of 
Baltimore. Twenty lectures were given, two each week. At first 
they were held at night, then in the afternoon. The results were 
not encouraging, and at the close of the second session Prof. Stewart 
thought of resigning. No tickets had been purchased by the medical 
students, and only some twenty to thirty by druggists, of whom the 
maximum attendance was twelve to fifteen.^ These lectures con- 

' Messrs. Reese, Grahamme and Stewart. 

^MS. Records of University. 

^ Prof. Stewart's communication and MS. Records of University. 


tinued to be advertised in the annual catalogues of the University 
until 1847 ; they then appear to have been discontinued.' 

During the winter of 1845 and 1846 Professor Bartlett remained 
in Europe and Dr. William Power was appointed to deliver the 
lectures in his place. This he did with such satisfaction that, on the 
resignation of Professor Bartlett the following spring, he received the 
full professorship. 

Elisha Bartlett was born in Rhode Island in 1804. He received his 
degree in medicine from Brown University, R. I., and subsequently held pro- 
fessorships in various branches in a number of schools in the North and West 
and frequently visited Europe. He was Professor of Theory and Practice of 
Medicine in this University from 1S44 to 1846. He died in Rhode Island in 
1855. He was the author of numerous works and articles upon medical sub- 
jects, but his best known productions are his treatises on Fevers (1842-1846, 
4 editions), Philosophy of Medical Science (1844), and Inquiry i7ito the Degree 
of Certainty in Medicine {\%^?>). He was an able writer and teacher and his 
works are regarded as among the best productions of the American profession. 
Professor Power said of his Philosophy of Medical Science, that it was the most 
remarkable original work that had emanated from the medical press of America. 
Professor L. P. Yandell said, that for grace of manner and philosophical 
breadth of view the three works above mentioned would not suffer by com- 
parison with any medical works in our language. Dr. O. W. Holmes says the 
treatise on Medical Philosophy is as remarkable for elegance of style as for 
liberal and genial spirit and philosophic breadth of view ; and of the treatise 
on Fevers he says, that it is invaluable to the American student and practitioner. 
(See memoir in Anier. Medical Biography written by Prof. S. H, Uickson.) 

The other changes occurring from this time to the period of the 
Civil War are as follows : Prof Power was compelled by ill health to 
resign in 1852. He was succeeded by Prof Samuel Chew, and Dr. 

^ The Maryland College of Pharmacy was incorporated Jan. 27th, 1841. 
(The Philadelphia College was established 1821, the New York College 1829. 
Wormley.) Prof. Wm. Fisher had formed a plan for one in the spring of 1839, 
when he was stricken down with hemiplegia {Md. Med. and Surg. Jotirtt., Oct. 
1S39). Dr. Thomas Buckler in the same year urged the importance of its 
establishment (Ibid.). At the annual convention of the Med. and Chir. 
Faculty, held June ist-3d, 1840, a committee was appointed to plan conjointly 
with a number of pharmacists an organization and report at the next meeting 
(Ibid. Oct. 1840). After 1847 we hear nothing more of the lectures until 1857, 
when they were revived and have been given without further break up to the 
present time. From 1858 to 1861 the College occupied the hall of the Medical 
and Chirurgical Faculty, No. 47 N. Calvert street, and during this period issued 
a quarterly Journal and Transactions. The College now has a fine building 
on Aisquith street and a flourishing school. 


George W. Miltenberger was promoted from the Demonstratorship 
to the chair of Materia Medica. Prof. Thomas resigned in 1858 and 
Prof. Miltenberger was transferred to the chair of Obstetrics, the chair 
of Materia Medica being filled by the election of Dr. Charles Frick. In 
1859 Prof. Roby's failing health prevented him from lecturing and 
Prof Smith assumed the duties of the anatomical department during 
the succeeding session. In i860 Prof Roby resigned and was made 
emeritus professor, and Dr. Wm. ^. Hammond, of the U. S. A., was 
elected to the chair of Anatomy and Physiology. In this appoint- 
ment "the Faculty felt assured" that the new incumbent "would 
fully sustain the previous reputation of the school. Dr. Hammond 
is well known as a contributor to various medical journals and has 
acquired a high position, both in this country and in Europe, by his 
anatomical and physiological investigations."^ 

In the same year and after only a brief interval occurred the death 
of two of the members of the Faculty. These were Prof. Frick and 
Dr. Berwick B. Smith, Demonstrator of Anatomy. Prof. Frick's 
death was due to diphtheria contracted from a patient upon whom he 
had performed tracheotomy. Dr. Smith was a son of Prof. Smith 
and was a rising surgeon. The loss of these talented young men 
was deeply felt, and their merits and ability were fully accorded at a 
crowded meeting of the profession held March 29th, i860. Prof. 
Frick had won his position by his merit alone ; he was an indefati- 
gable student, and not a student of books only. His chemical analyses 
and his original work in urinary pathology are a monument to his 
industry and his genius. He bid fair to attain an international 

The vacancy in the chair of Materia Medica was filled by the 
appointment of Dr. Edward Warren, of North Carolina. 

AsHTON Alexander, physician, was born about 1772, near Arlington, Alex- 
andria County, Virginia. His father commanded a company of cavalry at the 
beginning of the Revolutionary War. The town of Alexandria was named 
after his ancestors, who owned large tracts of land in its vicinity. He studied 
medicine under Ur. Philip Thomas, of Fredericktown, Md., and graduated 
(M. D.) at the University of Pennsylvania in 1795, the subject of his thesis 
being "The Influence of one Disease on the Cure of Another." While in 
Philadelphia he was an inmate of the family of Dr. Rush. He first settled in 
North Carolina, but in 1796 moved to Baltimore. He was one of the charter 

'Catalogue of i860. The subsequent brilliant career of Prof. H. has fully 
justified this high opinion of the Faculty. 


members of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland and its first 
secretary. He was twice married, first in 1799 to a daughter of his preceptor, 
Dr, Thomas, and again in 1S55 to Miss Merryman (his first wife having died). 
He was Provost of the University of Maryland from 1837 to 1850. He died 
in Baltimore, February 1855, of pneumonia, in his 83d year. Dr. Alexander 
was a man of fine presence and of dignified and courtly manners. He was a 
successful and popular physician and prospered financially. (See memoir by 
Dr. Monmonier, Trans, of Med. and Chir. Fac. of Aid., 1856.) 

William Power was born in Baltimore in 1813. Took his A. B. degree at 
Yale in 1832. Commenced the study of medicine under Dr. John Buckler, of 
Baltimore, in 1833 and matriculated at the University the same year. In 1834 
was a student at the Almshouse. Took M. D. 1835. He then went to Paris, 
where he studied under Louis, Chomel, Andral, Rostan, Grisolle, Barth and 
Ricord. On his return (1840) he became Resident Physician at the Almshouse 
and after nine months Visiting Physician. In 1841-2 he delivered two courses 
of lectures at the Baltimore Infirmary under the auspices of the Faculty, on 
Physical Exploration of the Chest, which were well attended. His health now 
gave way, and in 1843 ^^ abandoned teaching and lecturing and went to Cuba. 
In 1844, his health being improved, he resumed teaching and in 1845 ^^ was 
appointed lecturer upon the Theory and Practice of Medicine in the Univer- 
sity, and in 1846, on the resignation of Prof. Bartlett, he succeeded to the full 
professorship of the chair. He married in 1847. During the winter of 1851-2 
he was unable to perform his professorial duties. In Jan. 1852 he reluctantly 
resigned his chair, and on the 15th of August following he died, in Baltimore, 
from the disease with which he had so long been suffering — consumption — in 
his 39th year. Prof. Power's life was one of earnest study and noble ambition — a 
blessing to those who partook of his gifts or dwelt within his shadow. He had 
unbounded influence over his students and communicated to them his own 
enthusiasm. Whereas, before his appointment, it was difficult to secure resi- 
dent students at the Infirmary, after his coming a year in advance was needed 
to obtain a position there. In his teaching he did not aim at originality but 
truth. He was quick to confess error. He was an industrious student, a faith- 
ful, thorough and earnest teacher, clear, copious and convincing. Although 
subject to haemoptysis and habitual dyspnoea, he yet met all the requirements 
of a useful life. He was the first to teach, in this his native city, clearly 
and impressively the glorious discoveries of Lasnnec, and to imbue the students 
of that day, now the most eminent physicians of Baltimore, with his own 
enthusiastic love of modern science. The University has never lost the effect 
of his thorough and systematic teaching, his example of earnest study, his 
noble enthusiasm. His strength was in his teaching, and especially his 
clinical teaching. He was not a large contributor to medical literature. A 
list of his writings is given in Quinan's Annals. (The above is taken mainly 
from an Obituary Notice, Atn. Jour. Med. Scieiices, April 1853, signed A. S. 
(Alfred Stille ?) ; and from an Ititroductory Lecturehy Prof. Wm. T. Howard, 
1867.) The following letter was addressed by Prof. Power to the Faculty upon 


the occasion of his resignation in 1852, and its sentiments are so pure, lofty 
and disinterested, that I am glad to be able to enrich the pages of this work 
with it : 

"Baltimore, y^w. 5th, 1852. 
Gentlemen : 

The continued impairment of my health and strength makes it doubtful 
whether even next winter I shall be able to fulfill the duties of my chair. I 
therefore hereby tender you my resignation of the professorship of Theory and 
Practice of Medicine in the University of Maryland. This step, after due 
deliberation, is taken through a sense of duty to you and to the interests of the 
school, but I confess with some natural sorrow and reluctance on my own part. 
My connection with the University formed the realization of professional hopes 
and plans long cherished. To feel secured in a position where I could pursue 
the profession as an ennobling science, not as a necessary trade, where there 
was a constant stimulus given to self-culture and improvement, to constant 
fresh study and daily progress in the search after truth, to be entrusted with 
the responsible and noble mission of interpreting and disseminating this truth ; 
finally, to have the conviction from the friendly and cheering intercourse of 
colleagues and the respectful demeanour of the class that I had the approba- 
tion and confidence of both, and that my efforts to be useful and give satisfac- 
tion were not in vain, all this made my situation dear to me. My chair was the 
ruling interest of my professional life, that in which all my pleasures, hopes 
and ambition centered, and the determination to resign it involves the virtual 
and formal adieu to all lingering hope of future usefulness. My whole con- 
nection with the school has been to me of the most agreeable character. 
Nothing has ever occurred to mar for a moment the good understanding between 
myself and my present colleagues. We have laboured pleasantly and amicably 
together. We have had the satisfaction of seeing the school, year by year, 
increasing in prosperity, her embarrassed finances improved and now placed in 
the best condition. We have witnessed her facilities for teaching much in- 
creased, by the enlargement of the Infirmary and large purchases of materials 
for demonstrative instruction, the classes steadily growing in numbers, better 
taught, pleased and satisfied with the opportunities they enjoyed and the 
tuition they received, and leaving us to give a good report of their alma mater. 
The whole course of the University has been upward and onward, and with 
continued harmony and activity on the part of the Faculty there is every reason 
to anticipate a still more brilliant future. I do most sincerely trust that in 
appointing my successor your choice may fall upon one who, with more 
acquirement and talent to fit him for the place, may at least possess equal zeal 
and devotion to the progress and interests of the school. Though no longer 
directly connected with it, still so long as life continues I cannot but feel the 
deepest interest in its policy and progress. In conclusion, allow me to tender 
to each of you my thanks for many acts of friendship and courtesy during our 
past intercourse, and to assure you of my sincere wishes and earnest prayers 
for your individual success, happiness and usefulness. 

Wm. Power, 

57 St. Paul street. 
2\' the Faculty of Physic of the University of Maryland.'''' 


Richard Henry Thomas was a native of Anne Arundel County, Md., and 
was born June 20th, 1805. He was the son of John Chew and Mary Snowden 
Thomas. His father served for several years in both houses of Congress. 
He received both his academic and medical education at the University of 
Pennsylvania, graduating in medicine in 182S. He then settled in Baltimore, 
where he subsequently acquired a large practice. In 1S31 he was associated 
with others in the Baltimore Medical Institute, in which he delivered 
lectures and held examinations on obstetrics. Upon the death of Professor 
Hall in 1847 he was elected to the chair of Obstetrics and Medical Jurispru- 
dence in this University and held it until his resignation in 1858. He died 
January 15th, 1S60. Professor Thomas was an eminent minister of the Society 
of Friends, and in that capacity traveled extensively in Europe and America. 
He lectured without notes. He was of a spare figure and had a clerical air. He 
was thrice married, and two of his sons have succeeded him in the medical 
profession. A list of the articles which he wrote is contained in Quinan's 
Annals. " As an accoucheur he was always prompt, full of resources and of 
great dexterity as a manipulator His goodness of heart was shown in his 
devotion to the poor and his cordial co-operation in all benevolent enterprises. 
Few men in any calling have been more, respected for sound attainments or 
more beloved for gentleness of manner and integrity of life " (Dr. C. C. Cox, 
Transactions of American Medical Association). 

Joseph Roby was born in Wiscasset, Maine, in 1807. He graduated at 
Brown University in 1828 and was an A. M. of the same institution. Obtained 
M. D. at Harvard Medical College in 1831 and then settled in Boston. From 
1837 to 1843 he held the chair of Anatomy and Surgery at Bowdoin College, 
Brunswick, Maine, and from 1840 to 1849 the chair of Theory and Practice of 
Medicine and Materia Medica or Pathological Anatomy at Dartmouth College. 
In April, 1842, he was called to the chair of Anatomy (which included Physi- 
ology) in the University of Maryland, and continued in it until his resignation 
on account of bad health in March, i860. He married in 1842. On the death 
of Professor Potter early in January, 1843, ^^ finished the course on Practice 
of Medicine, and he also lectured upon the same branch during the session of 
1843-4, there being a vacancy in this chair through the resignation of Dr. 
Richard S. Steuart. There was much enthusiasm over these lectures and also 
over his introductories, which were exceedingly popular and always attended by 
crowds of citizens. He also lectured upon non-medical subjects. For several 
years after coming to Baltimore he returned North early every spring in order 
to lecture there. During the last two years of his life he was unable to lec- 
ture, and Professor Smith performed the duties of his chair for him, turning 
over to him, however, the entire proceeds accruing to it. Finding that he was 
incapacitated for further work he resigned his chair early in i860 and was 
made Emeritus Professor. He died in Baltimore, June 3, i860, of pulmonary 
consumption, aged 53. According to his often-expressed wish his body 
was taken to Boston, and in the presence of a very few friends and connec- 
tions committed to the spot he had selected at Mt. Auburn, Prof. Roby was 


small and sparely built. He wore glasses and had a thin and weak voice. 
His face has been compared by Prof. Bartholow to that of Voltaire. He was 
very skeptical of drugs and was not adapted for the role of a practicing 
physician, a fact which he himself early recognized. He was at the University 
attending to the duties of his chair from 9 to 3 o'clock daily. He was 
exceedingly particular about his dissections, insisting that the linen should 
be perfectly clean and white ; he noticed the least nick — you could conceal 
nothing from his sharp eye.' He eschewed technical terms and taught with 
singular clearness. He had remarkable aptitude for discovering the salient 
points of his subject. He had no intimate friend in Baltimore ; he was a man 
of few friendships. ^ 

From one who was a fellow-student and colleague, an intimate friend and 
for over twenty years a constant correspondent — Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes — 
we obtain some further particulars about him in the following extracts : " He 
was born with a delicate, nervous and melancholy temperament, which betrayed 
itself in his slight spare figure, his grave cast of features and his shadowy 
complexion, to which a striking effect was added by exquisitely arched, 
sharply pencilled eyebrows such as it would be hard to match on any living 
face among us. He was shy by nature ; he was solitary by habit. He talked 
too plainly from his convictions to be always harmless. He saw too keenly 
into the minds and hearts of others to be always as charitable as those whose 
good nature is in proportion to the defect of their vision. He was a man dan- 
gerous to any persons of false pretensions who came in his way, making no 
claims for himself which could be disputed, and not very tolerant of such in 
others. His great excellence as a lecturer was immediately recognized. In 
the department which he taught in the University of Maryland he was 
acknowledged to rank among the first in the country. His character is most 
truly revealed in his copious letters. If his correspondence could be published, 
full as it is of personal revelations and confidences not adapted for the gen- 
eral eye, it would be enough to give him literary reputation. As it is, he has 
lived without seeking fame and died without leaving any public permanent 
record of himself. He was not only a man of superior intellect, but a fast and 
faithful friend, always ready with counsel and aid, not afraid to speak the 
truth, one who could be an intimate, yet with a tact and delicacy which pre- 
vented his intimacy from becoming oppressive ; a rare nature, in a word, 
which a delicate organization unfitted in a measure for the complete and 
cheerful exercise of all its varied powers, but which leaves a precious memory 
in a few loving hearts." (Extracts from obituary notice in Boston Daily 
Advertiser, June 7th, i860, and from letter to author.) 

Charles Frick was born in Baltimore in 1823. He was a nephew of Dr. 
George Frick, the oculist. At the age of 16, after a course at college, he 
obtained a position as assistant civil engineer on the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road. Some years were spent in this employment. He then entered, as a 
student of medicine, the office of Dr. John Buckler. He matriculated at the 
University of Maryland in 1843 and obtained his degree in medicine there- 

' Dr. Alan P. Smith, his prosector. 


from in 1845. From 1844 to 1846 he was a student at the Almshouse. In 1S47 
he joined with Drs. Theobald, Johnston and Stewart in founding the Mary- 
land Medical Institute, a preparatory school for medical students. In 1849 he 
was appointed physician to the Maryland Penitentiary, and in 1855 to the 
Union Protestant Infirmary. He married, in 1854, a daughter of Rev. Dr. Sar- 
gent, a well-known Methodist divine. On the reorganization of the Maryland 
College of Pharmacy in 1856, he was made Professor of Materia Medica. In 
the spring of 1S57 he took a short trip to Europe, visiting the hospitals of 
Paris and London. In 1858 a vacancy occurred in the Faculty of the Univer- 
sity by the resignation of Professor Thomas, and at once " all eyes were turned 
towards Dr. Frick as the man above all others in the medical profession in 
Baltimore whose entire fitness for the chair was pre-eminent and undeniable." 
The appointment was conferred upon him and he opened the ensuing session 
"with a discourse of great elegance. He stamped a powerful and individual 
impress upon the course which followed and conducted his clinical teaching 
in so strikingly original and instructive a manner as to fill his friends with 
pride and admiration." ' He completed his second course of lectures and 
began his attendance upon the Infirmary. He now had under his charge a 
case of diphtheria upon whom it became necessary for him to perform 
tracheotomy. He contracted the disease and after a brief illness of only five 
days succumbed to it, at noon, March 25th, i860, a martyr to his profession. 
" He died as he had lived, all patience, all courage, all endurance."' 

Prof. Frick had few equals as a lecturer. He had a wonderful command of 
plain Saxon English, and his lectures were marked by originality, suggestive- 
ness and practical utility. Not only students, but many physicians of the city 
attended them. He was an industrious student, a laborious investigator. In 
disposition he was cheerful, genial, frank, straightforward, modest and un- 
assuming. His funeral drew out the whole profession of the city, every 
medical student and a large number of his patients, to join in the procession 
to the grave. His contributions were published chiefly in the Americatt Journal 
of the Medical Sciences, and they were numerous and of the highest merit. He 
always refused compensation for his articles. He also published in 1850 a 
Manual on the Diagnosis and Pathology of Renal Diseases. His productions 
were principally upon affections of the kidneys and urine and remittent fever. 
He made exhaustive analyses of the blood and urine. "Prof. Frick was one 
of the first in this country to investigate the chemical changes produced in the 
blood by disease" (O. W. Holmes, Trans. Am. Med. Assoc. 1848). "Im- 
portant contributions relating to the differential characters of remittent fever 
and its clinical history were made by him in 1846 ; our present knowledge of 
this disease rests mainly on the facts contained in these contributions and 
those of Stewardson, Swett, Anderson, Stille, and Boiling " (Flint, Inter- 
7tational Congress, 1876). Prof. L. P. Yandell mentions Frick's work on Renal 
Diseases as among the ablest of the contributions made to our literature by 
the American profession [Proceedings of same). (See addresses at memorial 
meeting, March 29th, i860, by Drs. Johnston, Donaldson, Steiner and Cox.) 

' Prof. C. Johnston, Proceedings of Meeting, i860. 

Professor of Surgery. 


William Alexander Hammond, the son of Dr. J. W. Hammond and his 
wife Sarah (Pinckney), was born at Annapolis, August 28th, 1828. He obtained 
his medical degree at the University of New York, 1848. In 1849 ^^ ^^^ 
appointed Assistant Surgeon U. S. A. In i860 he succeeded Prof. Roby in 
the chair of Anatomy and Physiology in the University of Maryland, and 
lectured upon these branches during the session of 1860-61. He introduced 
into the curriculum here the study of histology. Through his efforts several 
microscopes were placed in the museum, and in connection therewith one of 
the largest microscopical collections in the country was always at the com- 
mand of the students. In this innovation — the teaching of minute anatomy — 
it is believed that the University of Maryland can claim priority amoi>g 
American schools (Catalogue <7/"i86i). He delivered the valedictory address 
at the Commencement, March 2d, 1861. He resigned from the University 
shortly after and re-entered the army. In 1862 he was appointed Surgeon- 
General. He now reorganized the hospital system of the army upon an 
effective basis, and to him is due the honor of originating the Army Medical 
Museum and Medical Library at Washington, Dismissed from the service in 
1864, he settled in New York, where he held the chair of Diseases of the Mind 
and Nervous System in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Bellevue 
Hospital Medical College, and the University of New York, successively. He 
also lectured in the Summer School of the University of Vermont. In 1879 
he was restored to the army with the rank of Surgeon-General (Retired List). 
In 1881 he withdrew from the University of New York and joined with a 
number of eminent teachers in that city in founding the Post-Graduate Medical 
School. Finally he abandoned teaching in 1888, by resigning from this also. 
He has recently erected a Sanitarium for the treatment of patients affected 
with nervous diseases and victims of the opium and chloral habits, in Wash- 
ington City, where he will henceforth reside. Dr. Hammond is a member of 
a number of American and foreign societies, an ex-President of the American 
Neurological Association, and has been a prolific writer. His best known and 
most elaborate work is "A Treatise on Diseases of the Nervous System," 
first issued in 1871, which went through seven editions in ten years and has 
been republished in several foreign languages. He has also been successful 
in the field of fiction. 

Edward Warren, the son of Dr. William C. Warren, was born in Tyrrell 
Co., N. C, in 1828. He received his literary education at the University of 
Virginia and obtained the degree of M. D. at the same institution in 1850, and 
a year later also at Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia. He then began 
practice a,t Edenton, in his native state. He spent the year 1854-5 in Paris, 
attending the hospitals there. He returned to Edenton in the latter year and 
resumed practice as the partner of his father. In 1856 he gained the Fisk 
Fund Prize, of the Rhode Island Medical Society, for an essay on " The 
Influence of Pregnancy on the Development of Tubercular Phthisis." About 
this time he edited the JMedical Jouriial of North Carolina. In i860, a vacancy 
having occurred in the Faculty of the University of Maryland through the 
death of Professor Charles Frick, he applied for and obtained the chair of 


Materia Medica and Therapeutics. In January, 1861, he founded a medical 
journal in Baltimore, called the Baltimore Journal of Medicine. This was a 
bi-monthly and three numbers of it appeared. By that time the war had begun, 
and Dr. Warren went South.' Between 1861 and 1865 he held medical offices 
under the State of North Carolina and the Confederate States, viz. Surgeon- 
General of the former and Medical Inspector of the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia in the latter. In 1863 he published at Richmond a i2mo entitled 
" Epitome of Practical Surgery for Field and Hospital." After the close of 
the war he returned to Baltimore and demanded the restoration of his chair at 
the University. This was refused on the grounds that he had voluntarily 
abandoned it and though repeatedly notified to return he had declined to do 
so, and that his continued absence and the interests of the school had rendered 
it necessary to fill so important a chair, to which, though the circumstances 
had warranted earlier action, the Faculty had yet postponed making a per- 
manent appointment until the session of 1863-4.* Although Dr. Warren 
indulged in some threats he did not put them into execution, but vented his 
spleen by founding a rival college. In furtherance of his design he had the 
address to obtain liberal aid from the city and state, and large classes were at 
once secured by a beneficiary system admitting disabled soldiers from the 
South at merely nominal rates. By these means he reorganized the Washington 
University, a former rival of this University, but suspended since 1851. This 
institution was for some time now popularly known as " Warren's School." From 
1868 to 1870 he edited a semi-monthly medical journal calledthe Medical Bulletin. 
In 1871, owing to differences of opinion as to the management of the affairs of 
his college, Dr. Warren withdrew from it and joined with Drs. Byrd, Opie and 
others in founding another school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, in 
which, as in the former, he held the chair of Surgery. In 1873 he sought and 
obtained an appointment in the Egyptian service and set out for Cairo. He 
remained in that country until 1875, holding the rank of Surgeon-in-Chief of 
the War Department. In that year he suffered so much from ophthalmia that 
he was compelled to seek a furlough. He did not return to Egypt, but settled 
in Paris, where he still resides and practices as a " licentiate of the University 
of P'rance." Dr. Warren has received the degree of LL. D. from the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina ; he is also a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor and has 
other orders. He claims the honor of having recommended and used morphia 
hypodermatically in the winter of 1850-51, several years prior to its use by any 
one else. In 1872 he invented a splint for fracture of the clavicle. In 1885 he 
published, under the form of a series of letters to Dr. John Morris, of Balti- 
more, an interesting autobiography, entitled "A Doctor's Experiences in Three 
Continents." Dr. Warren is a fluent speaker and graceful writer. His readi- 
ness at repartee was illustrated forcibly in the famous Wharton trial, 1S71-2. 

' *' I left Baltimore occupying a conspicuous position, in the possession of 
independent means, the idol of an enthusiastic class, the pet of an admiring 
community and with everything in life wearing the freshness and glamour of a 
May morning " (A Doctor'' s Experiences iii Three Contitients). 

^ Prof. McSherry was only Lecturer on Materia Medica prior to this period. 


On his cross-examination by the Attorney-General of Maryland a spicy con- 
versation took place between the two, when the former lost his temper and 
said, " You doctors have the advantage of us lawyers. You bury your mis- 
takes six feet under the earth." " Yes," quietly replied the doctor, " and you 
lawyers hang your mistakes in the air." 

An enumeration of the changes in the faculties, however, is not a 
history of the University any more than a list of kings is a history 
of a country. It is necessary, therefore, to retrace our steps and 
enter more minutely into the events of this period. 

The University has a connection with the founding of the Balti- 
more College of Dental Surgery' of which few are now aware. This 
institution was chartered in 1839, and the founders first made appli- 
cation to the authorities of the University for admission as a separate 
department thereof This being refused, they established an inde- 
pendent dental school, the first, it is claimed, in the world. It cannot 
but be regretted that their offer was not accepted, as with the facilities 
at hand a dental department could have been readily engrafted upon 
the medical and a higher standard of requirements enforced. Den- 
tistry should be regarded as merely a specialty of medicine, standing 
upon the same footing as ophthalmology, dermatology neurology, 
etc. As practiced hitherto, it has amounted to little more than a 
mechanical trade. At the tiine referred to, however, it must be 
remembered that the University was in an unsettled condition or 
else just emerging from it. The almost phenomenal success of the 
recently established dental department shows what might have been 
done in this direction." 

In 1840, in order "to increase the opportunities of the students 
in acquiring a knowledge of their profession," the term of lectures 
was increased to six months, although only the last four were 
" obligatory." According to the catalogue of the following year 

^ As indeed it has with many important personages and events in Maryland 
since the beginning of the century. 

-The writer is unable to give his authority for the above statement, not 
having m^de a note of it or else having lost the reference, but his impressions 
are very strong that it occurs in some of the writings of Dr. Chapin A. Harris. 
The first Faculty of the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery were : Horace 
H. Hayden, M, D., Prof. Dental Physiology and Pathology; H. Willis Baxley, 
M. D., Prof. Anatomy and Physiology; Thomas E. Bond, Jr., M. D., Prof. 
Special Pathology and Therapeutics. Dr. Chapin A. Harris was very shortly 
after added to these. According to Professor Gorgas, Dr. Hayden delivered 
dental lectures in the University in 1837 and these were the first in America. 


this advance " met with universal approbation," and the Faculty 
hoped to make it permanent. But as the other schools did not 
adopt it, they were compelled, in 1844, to return to the four months 
term. Still, realizing the inadequacy of this period to meet the 
demand for increased medical instruction and anxious to make the 
curriculum as complete as possible, they again lengthened the course 
in 1848 to four and a half months, at which it continued until again 
lengthened some years later. 

The University seemed to be in advance of other schools at this 
time also in the teaching of hygiene and medical jurisprudence. 
The subject of hygiene first appears as an established part of the 
course upon the election of Prof Dunglison in May, 1833, the title 
of whose chair then was "Materia Medica, Therapeutics, Hygiene 
and Medical Jurisprudence.'" He was the author of a standard 
work upon this subject written during his stay here. In July, 1837, 
by resolution of the Faculty it was added to the chair of Obstetrics 
(Prof Hall), and it will be remembered that the Faculty took it from 
Prof Hall, against his protest, in 1843, on the ground that he gave 
it undue prominence in his course, to the neglect of more important 
subjects. It was next attached to the chair of Materia Medica, 
and the course which Prof Chew gave on it seems to have been 
quite a thorough one, to judge by the synopsis in the catalogues.'' 
In 1863 we find particular attention given to the subject of Military 
Hygiene by the Professor of Institutes. Later still Prof Donaldson 
had charge of this important but usually neglected branch, and at 
present it is an appendage of the chair of Practice (Prof S. C. Chew). 
Medical Jurisprudence was taught by Prof Dunglison, and later by 
Prof Hall, whose synopsis in the catalogues of 1844-46 is quite as 
full as that of hygiene. It does not seem to have had as much atten- 
tion, however, as the latter branch, and is not alluded to even in the 
last catalogue. 

In 1844, " at the suggestion of H. Colburn, M. D.," a reading room 
was opened at the University, which was supplied with the principal 
American and English periodicals. The terms were $2 for the 
session. As might have been foreseen the students had quite as 
much as they could do, in the short space of time of their attendance, 

'Notice in Baltimore American. 

2 " The lectures on h3'giene embrace the mode of action of physical agents 
on the body in health and disease, the prevention of their ill-effects, the effects 
of trades and occupations- on health, of climate, the influence of sex, age, etc." 


to hear the lectures and become familiar with their text-books, and 
the enterprise did not long survive.' 

The first mention of instruction being given in Diseases of Chil- 
di^en is in the catalogue of 1S45, in which they are said to have been 
" treated and explained " by Prof. Hall.^ 

The first instruction in auscultation and percussion, so far as we 
know, was given in 1841 by Professor Power (see his Biographical 
Sketch) ; but although sanctioned by the Faculty, the catalogues of 
that period make no allusion to iJ. Introduced by Laennec in 1819, 
the new doctrine seems to have made slow progress in Ameri(5a. 
The first formal course of lectures delivered in this country was 
probably that of Prof Jackson, of the University of Pennsylvania, in 
1829. Prof. Wm. Donaldson, of Baltimore, who died in 1835, is 
said to have possessed great skill in physical diagnosis.' Prof. Potter 
never took any fancy to it, never practiced and consequently never 
taught it. The first official notice of its introduction into the curricu- 
lum at the University is in 1845. The following is Professor Bart- 
lett's announcement in the catalogue of that year : " In order to 
facilitate the acquisition of the practical knowledge of the physical 
signs of disease — so essential to accurate and positive diagnosis — he 
will meet the members of his class in small clubs near the commence- 
ment of the term, and in this way endeavor to give to each of them 
individually such demonstrative instruction as may be necessary in 
order to enable them subsequently to prepare themselves for the 
profitable use of auscultation and percussion." The subject was 
taught even more thoroughly by his successor and is still eluci- 
dated by diagnosticians of the highest skill. 

The first mention of operative surgery as a branch apart from 
general surgery is made in 1845, " a full and complete series of 
lectures " being given by Dr. Miltenberger." 

It appears always (until quite recently) to have been the rule at 
the University that a successful candidate for graduation shall have 
received simply a majority of the votes of the Faculty. According to 
the regulations announced at this time a failure to do even this did not 

' Catalogues. 

2 But Prof. Hall's title in the Regents' Minute Book in 1813, and again in 
a published announcement in 1820, is "Professor of Midwifery, Diseases of 
Women and Children." 

3 Biography in Aid. Med, and Stirgl. Journal, 1840, Vol. I. 
■»Cat. of 1845. 


necessarily take away all hope. If the Faculty were equally divided 
the candidate was entitled to a fresh examination, or if he preferred 
he might withdraw his thesis and not be considered as rejected. 
Should the Faculty again be equally divided on the second exami- 
nation, he could claim the same privileges.' 

Previous to 1845 the fees had been $20 for each ticket or $120 for 
the full course. In that year they were reduced to $15 and $90 
respectively. The matriculation and graduation fees continued, 
however, as before, at $5 and $20. There was also a fee of $5 for 
clinical instruction, and another of $10 for practical anatomy (which 
was not yet obligatory). These rates prevailed until 1866, when 
upon the institution of an independent chair of Physiology they 
were raised to $105. In 1867, on the founding of a chair of Dis- 
eases of Women and Children, there was another rise to $120, which 
figure still prevails. 

The degree of Bachelor of Medicine was conferred for the last 
time, in 1848, on Rev. Wm. O, Lumsden, of Maryland,^ who the next 
year received the degree of Doctor. 

About this period there was much discussion as to the necessity of 
reform in medical teaching. The establishment of a National 
Association gave it a fresh impulse and great pressure was brought 
to bear on the schools, which, however, produced but little fruit. The 
Faculty made the effort to lengthen the sessions to six months, as 
stated above, and declared that the University had always been 
the advocate of improvement and advancement. " Believing that 
thorough professional training should be extended over a somewhat 
protracted period," they were " prepared to meet most cordially the 
recommendations of the National Medical Association upon this 
point. They therefore advise their pupils to devote at least three 
years to preparatory study and to attend three courses of lectures." 
They also gave very hearty encouragement to the two preparatory 
medical schools which were then in operation in Baltimore.' 

The Faculty must surely have felt some pangs of conscience when 

' Catalogue. 

^ This degree has rarely been conferred in this country, probably because of 
the ease with which the higher degree was obtained. At the University of 
Pennsylvania it was given last in 1791 (N. S. Davis, Trans. Int. Med. Congress, 
1876). See p. 48. 

^ These w^re the Md. Med. Institute, under Dr. J. R. W. Dunbar, and the 
Balto. Med. Institute, under Drs. Frick, Theobald, Johnston and Stewart. 


they opposed the regulation adopted by the Trustees in 1833 making 
dissection compulsory. Nevertheless, this indispensable step was 
not taken by them, after their restoration to power, until 1848, and 
then not without " much reflection," such was the slow development 
of improvement in medical education which characterized the period 
prior to the war of 1861.' At the same time (1848) gas was intro- 
duced into the dissecting rooms," which enabled the students to 
spend their evenings there without being compelled, as before, to 
lose a certain number of lectures. 'The facilities for dissection at the 
University at this period appear to have been unsurpassed. The 
indulgent sentiment of the community with regard to it is repeatedly 
referred to and was in striking contrast to that of 1789 and 1807. 
Baltimore is spoken of as " the Paris of America," " the surplus even 
supplying other cities."' All along through the catalogues, from 
1840 to the present time, the great abundance of dissecting material 
is constantly claimed among the advantages offered by this city. It 
is asserted that no Northern city has such a supply, though " pos- 
sibly one or two at the extreme South." The source of this supply 
has been the Potter's Field, although at times it is to be feared the 
private burial grounds have not been respected, and a late sad 
instance of burking (i886j, for which the principal culprit paid the 
penalty of his life on the gallows, reminds us of the possibility of the 
practfcal study of anatomy being an incitement to the commission of 
the most shocking crimes. The authorities of the University have 
recognized this fact and have made repeated efforts to secure the 
passage of an anatomy law by the Legislature, but so far without 
success, and it is still a reproach to Maryland that the study of so 
necessary a branch of science, and one so conducive to the health 
and life of mankind, has to be pursued under methods that, whilst 
tolerated by public sentiment, are violations of the law, liable to 
severe punishment if discovered. 

Simultaneously with the requirement as to dissection was inaugu- 
rated another movement nearly allied to it in character. This was 

'The University of Maryland was the first or second to make dissection 
compulsory. Prior to 1849 only one other school, the Medical Department of 
Pennsylvania College, enforced it, and in 1850 only three of the sixteen 
schools from Maine to Maryland made it imperative {Catalogue of 1850). See 
p. 99. 

^This was done at very great expense, expense which had deterred the Fac- 
ulty from doing it earlier. 

^ Catalogues. 


the establishment of a course of lectures and demonstrations in 
" Pathological Anatomy " under Dr. Miltenberger. The subject had 
received a great impulse about that time, which was heightened by 
the appearance of Sir James Paget's great work. In referring to 
this course, which was obligatory, the Faculty say : " In the present 
condition of medical science something more is required of the edu- 
cated physician than a vague impression that ' pain, heat, redness 
and swelling' constitute inflammation; that tubercle is a 'round' 
and cancer a ' hard ' mass : he must know how to distinguish by 
their special characteristics the great elementary forms of disease." 
Those who listened to Dr. Miltenberger's lectures at that time declare 
them to have been a revelation in a department hitherto almost 
unknown in Baltimore, so fully, intelligently and eloquently did he 
handle the subject.' 

In the same year a rule requiring students to attend two sessions 
of clinical instruction was adopted. 

Some idea is given us as to the teaching at this time in the two 
principal chairs. Practice and Surgery. The chief of the former 
department (Power), besides giving daily didactic lectures, attended 
the Infirmary daily and dwelt largely upon physical diagnosis, par- 
ticularly in diseases of the chest. Among other advantages which 
the institution afforded was " the opportunity to compare the phe- 
nomena of typhoid and typhus fever and to test their resemblances 
and differences."^ The following language appears about this time 
and shows an immense revolution since the death of Professor 
Potter : " Modern medicine differs from that which has preceded it 
mainly in this, that while it esteems at their full value the powers 
of art, it also regards and wisely regards the powers of nature, 
teaching the true wisdom of watching patiently, observing carefully, 
acting cautiously, so that the operations of nature being clearly 
understood, the ministrations of art may be judiciously, efficiently 
and beneficially applied."^ 

Prof. Smith also lectured and attended the Infirmary daily. His 

^ Histology became "rampant" after 1S51 (Flint, Trans. Int. Med. Congress, 

- It was about this time, or a little later, that Sir William Jenner, in London, 
placed the distinct nature of these diseases on an enduring basis. 

^ Catalogue, 1849. " A favorite expression of Prof. Potter to his class was : 
If nature should come in at the door she must be thrown out of the window" 
{Prof. F. Do7ia!dson). 


Professor- of Materia Medica ami Therapeutics 
Clinical Medicine and Der>iiatology. 


visits were paid at an early hour in the morning and those students 
who wished to follow him were compelled to be early risers. Those 
who had the good fortune to attend his lectures will realize the per- 
fect truth of the following description :' " Surgery is taught as a 
reality, not as an abstraction. Having been engaged actively in the 
practice of surgery for nearly thirty years, the Professor has had 
large experience in the treatment of surgical diseases and has had 
occasion to perform repeatedly all the important operations. His 
instruction is therefore of necessity in great degree personal — the 
result of what he has seen and done and not merely of what he has 
read — a statement of facts and not merely of opinions. Having 
accumulated a large collection of preparations, casts, drawings, sur- 
gical instruments and apparatus, he is prepared to illustrate his 
course in the fullest manner and to exhibit to his class the applica- 
tion of all modern improvements in the surgical art." 

About this time occurs the first intimation of the actual delivery 
of lectures on the Diseases of Women, by Professor Thomas.^ This 
branch, which has since been the field of so many triumphs of Amer- 
ican surgeons, was then in its infancy and received but little atten- 
tion, and that only as a subordinate part of the obstetrical course. 

In 185 1 Mr. Campbell Morfit made an offer to establish at his own 
expense, in connection with the Medical Department of the Uni- 
versity, a "School of Applied Chemistry." The plan of the pro- 
posed building accompanied the offer and indicates great liberality 
and public spirit on the part of the proposer. It was to be built on the 
college grounds and v.'as to cost about $10,000. The Faculty appre- 
ciated the offer but felt compelled to decline it, on the ground that 
the character of the teaching did not come properly within the scope 
of a medical college. As an evidence of their appreciation they 
conferred upon Mr. Morfit the honorary degree of M. D.^ 

In 1852 the custom of devoting the first week of the session to 
introductory lectures, which had been in vogue from the earliest 
period of the University, was abandoned.* 

1 Catalogue, 1849. 

^ But, as already stated. Prof. Hall's title in 1813 and 1820 was "Professor 
of Midwifery, Diseases of Women and Children." 

3 Professor Morfit has since become a renowned chemist and is the author of 
several standard works. For many years he has resided in London, being 
engaged in chemical analysis, especially in connection with foods. 

■*At present and for some years past there has been no formal opening of the 
course, an unwise custom, in the author's opinion. 


The following occurs in a report on the condition of the various 
departments of the University, made to the Regents, April 5th, 1852, 
by a committee of which Mr. George W. Dobbin (the chairman of 
the present Board of Trustees of the Johns Hopkins University) was 
the chairman : "At no previous period in its history has the medical 
department presented better founded claims to patronage than at 
present, and in point of scientific attainments, talents and faithfulness 
in the discharge of its functions, and extensive and well-arranged 
means of illustration, it is not inferior to any college in the country." 
The College and Infirmary building were reported in good repair.' 

About this time an important addition was made to the Infirmary, 
by which private rooms were provided to meet an urgent need, and 
the clinical amphitheatre on the corner of Greene and Lombard 
streets was erected. The institution now had a capacity of 150 beds 
and was the largest hospital in the city. There were eight resident 
students and also a resident physician.'* 

In 1854 a lectureship on Experimental Physiology and Micro- 
scopy was founded and placed under the charge of Dr. Christopher 
Johnston, " an accomplished physiologist and microscopist, who has 
spent several years abroad, where he enjoyed extraordinary facilities 
for becoming perfectly familiar with the discoveries and doctrines 
of modern physiology; possessing, moreover, a great natural apti- 
tude for the acquirement and communication of knowledge which 
in the present progressive condition of medical science it becomes 
every educated physician to know." ^ These lectures were delivered 
twice a week and after the first course became obligatory. 

' Regents' Minute Book. Such praise from so high and impartial a source 
is much to be prized. 

^ Dr. James Morison, of Mass., was the first resident physician, being ap- 
pointed in 1846. Before that the senior student had charge. An assistant phy- 
sician or " Clinical Reporter " was first appointed in i860. As has been already 
mentioned, the Gray legacy was used in making the improvements above 
referred to. The Regents' Minute Book, April 5th, 1852, contains an interest- 
ing opinion of Mr. J. H. B. Latrobe upon the question of using this legacy for 
this purpose. The lot on the S. W. corner of Greene and Lombard streets 
(78 ft. front, 169 ft. 5 in. deep), adjoining the Infirmary lot, was owned by the 
Regents in fee-simple, having been purchased by the Trustees in 1833. In 
granting the use of the Gray legacy for this purpose the Regents wisely pro- 
vided legal restrictions by which the property cannot be diverted from the 
purposes of the legacy. 

2 Catalogue of 1S55. 


In 1861 this department was under the charge of Prof. Hammond 
and microscopes were provided in the museum, together with "one 
of the largest microscopic collections in the country, containing 
specimens of all the tissues and structures entering into the compo- 
sition of the body," at all times accessible to the students. The 
Faculty prided themselves on being "the first to introduce into the 
country this method of studying histology." 

The period of the war was one' which bore hard upon the Uni- 
versity, because its patronage was so largely from the South, access 
to which was now cut off. The following figures show the size of 
the classes from i860 to 1865: 1860-61, 150 students, 63 graduates; 
1861-2, 114 students, graduates 52; 1862-3, I03 students, 37 gradu- 
ates; 1863-4, 130 students, 56 graduates; 1864-5, 163 students, 58 
graduates. This falling off was not, however, as great as might have 
been expected.' Particular attention was given during these years 
to Military Surgery and Hygiene. 

The following changes took place in the Faculty: In 1862, Prof. 
Warren having gone South, the exigencies of the course required 
that his chair should be filled, which was done by the appointment 
as Lecturer of Dr. Richard McSherry. In 1863, on the death of 
Prof. Chew, Dr. McSherry was elected to the chair of Practice (and 
Hygiene), and Dr. Samuel C. Chew to that of Materia Medica. 
Dr. Christopher Johnston was elected Prof, of Anatomy and Physi- 
ology, which departments Prof. Smith had filled temporarily since the 
withdrawal of Prof. Hammond in 1861. Thus at the close of the 
war all the chairs were again filled.^ 

Samuel CHEWwas born in Calvert County, Maryland, April 29th, 1806. His 
early education was received at Charlotte Hall, St. Mary's County. In 1822 
he entered Princeton College, where in 1825 he received the degree of A. B. 
and in 1828 that of A. M. On leaving Princeton he began the study of medi- 
cine in Baltimore under the direction of Dr. William Donaldson, a cultivated 
gentleman and skillful physician. After attending three courses of lectures in 
the School of Medicine of the University of Maryland he received the degree 
of Doctor of Medicine in that institution in 1829. He then entered upon the 
practice of medicine in his native county, but after five years spent there he 
removed to the more extensive field offered to professional ambition in Balti- 
more, where he established himself in 1834. From about 1835 to 1841 

1 Of the 103 students in attendance in 1862-3, 89 were from Maryland, 4 
from Va., 3 from Penna., 2 each from N. Y. and Delaware, i each from Fla., 
N. C. and La. {Catalogue). 

^ En passant may be mentioned the fact that during this period the cata- 
logues state that physiology was taught by experiment as well as orally. 


he was Librarian of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty. In 1840, in con- 
junction with Dr. Joshua I. Cohen, he established in Baltimore an Eye and Ear 
Institute, in which he had charge of the department relating to the eye. In 
August, 1841, on the death of Professor Samuel G. Baker, he was elected to 
the chair of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the University of Maryland, 
a position which he filled until 1852, when he was transferred to the chair of 
Principles and Practice of Medicine. He continued the incumbent of the 
latter chair until his death in Dec. 1863. Ur. Chew was a man of scholarly 
attainments and classical tastes. His writings show that he was familiar with 
the ancient authors, from whom he frequently quotes. He was dignified and 
reserved in manner, but genial with his friends. His life was upright, his 
sentiments pure and lofty. He was a frequent contributor to periodical medi- 
cal literature and delivered numerous lectures and addresses, all of which were 
published. One of the best known of the latter was an oration delivered 
before the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty in 1858, on the occasion of 
the occupation of the new hall on Calvert street near Saratoga. His latest 
published work, and the most extensive, was a volume of "Lectures on Medi- 
cal Education," intended chiefly for students. This was left unfinished at his 
death but was completed by his son. The last words which he is said to have 
written in it were " Sic itur ad astral 


ON the conclusion of the war numerous and rapid changes occurred. 
As soon as intercourse betwe'en the sections was re-estabhshed 
many physicians flocked to Baltimore, especially from the Sou?h. 
Some of these had been men of eminence in their respective 
localities and they at once took high positions here. Specialties 
at this time first began to attract attention. There were several 
young physicians who had been abroad or had cultivated talents in 
certain directions at home, who began now to be recognized as pos- 
sessing superior qualifications in special departments. These gentle- 
men were invited to take positions as Adjuncts in the Faculty, and 
they also organized a Summer Course of Lectures and a Special 

In 1866 Physiology, Hygiene and General Pathology were united 
in one chair, which was assigned to Professor Frank Donaldson. At 
this time Dr. W. Chew VanBibber delivered the first clinics on 
Diseases of Children, and in connection therewith took the first steps, 
it is believed, in the inauguration of an out-patient department. He 
also held clinics on Venereal Diseases. 

In 1867 Dr. William T. Howard was elected to a new chair of 
Diseases of Women and Children. Professor Howard has stated 
that this was the first distinct recognition of these departments as 
independent branches by any Faculty in this country. 

In 1868-9 the first clinics on Diseases of the Eye were given by 

' Their first course began March 15th, 1866 and lasted until July first. The 
Faculty were: James H. Butler, Operative Surgery; Alan P. Smith, Ortho- 
pedic Surgery, Uislocations and Fractures ; F. E. Chatard, Jr., Diseases of 
Womei} and Children ; W. C. VanBibber, Venereal Diseases; J. H. Straith, 
Surgical Pathology ; M. J. DeRosset, Physiological and Pathological Chem- 
istry ; W. T. Howard, Auscultation and Percussion; E. G. Loring, Ophthal- 
mology ; W. G. Harrison, Normal and Morbid Histology. This was an able 
combination and ought to have added greatly to the strength of the Faculty 
and the resources of the University. The next session S. L. Frank was added 
on Diseases of the Ear. There was a " summer course " in the Infirmary by 
four of the Faculty in i860. 


Dr. Russell Murdoch, and Dr. DeRosset lectured on the " Physiology 
and Pathology of the Kidney and its Secretion," with the exhibi- 
tion of urinary tests and the use of the microscope. 

There were at this time three clinics every week on Surgery, two 
by Professor Smith and one by Professor Johnston. Pathology was 
practically taught in a weekly lecture by Professor Donaldson, who 
exhibited a great number and variety of interesting specimens 
obtained from Bayview and other hospitals. 

The summer course as planned by the Adjunct Faculty did not 
succeed as was hoped and as from the eminence and attainments of 
the gentlemen having charge of it it deserved. It was said that the 
arrangements made by the Faculty of the University were not 
entirely satisfactory to the Adjuncts and that there was not that 
co-operation which might have been expected. At any rate the 
course only lasted one or two summers and then ceased. 

In 1868 a preliminary course of two weeks was instituted, making 
with the regular course a session of five months. 

In 1869 Prof. Smith was transferred to a chair of " Clinical Sur- 
gery and Surgery of the Skeleton," and Prof. Christopher Johnston 
was made Professor of the Principles and Practice of Surgery. Drs. 
J. J. Chisolm and Francis T. Miles, two prominent physicians from 
South Carolina who had recently settled in Baltimore, were now added 
to the Faculty, the former as Professor of Operative Surgery and 
Clinical Professor of Diseases of the Eye and Ear, the latter as Pro- 
fessor of General, Descriptive and Surgical Anatomy and Clinical 
Professor of Diseases of the Nervous System. The following 
announcements were made in the catalogue of this year : " To enable 
the students to reap the fullest advantage from clinical teaching and 
to supply abundant material the Faculty have organized a General 
Dispensary." " Habitual and prolonged absence from lectures will 
always be regarded as an obstacle to obtaining a degree." The fees 
were now increased to $125. 

The same year the School of Law was resuscitated through the 
agency of Messrs. George W. Dobbin and John H. B. Latrobe, the sur- 
viving members of that Faculty, who elected as their colleagues Messrs. 
George William Brown, Bernard Carter, H. Clay Dallam and John 
P. Poe. The first course of lectures was begun February ist, 1870, 
in the Mulberry street building, by Professors Robert N. Martin and 
John A. Inglis. The school continued to be conducted at this place 
until the opening of Cathedral street necessitated different arrange- 


ments. By the sale of the Mulberry street property to the city a 
sufficient sum of money was raised for the erection of a building at 
the southeast corner of the college lot on Lombard street, which was 
formally opened February 28th, 1884. It is a plain but substantial 
brick structure, containing a lecture-room and library. The present 
Law Faculty consists of seven professors and assistant professors, viz : 
Messrs. John P. Poe, Richard M. Venable, Thomas W. Hall, Edgar 
H. Gans and Wm. T. Brantley, and Judges Charles E. Phelps and 
Henry D. Harlan. The course ia designed to extend through three 
years of eight months each, but the present arrangements allow "of 
graduation in a shorter period for those who can pass the examina- 
tions, which are held semi-annually. During the session of 1889-90 
there were 99 students in attendance, of whom 28 received the degree 
of Bachelor of Laws.' The total number of graduates in this depart- 
ment from 1869 to 1890, inclusive, is 448. Two prizes are conferred 
annually of $100 each upon the students attaining the highest grade 
in examinations and submitting the best thesis, respectively. There 
are four general examinations held, and an average of 75 out of a 
possible 100 is required for graduation. 

John Pendleton Kennedy, author, was born in Baltimore, Oct. 25th, 1795. 
Graduated at Baltimore College 1812, fought at Bladensburg and North Point ; 
admitted to the bar 1816. Member of the House of Delegates 1820-22. 
Member of Congress 1838-44. Member of House of Delegates and Speaker 
1846. Provost of the University 1850-70. Secretary of Navy 1852. Visited 
Europe several times and was U. S. Commissioner to the Paris Exhibition 
1867. Died in Newport, R. I., Aug. i8th, 1870. Received the degree of 
LL. D. from Harvard University 1863. He was the author of the following 
novels: Swallow Barn, a story of rural life in Virginia (1832); Horseshoe 
Kobinson, a Tale of the Tory Ascendency (1835), and Rob of the Bowl, a 
Legend of St. Inigoes (1838), describing the province of Maryland in the days 
of the second Lord Baltimore. He also wrote, at Thackeray's request, the 
fourth chapter of the second volume of The Virginians. A uniform edition 
of his entire works appeared in ten volumes in 1870 (see Appleton''s Cyclo- 
pcedia of American Biography). 

" A summer school of specialties," lasting ten weeks, was adver- 
tised to commence in March, 1870, under Professors Aikin, Johnston, 
Donaldson, Howard, Chisolm and Miles. 

It was about this time that beneficiary students are first noticed in 
the catalogues. The Legislature had been induced in 1868 to make 
an appropriation of $2500 a year for four years on condition that a 

^ There were 8 failures. 


certain number of patients should be treated and a certain number of 
students educated free.' In accordance with this arrangement one 
student was entitled to be received from each senatorial district of 
the state upon the certificate of the state senator thereof, on payment 
of matriculation, practical anatomy and graduation fees only. 

In 1870 the students' building, adjoining the Infirmary on Lom- 
bard street and capable of accommodating twenty-four students, 
was erected. Previous to this the resident students had had accom- 
modations in the Infirmary building. 

In 1873 Prof. Chisolm's chair was limited to Diseases of the Eye 
and Ear, and Dr. Alan P. Smith was elected Professor of Operative 
Surgery. Announcements were now made that " poor women were 
attended at their homes by the Dispensary physician," and that " a 
skilled dentist' was in constant attendance at the Dispensary and 
instructed the students in drawing teeth." 

In 1874 a five-months course was announced, and "an obstetrical 
department was about to be opened in a building adjoining the hos- 
pital." This was the large three-story wing on Greene street, 
erected and furnished with an appropriation of $30,000 made by the 
Legislature, April nth, 1874, conditional upon the free education of 
state students. Practical instruction was here instituted in obstetrics 
and in the management of the puerperal condition.^ 

Alan Pennington Smith, a younger son of Professor Nathan R. Smith, 
was born in Baltimore, Feb. 3, 1840. He received private tuition and then 
began the study of medicine under the direction of his father. He obtained 
his medical degree at the University of Maryland in 1S61. In 1867 and 1S68 
he was Adjunct Professor of Surgery in the University. In 1S69 he was 
appointed Professor of Venereal Diseases, but withdrew before the com- 
mencement of the session. In 1873-4 he held the chair of Operative Surgery. 
Since that period he has withdrawn from teaching and devoted himself 
entirely to a very large practice. Ur. Smith is better known for his skill with 
the knife than facility in the use of the pen. Yet he has contributed several 
articles, one of the most valuable being a Report of 52 Successful Cases of 
Lithotomy, 1878. He is one of the Trustees and a Consulting Surgeon of the 
Johns Hopkins Hospital. 

About this time, for some reason, there was a great diminution in 

' A similar appropriation was made to Washington University. Afterwards 
the beneficiary system was extended to the entire South. 

'■^Ur. W. T. Arnold. 

2 Prior to this such cases had been admitted to the female wards and to the 
private rooms. 

Professor- of Obsti'trics, 


the size of the classes. In 1867 there were 188 students in attend- 
ance ; the number rapidly decreased to 114 in 1869-70, then sud- 
denly rose the next session to 172, again fell to 114 in 1872-3, to 108 
in 1873-4, III in 1874-5, ^"d 109 in 1875-6. After this there was a 
gradual increase to nearly 300. 

The addition of the new wing" greatly increased the clinical facil- 
ities of the University. It was now claimed that the Infirmary had 
double the capacity of any similar institution in Baltimore. The 
resident students particularly profited by this increase of advantages. 
In addition to the Lying-in Department, which has been already 
spoken of, a department for Diseases of Children was also estab- 
lished by the transfer of the inmates of St. Andrew's Home for Chil- 
dren to the Infirmary. 

In 1876 a "beneficiary system" was formally announced, students 
who were admitted to this privilege obtaining the tickets of the pro- 
fessors for $35, making the fees for the first course $50, and for 
graduates $70. A number of scholarships were also annually be- 
stowed upon students unable to pay full rates, the cost of which was 
$60 each. The adoption of these innovations was attributable to the 
sharp competition between the three medical schools then existing 
here for the patronage of students.' 

In 1877 the graduation fee was raised from $20 to $30. In the 
same year Professor N. R. Smith's name, which had been missing 
since 1870, again appeared in the catalogue as " Emeritus Professor 
of Surgery and President of the Faculty." 

Nathan Ryno Smith'' was born in Cornish, New Hampshire, on the banks 
of the Connecticut, May 21st, 1797. He was the son of the distinguished 
surgeon, Nathan Smith, who founded the medical schools at Dartmouth and 
Yale. He entered Yale College in 1813 and received the degree of A. B. at 
that institution in 1817. He then spent about a year and a half as tutor in the 
family of Mr. Thomas Turner, of "Kinloch," Fauquier Co., Va.^ He here 

1 Washington University, after being suspended in 1851-52, had been revived 
in 1S67 by Warren and others, who, in 1872, also founded the College of 
Physicians and Surgeons. The former proving the weaker had been merged 
with the latter in 1877. 

^ Ryno is the name of a hero in the Poems of Ossian, and it is said to have 
been given to Dr. Smith by his mother, with whom Ossian was a favorite 

3 This gentleman was a great-uncle of the writer of this sketch. He was 
deeply beloved and revered by a large circle of relations on account of his 
amiability and purity of character. Prof. S. seemed to have very agreeable 
recollections of his life at "Kinloch." 


first imbibed that attachment for the South which was manifested through all 
his subsequent life. On returning from Virginia he began the study of 
medicine at Yale College, receiving the degree of Doctor of Medicine there 
in 1823. He began practice in Burlington, Vermont, in 1824. The following 
year, with the aid of his father, who spent some weeks there for the purpose, 
he organized at Burlington the medical department of the University of Ver- 
mont, of which he was appointed the first professor of surgery and anatomy. 
The winter of 1825-26 he spent in Philadelphia, pursuing his studies at the 
University of Pennsylvania. While here he made the acquaintance of Ur. 
George McClellan, who, with others, was then laying the foundation of Jeffer- 
son Medical College. So impressed were M. and his colleagues with Dr. 
Smith that they invited the latter to join with them. Dr. Smith accepted the 
offer and did not return to New England. He held the chair in Philadelphia 
for two sessions. Among his pupils there were Samuel D. Gross and Wash- 
ington L. Atlee. In 1827 a vacancy in the chair of Surgery in the University 
of Maryland occurred through the resignation of Granville Sharp Patti- 
son ; Dr. Smith was elected to fill it and soon assumed the leadership in 
the field of surgery in Baltimore. In 1830 he began the publication of the 
Baltimore Monthly Journal, a medical periodical, which survived for one year. 
In 1838 he was offered the chair of Practice of Medicine in Transylvania 
University, at Lexington, Kentucky. This was during the suit of the 
Regents vs. Trustees, and the Regents' school to which he belonged was then 
at a very low ebb and its existence altogether problematical. He therefore 
accepted the offer and held the position for three sessions. During this 
period he journeyed West every fall, returning at the close of the session to 
Baltimore, which continued to be his home. In 1S40 he resumed his surgical 
duties in the University with the title of Lecturer, and in the following year 
resigned his Western chair and assumed the full professorship again in Balti- 
more. In 1867 he made his only visit to Europe. He visited many of the 
European hospitals and received distinguished attentions from the leading 
surgeons of Great Britain and the Continent. On his return in October of the 
same year he received a grand ovation from the profession of Baltimore. 
Painful disease and the infirmities of age began now to oppress him and he 
was compelled to devote less attention to his professional work, but he did not 
withdraw entirely from practice until the last few months before his death. 
He was not idle during this period of weakness and suffering. He attended 
to office practice. He wrote part of a work on surgery, which, however, he 
never completed. He reviewed with pleasure his favorite classics. Religion 
occupied much of his thoughts and he found comfort and support in its hope 
and promises. His connection with the University after 1S69, when he had 
resigned his chair, had been a merely nominal one. He was first President of 
the Faculty and Professor of the Skeleton and Clinical Surgery. In 1870 he 
resigned this ofiice and thenceforth his position was only an emeritus one. 
His death occurred July 3d, 1877. Prof. S. C. Chew has drawn a truthful and 
eloquent portraiture of Prof. Smith, from which I shall take the following 
extracts. He says ; " He was a clear and perspicuous teacher, a beneficent 


and successful surgeon and physician, a most kind and considerate friend. 
Who can ever forget the courteous deference which he always showed for the 
opinions even of his juniors, his readiness to aid them in bearing their 
burdens, or that rare diagnostic skill with which he seemed to reach his con- 
clusions almost by intuition ? The qualities by which he won his professional 
position were great acuteness and perception, an extraordinary power of adap- 
tation to circumstances as they might arise, promptness of action which sees 
what is needed to be done and straightway does it, and above all indomitable, 
untiring industry." " He had industry enough to succeed without talents and 
talents enough to succeed without in(justry." "And yet with his great gifts 
there was about him a remarkable simplicity of character and a transparent 
ingenuousness which was as incapable of affectation as of falsehood." " In your 
mind's eye you can see him in the amphitheatre, in the attitude of dignity and 
command which always belonged to him.' As he illustrates and enforces his 
teaching he points to the diagrams on the wall, and his wand must always be 
at hand, for like the magician's divining rod it seems to have some mystic 
connection with the exercise of his powers. Or again he is going his early 
morning rounds through the hospital wards, setting in clear light the leading 
points in the cases before him; mingling his words of instruction to the 
students with those of kindliness and encouragement to the sick, and often of 
gentle humor if the patient chances to be a child." " He has left behind him 
the record of a great surgeon, a brave and true citizen, a magnanimous gentle- 
man. Full of years and full of honors he rests from a life of arduous and 
faithful toil. Peace to his ashes : and as the welfare of our alma mater and 
the interests of her classes were dear to him, so in her halls and in the hearts 
of all her alumni may his name and his memory be fragrant and fresh forever." 
{Address com?nefHoraih'e of N'athatt Ryjio Smith, M. D., LL.D. By S. C. Chew, 
M. D., Baltimore, 1S78.) 

Prof. Smith received the degree of LL. D. from Princeton College, 1852. 
He was an honorary member of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 
and he was President of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland 
from 1870 to 1872. He was an industrious contributor to medical literature. 
His most important works were : Me?noirs, Medical and Surgical, of Dr. 
Nathan Smith, with additions by the Author, Svo, 1831 ; Surgical Anatomy 
of the Arte?-ies, with colored plates, ist ed. 1S30, 2d 1835, quarto ; Frac- 
tiires of the Lower Extremity and Use of Suspensory Apparatjis, 1867, Svo. 
He also wrote Legends of the South, by Somebody who desires to be considered 
Nobody, 1869, i2mo. Among his most important inventions were his anterior 
splint and his lithotome. 

About this time there was a spring course under the charge of 
gentlemen two of whom have since become members of the Uni- 

'And which had secured for him among his pupils the popular title of 
" Emperor." 


versity Faculty. It was designed to supplement the regular course 
and was free to University students.' 

In 1878 it was stated that "about 1200 patients had been received 
and treated in the wards of the Infirmary during the year and 15,000 
patients had been examined and prescribed for in the Dispensary 

In 1879 that part of the Infirmary on Lombard St. was thoroughly 
overhauled, additional private rooms were provided, and the Dis- 
pensary department was improved to adapt it better to the uses of 
the large patronage which it had secured from the poor and the 
numerous special departments into which it had developed. There 
were now two paid physicians in the institution receiving $6co and 
$100 per annum respectively. 

In 1880 several changes were made in the Faculty. Prof. Donald- 
son resigned the chair of Physiology, retaining only his Clinical pro- 
fessorship. Prof Miles was transferred to the chair of Physiology 
and Dr. J. Edwin Michael was promoted to the Anatomical chair. 
Dr. I. E. Atkinson was made Clinical Professor of Dermatology. 

Frank Donaldson was born in Baltimore in 1S23. He attended lectures 
at the University of Maryland, obtaining the degree of M. D. in 1S46. From 
1846 to 1848 he pursued his studies in the hospitals of Paris, and in the latter 
year settled in Baltimore. He held professional positions in the Baltimore 
General Dispensary, the Almshouse and the Marine Hospital. He was Pro- 
fessor of Materia Medica in the Maryland College of Pharmacy from 1863 to 
1866. In 1866 he was elected Professor of Physiology and Hygiene and 
Clinical Professor of Diseases of the Throat and Chest in the University. In 
1S80 he resigned his didactic chair and in 1888 his clinical chair. He is now 
Emeritus Clinical Professor. Professor Donaldson has paid great attention 
to diseases of the chest and throat and is an expert in physical diagnosis. He 
is an Hon. Fellow of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia. He was 
President of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland, 1S81-S2. He 
is the author of many articles, the most important of which are those con- 
tributed to Pepper's System of Medicitte. He is one of the Consulting 
Physicians to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. 

In this year (1880) the Alumni Association was placed upon a 
permanent footing, which circumstance suggests some further allu- 
sion to the organization. The first attempt to organize the alumni 
appears to have been made in 1844, although the late Dr. E. J. 
Chaisty told the writer that he delivered an address on " The Merit 

1 Those in charge of it were Drs. Michael, Morison, McSherry, Ashby, Jay, 
Winslow and Coale. 
' Catalogue. 


and Dignity of the Medical Profession" before the alumni in 1842. 
The movement was particularly fostered by the classes of 1842 and 
1843. Dr. Miltenberger (to whom the author is indebted for these 
facts) was chosen the first President, and delivered an address having 
for its subject the Latin motto : " Filius sim dignus, ist& digna 
parente." ' Although this temporary organization did not survive 
longer than two or three sessions, we preserve a memorial of it in the 
motto, which has been adopted as the motto of our present Associa- 
tion. The next allusion to the subject is in 1848, when there weye 
representatives from the "Alumni Association" to the American 
Medical Association, which met that year in Baltimore. In 1874 an 
impromptu association was formed on the stage of Ford's Opera House 
after the conclusion of the commencement exercises. Dr. Richard 
Steuart was chosen chairman and made some brief remarks. Meetings 
were held annually after that, usually on the evening of commence- 
ment day, at which an entertainment was provided at the expense 
of the Faculty. The addresses delivered on these occasions were 
by the venerable Dr. Robert E. Dorsey, of the class of 1819 (1875) ; 
Dr. R. S. Steuart (1876); Dr. W. Chew VanBibber (1877); Drs. S. 
C. Chew and J. C. Thomas (1878) ; and Dr. Frank Donaldson (1879). 
In 1880, under the presidency of Prof. Miltenberger, the necessity 
of further organization was decided on and adjourned meetings 
were held for the purpose of adopting a constitution and by-laws. 
There was much enthusiasm at these meetings and they were made 
interesting by several circumstances: by addresses, collations, letters 
of distinguished alumni, by the institution of prizes, etc. Those 
who had the good fortune to be present will long remember the 
pleasure afforded by these meetings. The presidents since 1880 
have been Drs. J. R. Ward, C. Johnston, James A. Steuart, D. I. 
McKew, Jas. Carey Thomas, Henry M. Wilson, Charles O'Donovan, 
F. Donaldson and N. S. Lincoln.'^ The Association has during this 
time had the pleasure of entertaining as its guests and annual orators 
Drs. Roberts Bartholow and Nathan S. Lincoln. Although the 
organization has accomplished little so far, it may be hoped that 
some good may result to the University from its existence. The 
question of endowments — general and of special departments — should 
ever be kept prominently before it, and the alumni should not be 
allowed to remain oblivious of their duty in these respects. Much 

'The writer has this and other addresses delivered since, upon similar 
occasions, in his keeping, the property of the present Association. 
2 Prof. C. Johnston was President 1882 and 1887. 


may be done by an active and influential association, both through 
moral influences and substantial support, to stimulate, encourage and 
strengthen the efforts of those who for the time being direct and 
control the destinies of the institution. 

In 1 88 1 Professor Atkinson, in addition to his clinical chair, was 
made Professor of Pathology. Professor C. Johnston resigned the 
chair of Surgery and was made Emeritus Professor, the vacancy 
being filled by the appointment of Professor Tiffany. 

Christopher Johnston was born in Baltimore, Sept. 27th, 1822. He was 
educated at St. Mary's College and then began the study of medicine under 
Dr. John Buckler. He received the degree of M. D. from the University in 
1S43. He was for a time at the Almshouse. In 1844 he visited Europe. 
Some years after he was associated with Urs. Theobald, Frick and Stewart in 
the Maryland Medical Institute, a preparatory school of medicine. In 1S55 and 
'56 he was a " Lecturer" at the University " on Experimental Physiology and 
Microscopy." He next held the chair of Anatomy in the Baltimore Dental 
College. In 1S64 he became Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in the 
University ; in 1S69 he became Prof, of Surgery, as the successor of Prof. N. 
R. Smith, and in 1881 he resigned this chair and was appointed Professor 
Emeritus. Prof. Johnston early showed a taste for the more scientific parts of 
his profession. He devoted himself with ardor to the study of histology and 
pathology and became a skillful microscopist. His talents and acquirements 
as an artist have enabled him to illustrate his articles and lectures with draw- 
ings of his own execution. He was one of the founders of the Pathological 
and Clinical Societies, and besides holding similar positions in the local socie- 
ties he was President of the Maryland Academy of Sciences for several years 
and of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland in 1S76-7. j^ro- 
fessor Johnston has been a frequent contributor to scientific and medical 
literature, and is the author of an article on plastic surgery and skin-grafting 
in Ashkiirsfs Encyclopedia of Surgery {\%?>\). A list of his writings to date 
is given in the Catalogue of Scientific Papers of the Royal Society of London, 
He is a Consulting Surgeon to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. 

The Rev. Edwin A. Dalrymple's name, of the " Faculty of Arts 
and Sciences," appeared for the last time among the Regents in the 
catalogue of this year. Another relic of former times had also 
disappeared after 1878 ; this was Rev. J. G. Hamner, D. D., of the 
Faculty of Theology. With the death of these gentlemen the 
departments which they represented were left without incumbents 
and therefore ceased what had long been a mere nominal existence. 
The department of Arts and Sciences had not been in active opera- 
tion since shortly after the close of the war. 

In iSSi the session was lengthened to five and a half months. 

In 1882 the Dental Department was founded. It began with two 


dental chairs, one of Principles of Dental Science, Dental Surgery 
and Mechanism, the other of Operative and Clinical Dentistry. 
Ferdinand J. S. Gorgas, M. D., D. D. S., and James H. Harris, 
M. D., D. D. S., former members of the Baltimore College of Dental 
Surgery, were elected to fill these chairs respectively. Five other 
chairs belonging to this department are held by members of the 
Medical Faculty.' The first announcement recognizes dentistry as 
a specialty in medicine, and hence " dentists should acquire not only 
a dental training, but also should be educated as doctors in medi- 
cine." The buildings of the Dental Department consist of a two- 
story brick building erected on the Greene-street side of the Uni- 
versity grounds in 1882, and enlarged by the addition of two wings 
in 1884, and by an additional extension of the north end along Cider 
Alley in 1889. This is known as the Dental Infirmary and Labora- 
tory. Practice Hall has also been turned over to this department 
and is used for the delivery of the didactic lectures. The success of 
this department has been remarkable. During the first session there 
were 66 students and 34 graduates. During the session of 1S89-90 
there were 135 matriculates and 44 graduates. The total number of 
graduates to date is 318. The regular session is five months long, 
and there is a spring and summer session occupying the seven m onths 
between the regular sessions and devoted to practical instruction. 
A teacher's certificate, a diploma, or in lieu of these an examination 
in English is required of those who matriculate.''' For graduation 
attendance upon two winter sessions is required together with clinical 
instruction.^ In accordance with a resolution adopted by the National 
Association of Dental Faculties in August, 1889, and by the Ameri- 
can Dental Association at its recent meeting, after October i, 1891, 
three annual sessions will be required before graduation.^ 

'There are also 21 demonstrators and a large number of "clinical instruc- 
tors," consisting of eminent dentists throughout the country, who deliver 
clinical lectures at the College from time to time. 

^Students are examined at the end of the junior year for admission to the 
senior class. A University Prize (gold medal) and thirteen other prizes are 
annually awarded. 

3 For graduates in medicine only one regular session is required, with twelve 
months continuous clinical work. 

* Nearly every state now has a State Board of Dental Examiners, who con- 
trol the dental practice throughout the country, and by the agency of these 
excellent organizations, which work together through a " National Association 
of State Dental Examination Boards," the operation of the new regulations is 


In 1883 Professor Aikin resigned and was appointed Professor 
Emeritus. He was succeeded by R. Dorsey Coale, Ph. D. 

William E. A. Aikin was born in the state of New York in 1807. He was 
educated at the Rensselaer Institute on the Hudson, where he imbibe<l from 
his " preceptor in science " that love of scientific pursuits and that knowledge 
of experimental science to which he attributed his subsequent success. He 
does not appear to have ever attended medical lectures. He began his pro- 
fessional career, like the vast majority of medical men at that day, as a licen- 
tiate, receiving his license from the New York State Medical Society. Soon 
after commencing practice he received the honorary degree of M. D. from the 
Vermont Academy of Medicine. His career as a practitioner of medicine was 
very brief. A distaste for the drudgery of a country practice co-operating 
with his early predilections for natural science soon determined his choice — 
to abandon medicine and become a teacher of science. In this occupation he 
continued, laboriously engaged, for nearly half a century, finding it as con- 
genial at the close as when he began. He became a resident of Maryland in 
1S32. He first became connected with the medical department of the Uni- 
versity as the assistant of 'Prof. Ducatel in 1836. In October of the following 
year, while engaged in a geological survey of Southwestern Virginia, he was 
called to fill the chair of chemistry in the Regents' Faculty, a vacancy having 
occurred through the resignation of Prof. Uucatel. He held the position 
until 1S83, when he resigned and became Emeritus Professor, with an annuity 
voted to him' by the Faculty. His death was sudden. Having retired in his 
usual health on the evening of May 30, 188S, he was found dead in bed early 
on the following morning. Dr. Aikin was a man of very striking mien. He 
was six feet one inch in height and weighed over 200 pounds. He wore 
glasses and a wig, and his long flowing white beard gave him a very venerable 
appearance. He was neat in his dress and systematic and industrious in his 
habits. His knowledge of his profession was extensive and exact, and he 
particularly prided himself on the success of his experiments. An indistinctness 
of utterance impaired his efficiency as a lecturer. He was a strict Catholic 
and gave liberally to the charities of his church. He retained the position of 
" City Inspector of Gas and Illuminating Oils" to the time of his death and 
derived a considerable addition to his income from this source. In addition 
to his chair at the University he had held similar positions in several other 
institutions in Baltimore and adjacent cities. In 1843 he received the degree 
of LL. D. from Georgetown College. Besides public lectures he wrote several 
articles in medical and scientific journals. One of the most valuable of his 
productions was a list of the plants of Maryland, published in the Transac- 
tions of the Maryland Academy of Science and Literature. He was a member 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, of the American 
Medical Association, and of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland. 
He was twice Dean of the Faculty, viz. from 1840-41 and from 1844 to 1855. 
(See Md. Med. Journal, August 11, 1S8S.) 

Professor of Cheiiiistry and Toxicology. 


In 1886 Professor S. C. Chew was transferred to the chair of Prac- 
tice, made vacant by the death of Professor McSherry, and Professor 
Atkinson was transferred from the chair of Pathology to that of 
Materia Medica. 

Richard McSherry, the son of a physician of the same name, was born in 
Martinsburg, Va., Nov. 21st, 1S17. He obtained his academic education at 
Georgetown College and attended medical lectures in the Universities of Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania, receiving the degree of M. D. at the latter institution 
in 1841. During the first ten years of "his professional life he held commis- 
sions in the medical corps of both the U. S. Army and Navy. He served in 
the Florida War under General Taylor and in the Mexican War under General 
Scott, and travelled very extensively, in various countries and climates, acquir- 
ing a large experience, both professional and general. Being a master of the 
Spanish language and enjoying peculiarly good opportunities during the occu- 
pation of Mexico for observing the habits and customs of the Mexican people, 
he wrote a book embodying his Mexican experience, entitled // Ptichero, or 
a Mixed Dish from Mexico, Phila., 1850. In 1S51 he resigned his commis- 
sion in the navy and entered upon practice in Baltimore. His practice grew 
slowly but steadily. In 1862 he was appointed lecturer oh Materia Medica 
and the following year full professor of the same in the University of Mary- 
land. He was transferred to the chair of Practice during the session of 1863-4 
as the successor of Prof. Samuel Chew.^ The latter he held until his death 
from phthisis pulmonalis, Oct. 7, 1885, During this period he published two 
works, one a volume of Essays and Lecttires on Various Subjects, Balto., 
1869, the other entitled Health, and how to Promote it, New York, ist ed. 
1879, 2d ed. 1883. Dr. McSherry was the author also of a large number of 
lectures, monographs and articles in the medical journals. As a writer his 
style was simple but vigorous. He wrote good English, but was fond of apt 
classical quotations. His knowledge and reading were extensive and encyclo- 
paedic. His articles were practical in character and exhibited close observa- 
tion and judicious thinking. As a teacher he was safe and inclined strongly 
to conservatism. His language was perspicuous and sententious. His mind 
was one ever open for the reception of new truths. His manners were quiet, 
unostentatious and grave. He had a genial disposition, which, combined 
with a transparent sincerity and the strictest conscientiousness, secured for him 
the affectionate regard and esteem of his associates and pupils. He was par- 
ticularly polite and condescending to the young graduates. He was a strict 
Catholic, but his religion was never obtrusive. Among professional honors 
which Dr. McSherry has held are those of first president of the Baltimore 
Academy of Medicine, 1877-79, ^""^ president of the Medical and Chirurgical 
Faculty, 1883-4. (See memoir by Dr. John Morris, Trans. Med. and Chir. 
Faculty of Md., 1886, and Md. Med. Journal, Oct. 1885.) 

' Jan. I, 1864 is the date of election of Professors McSherry, C. Johnston and 
S. C. Chew. 


At this time a movement was set on foot for the establishment of 
a " Free Lying-in Hospital," which was consummated in the vicinity 
of the University the following year (May, 1887). This is under 
charge of the Professor and Demonstrator of Obstetrics and two 
resident physicians. It has 24 free beds and is in a flourishing con- 
dition, being assisted by an unconditional annual appropriation of 
$2500 by the Legislature of the state. During the three years end- 
ing May ist, 1890, there were 308 cases of confinement in the 
hospital besides about an equal number in the out-patient depart- 
ment.' From these sources the students of the graduating class are 
afforded ample opportunities to gain practical familiarity with this 
important branch before entering upon professional work. 

In 1888 an improvement in the seating arrangements at the Uni- 
versity was introduced which has added immensely to the comfort 
of the students. This was the introduction into the lecture rooms of 
patent folding-back chairs. Former students, who used to sit for 
hours together upon the hard benches and usually perched upon 
the backs of them, will envy their successors when they learn how 
much better the latter are being provided for in this respect.* 

George Warner Miltexberger was born in Baltimore, March 17th, 1819. 
He was educated at Boisseau Academy, Baltimore, and at the University of 
Virginia. He obtained the degree of M. D. at the University of Maryland 
in 1840 and was immediately elected Demonstrator of Anatomy. In 1847 the 
duties of lecturer on Pathological Anatomy were added to those of Demon- 
strator. In the same year he became one of the attending surgeons to the 
Baltimore Infirmary, and in 1849 ^^ attending physician to the Baltimore 
City and County Almshouse. In 1852 he succeeded Prof. Chew in the 
chair of Materia Medica (his title embracing also Pathological Anatomy), and 
in 185S was called to fill the vacancy in the chair of Obstetrics occasioned by 
the resignation of Prof. Thomas. After an incumbency in this position of 32 
years he has just retired (April, 1S90), having completed his half-century of 
service as a member of the Faculty. Few of the profession have devoted 
themselves with more self-sacrifice to their vocation than Professor Milten- 
berger. Until within the past few years he had probably the largest practice of 
any physician who has ever lived in Baltimore. He enjoys the entire confidence 
of the profession in his department and is a fluent and agreeable lecturer. 
He was President of the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland, 1S86-7, 
and occupied a similar office in the Baltimore Obstetrical and Gynecological 
Society, 1885-6. He is a consulting physician to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. 

^ Report of Dr. L. E. Neale, Maryland Med, Jl., July 26th, 1890. 

" The Dean tells me that a prediction which was made at the time that these 
chairs would soon be broken to pieces by the students has not come true, but 
slight damage having been sustained so far. 


Samuel Clagett Chew, the son of Professor Samuel Chew, was born in 
Baltimore, July 26th, 1837, He was educated at Princeton College, New 
Jersey, receiving his A. B. in 1856 and A. M. in 1859. He graduated in medi- 
cine at the University of Maryland in 1858. On the death of his father and 
the promotion of Prof. McSherry (1864) he was called to the chair of Materia 
Medica in the University. He visited Europe in the interests of the Univer- 
sity the same year. In 1886 he became Professor of the Principles and Prac- 
tice of Medicine. Prof. Chew inherits the literary tastes of his father and 
writes with much grace and elegance. On the death of his father he finished 
the work on medical education which t^e latter had left uncompleted. He is 
the author of a section in Pepper's System of Medicine. He was President of 
the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland in 1880-81. He is a con- 
sulting physician to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. 

William T. Howard was born in Virginia, but early in life moved to North 
Carolina. He is now about 71 years old. He attended lectures at Jefferson 
Medical College, Philadelphia, graduating there in 1S44. For a time he was a 
student at the Baltimore Almshouse. He then settled in North Carolina, 
where he continued in practice until after the close of the war, when he moved 
to Baltimore. In 1866 he was appointed lecturer on Auscultation and Percus- 
sion in the Summer Faculty of the University, and the following year Pro- 
fessor of Diseases of Women and Children. In 18S4 he was elected President 
of the American Gynecological Association, and in 1S86-7 held a similar posi- 
tion in the Baltimore Obstetrical and Gynecological Society. He is one of 
the physicians of the " Hospital for the Women of Maryland," and is Con- 
sulting Surgeon to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Prof. Howard is a clear and 
forcible teacher, with a wonderfully retentive memory and holding decided 
views upon medical subjects. He is still an indefatigable scholar and has a 
rich clinical experience. Up to 1889 he had performed the operation of 
laparotomy oftener than any other physician in the state, his cases then 
numbering about ico. He is the author of various lectures, reports and 
articles in the medical journals of a practical character. 

Julian J. Chisolm was born in Charleston, S. C, 1830, and obtained the 
degree of M. D. at the Medical College in that city in 1850. He continued 
his studies in London and Paris and then returned to Charleston and com- 
menced practice. He became Professor of Surgery in the Medical College of 
S. C. in 1858. During the late war he received the first medical appointment 
conferred by the state of S. C. and also treated the first wounded in that war 
(at Fort Sumter). He resumed his chair in 1865, and in 1S69 removed to 
Baltimore and was elected Professor of Operative Surgery and Clinical Pro- 
fessor of Diseases of the Eye and Ear in the University of Maryland. In 1873 
he gave up the former department, the department of Eye and Ear Diseases 
being advanced to an equal rank with the other chairs in the Faculty. Dr. 
Chisolm is the author of many articles and reports of cases, especially in his 
specialty. He is a forcible and ready teacher and a skillful operator. He is 
the senior surgeon of the Presbyterian Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital, one of 
the largest and best appointed institutions of the kind in America, and also its 


founder. While a surgeon in the C. S. A. he wrote a Manual of Military 
Surgery, which went through several editions and was the text-book of the 
surt^eons of the Southern Army. He was chairman of the Ophthalmological 
Section of the International Medical Congress of 1887. 

Francis T. Miles was born in Charleston, S. C, about 63 years ago. He 
graduated A. B. at the Charleston College and obtained his medical degree at 
the Medical College of the State of South Carolina in 1849. He then became 
successively Assistant Demonstrator, Demonstrator and Assistant Professor 
of Anatomy, and in i860 full Professor of Anatomy as successor of Professor 
Holbrook. In the late war Prof. Miles entered the Confederate service as 
captain of infantry. At one time he acted as major and had charge of Fort 
Sumter during the assault upon it by the Federal fleet. He was shot through 
the thigh in one of the engagements around Charleston. On his recovery he 
entered the medical department of the service as full surgeon. The war over, 
he resumed work as Professor of Anatomy in the Charleston School. He 
moved from Charleston to Baltimore in 1868, and during the succeeding 
session lectured upon Anatomy in the Washington University Medical School. 
In 1869 he was called to the chair of Anatomy in the University of Maryland, 
to which the clinical department of nervous diseases was added. In 1880 he 
was transferred to the chair of Physiology. He was the first to teach the 
subject of Nervous Diseases as a specialty in Baltimore, and also the first to 
give the modern views relating to that important and rapidly developing 
department. Professor Miles is an eloquent and attractive lecturer. He was 
President of the American Neurological Association in 1880-S1 and is now 
one of the Consulting Physicians to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. He has 
contributed articles to Pepper's System of Medicine and to various medical 
journals. He has twice been abroad. 

Severn Teackle Wallis, lawyer, was born in Baltimore, Sept. 8th, 1816. 
Graduated at St. Mary's College, Baltimore, 1S32, and admitted to the bar 
1837. Visited Spain in 1847 and again in 1849, the second visit being on a 
special mission from the U. S. government. Was elected to the House of 
Delegates of Maryland 1861 and took an active part in the proceedings at 
Frederick. Was arrested by the Federal government the following September 
and imprisoned in various forts until November, 1S62. Has been Provost of 
the University of Maryland since 1S70. Received the degree of LL. D. from 
St. John's College, Annapolis, in 1878. Mr. Wallis is the author of two works 
upon Spain and has contributed largely to newspaper and periodical literature 
and also occasional verses. Several of his addresses have been published, 
the best known being those on George Peabody (1870) and Chief Justice 
Taney (1872). He is also a distinguished orator. (See Appletoti's Cyclopadia 
of American Biography.') 

Louis McLane Tiffany was born in Baltimore, Oct. loth, 1844. He was 
educated at the University of Cambridge, England, receiving the degree of 
A. B. there in 1866 and later the degree of A. M. He graduated at the Uni- 
versity of Maryland in 1868 and was appointed Demonstrator of Anatomy the 


following year. In 1874 he was appointed Professor of Operative Surgery 
and in 18S0 of Surgery. He is an ex-President of the Baltimore Medical 
Association and Clinical Society. Prof. Tiffany has contributed valuable 
articles on surgical subjects to the American Journal of Medical Sciences and 
other journals and also to the Trans, of the Am. Surg. Assn. and the Med. 
and Chir. Faculty of Md. He is perhaps best known among surgeons in 
connection with operations upon the kidney and superior maxilla. He is a 
Consulting Surgeon to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. 

J. Edwin Michael was bom in J^arford Co., Md., May 13th, 1848. He 
graduated at Princeton College 1871 and at the University of Maryland in 
1873. He then went abroad, studying in Wiirzburg and Vienna. Returning 
he began practice in Baltimore. He was elected Demonstrator of Anatomy in 
the University in 1874 and Professor of the same 1880. April, 1S90, he was 
transferred to the chair of Obstetrics. He is a member of the American Sur- 
gical Association and an ex-President of the Clinical Society of Maryland. 
His contributions have been chiefly on ^rgical subjects. He is a ready 
speaker and has delivered popular courses of lectures on Early Aid in 
Iftjiiries and Accidents, under the auspices of the Hosp. Relief Association 
of Md. 

Isaac Edmondson Atkinson is a native of Baltimore. He was born 
January 23d, 1846. He was educated in the School of Letters of the Univer- 
sity of Maryland and took his medical degree in the School of Medicine of the 
same in 1865. He held positions in the Baltimore General and Special Dis- 
pensaries. In 1879 ^^ w^s elected Clinical Professor of Dermatology in the 
University, to which was added, in 1881, Pathology. In 18S6 he became Pro- 
fessor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics. Professor Atkinson has held 
office as President in the Clinical Society, the Medical and Chirurgical Faculty 
of Md. (1S87), and the American Dermatological Society (1887). He has made 
numerous contributions to medical literature and is one of the authors of 
Pepper'' s System. He is one of the Consulting Physicians to the Johns Hopkins 
Hospital. He is the present Dean of the Faculty. 

Robert Dorsey Coale was born in Baltimore, Sept. 13th, 1857. He was 
educated at the Pennsylvania Military Academy, where he graduated with the 
degree of Civil Engineer, 1875. He was the Jirst student to enter the Johns 
Hopkins University on its opening in 1S76, was appointed a Fellow in the 
same Oct. 1880, received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, June 1881, and 
during the two following years was Assistant in Chemistry. In 1883 he was 
appointed Lecturer on Chemistry at the University of Maryland and in 1884 
was promoted to the full professorship. His most important contributions 
have appeared in the Publicatiojis of the Johns Hopkins University and the 
American Chemical Journal. He is the Superintendent of the Infirmary. 

John Noland Mackenzie, who represents the fourth generation of physi- 
cians in a direct line of descent, was born in Baltimore, Oct. 20th, 1853. 
Received his academic and medical education at the University of Virginia. 
Obtained the degree of M. D. at the University of Virginia 1876, and at the 


University of New York 1S77, Was Assistant to Medical Staff of Bellevue 
Hospital 1S77-8, and Resident Physician in same 1878-9. He then went 
abroad, was an interne of the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, chef-de-clinique 
under Dr. Morell Mackenzie at the Hospital for Diseases of the Throat and 
Chest, Golden Square, London, a year and a half, was private pupil of Ziemssen 
and Oertel at Munich, and then spent a year in Vienna. Returning to Balti- 
more he began practice as a specialist in diseases of the Throat and Nose. 
In 1882 he became an Attending Physician of the Baltimore Eye, Ear and 
Throat Charity Hospital. In 18S8 he was elected Clinical Professor of Dis- 
eases of the Throat and Nose in the University of Maryland, and has recently 
(1889) been put in charge of the same department at the Johns Hopkins Hos- 
pital. Prof. Mackenzie was President of the American Laryngological Asso- 
ciation 18S9-90 and has been a prolific writer. He is a contributor to Wood''s 
Reference Handbook of Medical Sciences, edited by Buck, and to Keating's 
Cyclopcedia of Diseases of Children. 

This brings these annals d6wn to date and a few details will now 
be given in regard to the present condition and working of the 

The Board of Regents is constituted at present as follows : 

Hon. Severn Teackle Wallis, Provost. 
-Hon. George W. Dobbin. 

John H. B. Latrobe, Esq. 

Bernard Carter, Esq. 

Hon. Charles E. Phelps. 

John P. Poe, Esq. 

Richard M. Venable, Esq. 

Thomas W. Hall, Esq. 

Samuel C. Chew, M. D. 

William T. Howard, M. D. 

Julian J. Chisolm, M. D. 

Francis T. Miles, M. D. 

Louis McLane Tiffany, M. D. 

J. Edwin Michael, M. D. 

I. Edmondson Atkinson, M. D. 

R. Dorsey Coale, Ph. D. 

F. J. S. Gorgas, M. D., D. D. S. 

Jas. H. Harris, M. D., D. D. S. 

There are no representatives on the Board of the defunct depart- 
ments of Arts and Sciences and Divinity. 

The Faculty of Physic consists of: 

George W. Miltenberger, M. D., Emeritus Professor of Obstetrics 
and Honorary President of the Faculty. 


Christopher Johnston, M. D., Emeritus Professor of Surgery. 

Samuel C. Chew, A. M., M. D., Professor of Principles and Prac- 
tice of Medicine and Hygiene. 

Frank Donaldson, M. D., Emeritus Clinical Professor of Diseases 
of the Throat and Chest. 

William T. Howard, M. D., Professor of Diseases of Women and 
Children and Clinical Medicine. 

Julian J. Chisolm, M. D., Professor of Diseases of the Eye and 

Francis T. Miles, M. D., Professor of Physiology and Chnical Pro- 
fessor of Diseases of the Nervous System. 

Louis McLane Tiffany, A. M., M.D., Professor of Surgery. 

J. Edwin Michael, A. M., M. D., Professor of Obstetrics. 

I. Edmondson Atkinson, M. D., Professor of Materia Medica and 
Therapeutics, Clinical Medicine and Dermatology. 

R. Dorsey Coale, C. E., Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry and Toxi- 

John Noland Mackenzie, M. D., Clinical Professor of Diseases of 
the Throat and Nose. 

The chair of Anatomy, rendered vacant by the transfer of Prof. 
Michael, will be filled temporarily by Professors Miles and Michael. 

There are five Lecturers, six Demonstrators and three Prosectors. 
The present session (the 84th) commenced on the ist of October, 
1890, and will terminate about the 15th of April, 1891, a period of 6j 
months. Clinical lectures introductory to the course are given by 
the Professors during the month of September. The clinics are con- 
tinued daily during the year in both Hospital and Dispensary. The 
latter, under charge of Drs. Henry B. Thomas and George E. Sill- 
jacks, is located in the Infirmary building, with an entrance on 
Greene street. Nine specialties are represented in it by eleven 
Chiefs of Clinic, for whose use separate departments are provided. 
During the year 1889-90 27,699 visits were made by patients to the 

The Presbyterian Eye, Ear and Throat Charity Hospital, one of 
the largest and most completely equipped special hospitals in the 
country, is under the charge of Professor Chisolm and offers excep- 
tional facilities for the study of this specialty. During the past year 
30,524 visits were paid to this institution and 1564 operations were 
performed. The Dispensary is open daily to students of the Uni- 
versity, without charge, from i to 4 P. M. The Bay View Hospital, 
with its 1250 beds, 250 of which belong to the Insane Department, 


is also accessible to the students, and members of the Faculty and 
Clinical Lecturers attend and give clinical instruction regularly to 
those Who avail themselves of the ample opportunities there afforded. 
The dead-house also furnishes a great abundance and variety of 
pathological material which is availed of by the Lecturer on Path- 
ology. Graduates may become resident students in the Hospital 
by paying a moderate price for board and lodging. 

The dental clinics which are held in the Dental Infirmary from 
2 to 5 P. M. daily offer opportunities for medical students to famil- 
iarize themselves with dental operations, knowledge highly desirable 
for the country practitioner. 

The Infirmary or University Hospital has a capacity of 150-200 
beds and occupies the corner of Lombard and Greene streets, 
extending some distance on both, west and south. The domestic 
affairs of the house are under charge of a corps of trained nurses, 
at whose head is Miss Parsons, formerly of St. Thomas' Hospital, 
London, and more lately Assistant Superintendent of the Johns 
Hopkins Hospital. During last session a Training School for Nurses 
was instituted at the Infirmary by this lady, assisted by members 
of the Faculty. The curriculum extends over two years. A large 
addition has recently (summer of 1890) been constructed in the rear 
of the chapel for the accommodation of this department.' 

The clinical amphitheatre is situated in this building. There are 
two salaried resident physicians and 24 clinical assistants, who pay 
$112 per annum for lodging, light and fuel. The assistants reside in 
a building adjoining the hospital on Lombard street, especially 
erected for their accommodation. The Infirmary receives the sick 
foreign seamen and immigrants who arrive in port and thus gives 
the students opportunities to observe diseases of foreign countries 
and other climates. The city also supports 25 beds in the hospital 
for the use of its poor. The clinical study of Obstetrics (as stated 
above) is amply provided for in the in- and out-door departments of 
the Free Lying-in Hospital, where instruction is thoroughly and 
systematically given by the Demonstrator of Obstetrics. 

The facilities for practical instruction are being constantly devel- 
oped to meet the higher demands of the day. The advantages 
afforded by a sister institution for laboratory instruction in Chemistry 

' The Sisters of Mercy who left at the close of 1889 had been in charge for 
eight years ; previous to that, with the exception of a year or so of lay nursing, 
the Sisters of Charity had always directed the domestic affairs of the institution. 


Clinical Professor of Diseases of the Nose 

and Throat. 


and Physiology are recognized in this community, and many of the 
students at the University of Maryland have availed themselves of 
them before entering upon the medical course. There is no com- 
pulsory laboratory course in Chemistry, but the Chemical Labora- 
tory of the University is open daily for the use of such students as 
wish to take special courses in chemical manipulation under the 
Demonstrator of Chemistry. Courses of laboratory instruction, 
including the simpler operations of chemical analysis, chemical exam- 
ination of urine, etc., are also gifen to undergraduate students free 
of charge for three months after the close of the regular session. 

Pathological Anatomy is taught practically in weekly demonstra- 
tions by Dr. Mitchell, who finds an abundance of material in the 
dead-houses of the Infirmary and Bay View Hospital. The dis- 
secting rooms are open daily till 10 P. M. under the three demon- 
strators. There is no charge for material, which is abundant. 

The following are the fees for the course 

Attendance on Lectures, 
Practical Anatomy, . 
Matriculation Fee, 
Graduation Fee, 

)i20 00 

10 00 

5 00 

30 GO 

Thus the fees for two sessions, including graduation, would be $300. 

A number of scholarships are bestowed annually upon students 
unable to pay full rates. The holders of these scholarships pay $70 
for attendance on the lectures (instead of $120). Students who have 
attended two sessions in other schools and recent graduates of other 
schools are admitted on paying the matriculation fee and $60 per 
annum. For graduates of the University there is no charge for sub- 
sequent attendance. The expense of living in Baltimore, including 
fuel and lights, is from ^ to $6 per week. 

As yet only two sessions are required for graduation, but the Fac- 
ulty strongly recommend the three-year graded course, and during 
the session of 1888-9 7° students took the latter, or over one-half of 
the number of candidates for graduation. As an encouragement to 
students to follow the longer course, fees for lectures are not required 
after the second course. The regulations require the matriculation 
tickets to be signed by the Professors and countersigned by the 
Dean at the end of the session. Practical anatomy and attendance 
upon all clinical lectures is obligatory. 

The following are the prizes and prizemen for 1890 : 


University Prize (Gold Medal): J. Frank Crouch, Md., A. D. 
McConachie, Canada. 

Miltenberger Prize (Case of Obstetric Instruments) : Wm. Little- 
ton Robins, Md. 

Chisolm Prize (Ophthalmoscope) : W. S. Roose, Jr., Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Tiflany Prize (Instruments) : Charles Budwood Hargrove, N. C, 
Arthur Howard Mann, Jr., Md. 

McKew Memorial Prize (Gold Medal) : Arthur D. Mansfield, Md. 

The number of medical matriculates at the last session of the 
University was 263 and the number of graduates 81. The total 
number of students attending the three departments now in operation, 
Medical, Law and Dental, during the session of 1889-90, was 497. 
According to the requirements adopted last year a general average 
of 65 per cent, and at least 33 per cent, on each branch are now 
necessary for graduation. 

As the result of this elevation of the standard the rejections at the 
recent examinations (April, 1890) reached the unprecedented number 
of 23, whilst 3 others withdrew during their progress. 

The students have two societies, one of long standing, the "Rush 
Club," a secret organization, and one recently organized, the 
"Anatomical Society"; the latter has a small museum in one of the 
rooms in Practice Hall. 

The financial condition of the University is good. With the 
exception of a portion of the Infirmary lot, on which there is a 
ground rent of $200, the property is owned in fee-simple. The 
Dental buildings have all been paid for, and but a small balance 
remains due upon the Lying-in Hospital. The Professors' salaries 
have recently amounted to $1700 net for those in the medical school 
alone and $2500 net for those holding appomtments in both medical 
and dental departments. The institution possesses no endowment, 
but several years since a reversionary bequest, estimated at the time 
to be worth about $75,000, was left to it by a deceased alumnus in 
California. Should his widow, who has a life interest in it, die 
childless it reverts to the University. As the lady in question is 
several years beyond the child-bearing period, the prospects of 
securing this bequest seem quite favorable. 

Mr. Emil Runge is the janitor of the Medical Department. 


In reviewing the career of this University as told in the preceding 
pages — and told with an honest endeavor to state only the truth — 
there is doubtless much to find fault with, much to censure, many 
sins both of omission and commission. While admitting this, and 
even leaving the question in doubt as to which side of the scale has 
the preponderance, the author does not propose to act the part merely 
of a censorious critic. And first he would recall the difficulties 
which beset the inception of the enterprise — difficulties which can 
now hardly be duly estimated and are not to be compared with those 
which are encountered by newly organized institutions of the 
present day — difficulties connected not only with the want of funds, 
but also with the absence of any suitable accommodations. Baltimore 
was then but a small place comparatively, and from the account the 
only building available for the purposes of a school was an old and 
dilapidated schoolhouse, not even affording protection from the 
snow and rain, and in which two of the professors contracted pleurisy, 
one with fatal sequence. And of the subsequent career, what a large 
part was a struggle for existence, without endowment and almost 
without bequest, and although helped by the state, how much also 
hindered by it ! Notwithstanding their early discouragements the 
founders went bravely to work, and as an evidence of the earnestness 
of their purpose and the breadth of their design erected a solid and 
costly building, so solid and durable, that it still serves, almost with- 
out change, for the purposes for which it was designed. From the first 
they insisted upon an attendance upon two annual courses of lectures 
as the condition for obtaining their principal degree, in this setting a 
precedent for some other schools of high standing. They further 
successfully instituted lotteries which were the only resource for 
meeting their heavy expenses; they purchased with their private 
means a library ; they procured costly apparatus from Europe ; 
later they effected a loan and erected another building for lecturing 
purposes and for the accommodation of the splendid anatomical 
and pathological collection of over 1000 specimens which they had 
bought ; early recognizing the need of facilities for clinical instruction, 
they leased ground in the immediate vicinity of the College and 
erected thereon a costly hospital (being among the first, at least, to 
do this) ; they encouraged classical learning by founding a gold medal 
for Latin theses and in other ways. Their successors continued their 
policy; they introduced hygieneand medical jurisprudence into their 
curriculum (1833); they endeavored to increase the opportunities for 
instruction by voluntarily lengthening their course to six months 


(1840) ; they early taught auscultation and percussion (1841) ; they 
instituted lectures on pharmacy (1844) ; they gave a complete course 
on operative surgery (1845) and pathology (1847) ; they encouraged 
preparatory medical schools ('4oies) ; they were either first or second 
to enforce dissection (Trustees. 1833; Faculty, 1848); they estab- 
lished compulsory courses in experimental physiology and microscopy 
(1854) ; they were among the first to introduce the study of specialties 
(1866), and first to make an independent chair ofdiseases of women and 
children (1867); they established a successful dental school (1882), 
a Lying-in Hospital (1887), and a Training School for Nurses 
(1890). There has been no break in the instruction here given in 
the 83 years since it began, and the usefulness of the school is estab- 
lished by unquestionable proofs. It has supplied a majority of 
the physicians in the state and a large number in the adjoining 
states. It has always been noted for the abundance of dissecting 
material, Baltimore excelling most places in this particular, and for 
the practical character of its teaching. Its students have access, now, 
not only to its own hospitals — special and general — but also to one of 
the largest and best appointed Eye and Ear Hospitals in America, 
and to the rich clinical and pathological resources at Bay View 
Hospital. Connected with it in one way or another have been some 
of the most eminent men in the state, a Chief Justice of the U. S., 
statesmen, judges, bishops, lawyers, ministers, orators, scholars and 
authors, and its Faculties have always contained men of ability and 
sometimes of renown. Among those whom the author would name 
especially as shedding lustre upon the school by their character, 
genius and acquirements, are the revered Davidge, the learned Potter, 
eloquent DeButts, brilliant Godman, pugnacious and energetic Pat- 
tison, classical Chew, philosophic Geddings, imperial Smith ; Gibson, 
the surgeon, Ducatel, the geologist and savant, Dunglison and Bart- 
lett, authors, Roby, the model anatomist, Power, the model clinician, 
Frick, the therapeutical chemist and analyst, and Hammond, the 
neurologist. The present Faculty are in every way worthy to be 
the successors of these distinguished men, and in their hands the 
institution will suffer no loss of prestige. It has always been the 
policy of this school to secure the best men that were available, and 
hence we find that the choice has not been confined to this city or state. 
For instance. New England has been drawn upon for Roby, Wells 
and Lincoln, South Carolina for Geddings, Kentucky for Bartlett, 
Virginia for Dunglison, Pennsylvania for Grifiith, Smith and Pattison, 
Scotland for Turnbull, the Army for Hammond. This is as it should 


be, and it is to be hoped that the day will never come when the 
Faculty will be swayed in their selection of their successors by any 
other motive than the best interests of the University. Finally, in 
this rapid survey, we note with pleasure the good financial condi- 
tion of the institution and its freedom from debt. 

But the most vital of all subjects still remains untouched, and this 
Sketch would have been emphatically incomplete and unsatisfactory 
to all true friends of the school had it not permitted before its close, at 
least, the announcement of the adoption at the University of those 
advanced methods which the rapid progress of medical science has 
rendered imperative and the general sentiment of the profession now 
urgently demands. Therefore the declaration that the authorities 
of the University have determined to raise the standard of require- 
ments in the institution in the near future comes as a fitting climax 
and complement of this work. The following are the changes pro- 
posed, as stated in a communication from the Dean to the author, 
bearing date Dec. i8th, 1889 : 

" I. Uniform written examinations. 

2. Uniform gradings, with a maximum of 100, of which a candi- 
date must receive a general average of 65 in order to obtain the 
degree of Doctor of Medicine. If a candidate receive an average 
grade of 65 and fall to or below 33 in any branch, he is conditioned, 
and cannot receive his degree until he shall have passed a satisfac- 
tory examination in the deficient branch or branches, such examina- 
tion to take place at a time to be appointed in October following. 

3. The dispensary hours are to be lengthened and special bedside 
clinics in the hospital are to be arranged for the benefit of third-year 
men who have passed their examinations in the primary branches. 

4. After the session of 1890-1 all matriculates must present, as an 
essential prerequisite, the diploma of a respectable college or high 
school, or a teacher's certificate, or else pass a preliminary examina- 
tion on the English branches.' 

1 The requirements of the National Association of Medical Colleges (of 
which this institution is a member) are as follows : " A composition in English 
of not less than 200 words ; the translation of easy Latin prose, provided that 
students be allowed one year to make up any deficiency in regard to this 
item; an examination in higher arithmetic and elementary physics. Gradu- 
ates or matriculates of recognized colleges of literature, science and art, or 
state normal schools, are exempt from the provisions of this examination." 
These requirements are not to be enforced until the session of 1892-3. {Froc. 
0/ Nashville Convention, 1890.) 


5. A lectureship on Hygiene and Medical Jurisprudence is to be 

6. For and after the session of 1891-2 a regular three-years 
graded course will be required of all candidates for the degree of 
Doctor of Medicine." 

These steps were determined upon, it will be seen, several months 
prior to the meeting of the Medical College Association at Nashville, 
and hence quite independently of any influence of that meeting. 

In adopting these measures which, whilst they will place the 
school again on a level with the better class of schools in the country, 
will yet doubtless involve a large loss of patronage and a material 
decrease of revenues for at least several years to come, the Faculty 
have simply endeavored to meet the necessities of the case. The 
establishment of State Examining Boards has introduced a new and 
more rigid system of requirements previously unknown to the pro- 
fession in this country. Late experience has taught that the methods 
of education hitherto and still largely in vogue do not meet these 
requirements, and hence the standing of those schools who do not 
adapt themselves to the changed condition of things is in jeopardy. 
The authorities of the University wisely determined to place their 
school en rapport with these examining bodies and to maintain at 
any cost its respectability and standing. It is easy to say that this 
is nothing more than their duty ; true, but on the other hand it is 
hard to submit even to a duty, to say nothing of necessity, that 
threatens the loss of patronage and revenue and possibly even 
extinction. Some prominent professors in this city, while expressing 
their admiration for the courage and disinterestedness which 
prompted it, declared that the step was a suicidal one. And, indeed, 
it would appear almost like self-destruction for an institution entirely 
dependent for support upon the favor and the fees of those who attend 
its instructions to make demands upon the latter not required by other 
institutions drawing patronage from the same sources. It is a sad 
reflection that an ancient and honorable institution should be so crip- 
pled in its resources that it is unable to rise to the full stature which 
the urgent needs of the day demand of it. This brings us to con- 
sider the great crisis which is undoubtedly impending in its affairs 
and the means for meeting it. As has been pointed out and repeat- 
edly urged by the author elsewhere,' the whole trouble lies in the 

' Maryland Medical Jl., June 15, 1881, Aug. i, 1881, June 28, 1S90. Trans. 
Med. and Chir. Fac. 1881. " The solution of the problem of medical education 
is to be found in a single word — endowment," June, 1881. 


fact that the University is without a money endowment. The scien- 
tific requirements of modern medicine demand a large outlay which 
cannot be met by the mere fees of students, fluctuating and hence 
uncertain as they necessarily are. Take the equipment and mainte- 
nance of laboratories alone, which are absolutely essential now to all 
correct and complete training. In most of the German universities 
which are regarded as models of what is needed in this direction, 
according to Prof. Welch, of this city, " nearly three times as 7nuch 
vioney is paid for the support of the laboratories required by tjie 
Medical Factcliy as is given in salaries to the medical professors T^ 
The idea of suicide, as entertained by the professors above alluded 
to, is therefore by no means strained unless circumstances very greatly 
alter. One of two things is likely to occur if this attempt be under present circumstances: either it will be carried out in 
good faith and the institution will perish with honor, or the author- 
ities will become faint-hearted and violate their own plighted faith. 
We cannot for a moment entertain either possibility. It is useless to 
talk or think of anything else — there must be an endowment, and 
that in the near future. How shall it be obtained ? There are diffi- 
culties in the way that perhaps did not exist a few years back, but it 
is useless to reproach past faculties now for their neglect or grieve 
over lost opportunities. There are three sources from which funds 
ought to be forthcoming with determined and united efforts : i. the 
Faculty ; 2. the alumni ; 3. the public. The University has a just 
claim upon the two former classes : upon the first because they owe 
so much of their reputation and success to the opportunities and 
incentives which their positions in the institution have afforded ; 
upon the second because of the hallowed ties that bind them to the 
" dear mother," and because they must share with her her honor or 
dishonor, her reputation or infamy. She has the best right, there- 
fore, to look to these sources for aid either in the form of donations 
or^ bequests. Let all contribute something and let not the small 
gifts be despised, for they may come like the widow's mite, from the 
heart. A direct appeal to wealthy citizens is not necessarily 
Utopian, as some seem to think, for it has been tried successfully 
elsewhere.^ The fact that the members of our Faculty have the cream 
of the practice in this community gives them a frequent opportunity 

^ Address at Yale University, June 26th, 1888. 

^ As pointed out and urged upon our Faculty by the author in the Md. Med. 
Jour,, Sept. 29, 1883 : " How an Endowment was secured." 


for bringing the matter to the attention of wealthy and public- 
spirited laymen and laywomen. Large contributions and bequests 
are constantly being received from such sources by other institutions, 
not always charitable, not always deserving, and it is quite certain 
that cases will be met with where a suggestion of the beloved physi- 
cian will lead to a remembrance in the will of greater or less 
amounts. It is well known that persons of large fortunes and with- 
out near heirs are frequently puzzled to know what to do with their 
means. But it is useless to waste words unless there be a full realization 
of the urgency of the case and a corresponding zeal to supply it inspired 
thereby. The objections which have been urged against the Uni- 
versity on the ground that it is a private corporation, the property of 
individuals, to be managed and disposed of at their pleasure, have 
been answered by the author elsewhere.' It was there pointed out 
that whilst it is true the University is a private corporation, in 
this respect it is like most other medical schools in the country ; that 
it is not private in the same sense in which the property of an indi- 
vidual is private, to sell or otherwise dispose of at his pleasure ; that 
the property is protected by the terms of the charter, and also by a 
bond into which the Regents entered at the time of the restitution 
in 1839, and can only be used for its legitimate purposes; that the 
Medical Faculty are further restrained in their action by their col- 
leagues of the Law Faculty, astute lawyers, who will doubtless 
check any extravagance or mismanagement by their fellow-Regents, 
or give valuable legal advice and counsel as occasion requires. So 
that there is no just reason for supposing that funds contributed for 
this purpose will not be safely invested and wisely and legitimately 
employed. And when by the Divine blessing, without which we 
can hope for nothing, we have secured the fruition of our aspirations 
in regard to an endowment, may we not trace for our University the 
most brilliant pathway in the future ? and whilst we can point back- 
ward to triumphs, to self-sacrifice and devotion, so may we not 
descry through the twilight of the new morn that is just breaking, 
still greater triumphs, a higher ideal, a loftier motive ! 

1 " The Future of our University," Md. Med. Joiirji., June aSth, 1S90. 


1812 TO 1890 INCLUSIVE. 

Every effort has been made to rei'ider this catalogue as complete and^ 
accurate as possible. The following are the principal sources from which 
it has been compiled : The newspapers, theses, medical journals, MS. 
matriculation book, Regents' minute book, mandamuses, commencement 
lists, catalogues, and lists of signatures. The MS. records of the University 
are lamentably deficient, and the two previous general catalogues (1855 and 
1877) are entirely unreliable. Mistakes are in the nature of the, case 
unavoidable, as the same name is often spelt differently in different lists 
and it is impossible to tell which is the correct spelling. The earliest 
names given are those of 1812, and I have not been able to confirm 
Professor Potter's statement that there were earlier graduates. In this 
catalogue the names of those receiving the honorary M. D. are printed in 
small capitals, those receiving the degree of Bachelor of Medicine (one- 
course students) in italics. See Stipplement for other names. 

Abbott, Alexander C, 1884, Md. 
Abell, William M., 1850, Md. 
Abert, Charles, Jr., 1875, Md. 
Adams, Charles E., 1878, S. C. 
Adams, George F., 1853, Md. 
Adams, M. Revere, 1878, N. C. 
Adams, Samuel, 1861, Md. 
Adams, William S., 1859, Md. 
Addison, John, 1830, Md. 
Addison, W^illiam, 1825, Pa. 
Adkisson, W. H. H., 1861, Md. 
Adler, Lewis, 1859, Md. 
Adolphus, Philip, 1858, Md. 
Adreon, Joseph L., 1838, Md. 
Adreon, Stephen W., 1828, Md. 
Agnew, T'ames, 18 19, Va. 
Ahl, David, 1853, Pa. 
Ahlenfeld, Marcus, 1835, Pa. 
Aiken, George P., 1836, Md. 
Aiken, Robert E., 1844, Md. 
Aitken, James, 1S24, Md. 
Albert, C, 1872, Md. 

Alcock, Edward J., 1827, Md. 
Alday, Alfred F., 1857, Nassau, N. P. 
Aldridge, John H., 1855, Md. 
Aldridge, L. A., 1872, Md. 
Alexander, Edward C, 1821, Va. 
Alexander, Henry, 1825, S. C. 
Alexander, L., 1868, Va. 
Alexander, Orlando L., 1S75, ^^• 
Alfriend, Shadrach, 1815, Va. 
Allen, Charles L., 18S7, S. C. 
Allen, Ebenezer N., 1830, Md. 
Allen, Matthew J., 1820, Md. 
Allen, Richard Nun, 1817, Md. 
Allen, Robert, 1813, Md. 
Allen, Robert T., 1822, Md. 
Allen, Robert W., 1850, Md. 
Allen, Rufus L., 1885, N. C. 
Allender, Walter T., 1829, Md. 
Allinder, D. K., 1880, Pa. 
Allnutt, James R., 1836, Md. 
Alpin, Charles F., 1879, Ohio. 
Alston, Bennet P., 1868, N. C. 



Alston, Willis, 1869, N. C. 
Ambler, James M., 1870, Va. 
Ambler, Richard C, 1831, Va. 
Ames, G. L., 1889, Va. 
Ames, Howard E., 1874, Md. 
Ames, John G., 1881, Md. 
Amos, Corbin, 1812, Md. 
Amos, James B., 1854, Md. 
Anderson, A. Joseph, 1886, S. C. 
Anderson, Barton E., 1876, Ga. 
Anderson, Benjamin, 1824, Va. 
Anderson, Charles D., 1866, Md. 
Anderson, Edward, 1875, M^- 
Anderson, James, 1815, Md. 
Anderson, James L., 1835, Md. 
Anderson, John M., 1825, Va. 
Anderson, John W., 1854, Md. 
Anderson, Robert, 1823, Md. 
Anderson, Samuel H., 1870, Md. 
Anderson, Thomas A., 1822, Tenn. 
Anderson, Washington F., 1844, A^^- 
Andre, James R., 1850, Del. 
Andrews, George W., 1877, Md. 
Annan, Andrew, 1827, Md. 
Anthony, Joseph J., 1850, N. C. 
Archer, John T., 1833, Md. 
Archer, Robert H., 1835, Md. 
Archer, W. S., 1880, Md. 
Ard, Frank C, 1887, N. Y, 
Armitage, James, 1831, Md. 
Arnold, Edward A., 1S52, Conn. 
Arnold, William T., 1875, Md. 
Arthur, George, 1873, Md. 
Arthur, William H., 1877, Md. 
Arthur, W. S., 1872, Md. 
Ashby, Thomas A,, 1873, Va. 
Ashcom, John C, 1857, Md. 
Ashlin, Charles A., 1854, Ohio. 
Ashton, Charles L., 1834, Va. 
Atkins, Charles, 1825, S. C. 
Atkinson, Edwin E., 1856, Md. 
Atkinson, I. Edmondson, 1865, Md. 
Atkinson, Robert, 1854, Md. 
Atkinson, Thomas C, 1844, Md. 
Atwell, John, 1876, Ga. 
Austen, Philip H., 1845, Md. 

Austen, William H. J., 1846, Md. 
Austin, Charles L., 1882, W. Va. 
Austin, Henry, 1S48, England. 
Ayres, John, 18S8, Va. 
Ayres, Robert H., 1835, Md. 

Backus, John S., 1866, Md, 
Bacon, James E., 1846, Md. 
Baden, Joseph A., 1856, Md. 
Baer, Alexander H., 1835, Va. 
Baer, Charles J., 1845, ^d. 
Baer, Edward R., 1853, Md. 
Baer, Michael, 1818, Md. 
Bagby, John, 1867, Va. 
Bagely, Joseph H., 1858, Md. 
Bahn, George W., 18S1, Pa. 
Bailey, Charles Williams, 1889, S. C. 
Bailey, Samuel E., 1S90, W. Va. 
Bain, James, 18 16, Md. 
Bain, Julian S., 1850, Md. 
Baird, William J., 1881, Ala. 
Baker, Alfred, 1845, Md. 
Baker, C. D., 1881, Md. 
Baker, Frederick B., 1888, Conn. 
Baker, J. E. Seymour, 1881, Md. 
Baker, Julian M., 1879, N. C. 
Baker, Newton D., 1868, W. Va. 
Baker, Richard B., 1846, N. C. 
Baker, Samuel G., 1835, Md. 
Baker, William H., 18S1, Md. 
Baker, William N., 1832, Md, 
Balch, Stephen F,, 1865, Va, 
Baldwin, Abra'm S,, 1S47, Md. 
Baldwin, C. A., 1871, Md. 
Baldwin, Edwin C, 1S44, Md. 
Baldwin, Joseph S., 1S74, Va, 
Baldwin, Julius A., 1S49, Md. 
Baldwin, Mahlon K., 1850, Va, 
Baldwin, Silas, 1867, Md. 
Bales, C. J,, 187S, Va. 
Ball, C. D. E„ 1S80, Md. 
Ball, David, 1828, Va, 
Ball, Elias, 1825, S. C. 
Ballard, Edwin K., 1887, Md, 
Ballard, Levin W., 1819, Md. 
Ballard, Robert, 1824, Md. 



Baltzell, F. E., 1871, Md. 
Baltzell, William H., 1843, Tenn. 
Baltzell, William Hewson, 1889, Md. 
Banks, Alexander K., 1882, La. 
Banks, James M., 1868, N. C. 
Banks, Peter G., 1822, Va. 
Barber, George A., 1821, Md. 
Barber, Luke P., 1830, Md. 
Barber, Philip D., 1856, Md. 
Barber, Thomas K., 1S65, Md. 
Barbosa, Perfecto, 1875, Mexico. 
Barclay, Francis, 1818, Pa. 
Barclay, M. Rowan, 1889, Va. 
Bardwell, James R., 1850, Md. 
Barker, Charles W., 1885, Md. 
Barnes, Harry D., 1889, Md. 
Barnette, A. Bruce, 1S79, W. Va. 
Barnum, Augustus, 1834, Md. 
Barnum, Richard, 1828, Md. 
Barnum, Zenus, 1878, Md. 
Barr, John C, 1889, Pa. 
Barret, William E., 1S48, Pa. 
Barron, Charles H., 1868, N. C. 
Barron, John, 1877, Md. 
Barry, Charles B., 1837, Md. 
Barry, William J., 1844, Md. 
Bartholow, Roberts, 1852, Md. 
Barton, Boiling W., 1870, Va. 
Barton, W. H., 1884, Va. 
Baskerville, John T., 1822, Va. 
Bassett, H. Willis, 1822, Va. 
Batchelor, Kemp Battle, 1S89, N. C. 
Bateman, J. M. H., 1867, Md. 
Batson, A. Frank, 1881, W. Va. 
Batson, J. Richard, 1880, Md. 
Battaile, George S., 1883, Va. 
Battee, John S., 1845, Md. 
Battle, James P., 1889, N. C. 
Baxley, Claude, i860, Md. 
Baxley, flenry W., 1824, Md. 
Baxley, J. Brown, Jr., 1884, Md- 
Bayly, Alex. H., 1835, Md. 
Bayly, Walter M., 1827, Md. 
Bayne, John H., 1826, Md. 
Bayne, John W., 1868, Md. 
Beach, E. Meeker, 1885, Md. 

Beach, William B., 1875, ^^d. 
Beale, James, 1829, Va. 
Beall, Josias A., 1825, Md. 
Beall, Richard D., 1828, Md. 
Bean, Hezekiah H., 1847, Md. 
Beans, R. Albert, 1864, Va. 
Bear, Alexander, i860, Va. 
Beard, John W., 1852, Md. 
Beard, Stephen, 1873, Md. 
* Beatty, George D., 1863, Md. 
Beatty, J. E., i86r, Md. 
Beck, Samuel, i860, Md.' 
Beckenbaugh, J. J., i860, Md. 
Beckenbaugh, John M., 1866, Md. 
Becker, G. Franklin, 1888, Md. 
Beckett, Truman D., 1845, Md. 
Beckham, W. L., 1868, Va. 
Beckwith, John B., 1837, N. C. 
Becraft, Calvin E., 1884, Md. 
Becton, Frederick E., 1823, Tenn. 
Beeler, G. Barton, 1876, Md. 
Bell, Daniel F., 1867, Va. 
Bell, Ephraim, 1821, Md. 
Bell, Henry R., 1879, Cal. 
Bell, J. S., 1884, N. C. 
Bellamy, Ed. C, 1825, N. C. 
Bellerman, C. F., 1872, Md. 
Belt, E. Oliver, 1886, Md. 
Belt, George D., 1868, Md. 
Belt, James H., 1850, Miss. 
Belt, Richard G., 1821, Md. 
Belt, Samuel J., 1876, Md. 
Belt, Shadrach J. M., 1844, Md. 
Belt, Upton H., 1850, Md. 
Belt. W. Seton, 1849, Md. 
Belt, Walter T., 1835, ^- C. 
Beltz, Theodore H., 1863, Md. 
Bennett, J. Edmond, 1855, Md. 
Bennett, Van S., 1827, Va. 
Bennett, W. H., 1866, Md. 
Benson, Benjamin R., 1873, Md. 
Benson, Charles, i860, Md. 
Benson, Charles C, 1883, Md. 
Benson, George W., 1852, Md. 
Benson, J. Edward, 1884, Md. 
Benson, John A. D., 1837, Md. 



Benson, Philander V., 1862, Md. 
Benson, Samuel L., 18S3, Md. 
Benson, W. H., 1861, Ala. 
Benton, John M., 1890, Ga. 
Benton, John R., 1883, Md. 
Benzinger, Joseph C, 1863, Md. 
Berkeley, Carter, 1866, Va. 
Berkley, Henry J., 1881, Md. 
Berlalga, Alberto, 1882, Mexico. 
Berney, John, 1867, Ala. 
Bernstein, Edward J., 1887, Md. 
Berry, Benjamin, 1848, Md. 
Berry, John, 1828, Tenn. 
Berry, Laurence J., 1829, Md. 
Berry, William H., 1850, U. C. 
Berryman, Upton H., 1S46, Md. 
Berthold, Jacob L., 1886, Pa. 
Best, J. Janney, 1886, Va. 
Best, John W. F., 1858, Md. 
Best, William J., 1856, Va. 
Betson, George W., 1865, Md. 
Betts, Solomon, Jr., 1856, Md. 
Bevan, C. F., 1871, Md. 
BiBiGHAUs, John, 1846, Pa. 

edler, H. H., 1S76, Va. 
ggs, Joseph W., 1826, Md. 
Ibro, William C, 1884, Tenn. 
llingham, Walter A., 1877, England, 
llingslea, James, 1878, Md. 
llingslea, James H., 1864, Md. 
llingslea, James L., 1S27, Md. 
llingslea, Martin B., 1874, Md. 
llingslea, Uriah H., 1857, Md. 
Uingsley, John A. T., 1849, Md. 
nion, Samuel A., 1886, Md. 
nswanger, Otto, 1882, Germany, 
rch, Andrew D., 1857, Md. 
rchett, Edward H., 1820, Va. 
rckhead, Lennox, 1817, Md. 
rd, Benjamin L., 1837, Md. 
rd, Benjamin L., 1864, Md. 
rd, William P., 1849, ^^d. 
scoe, William B., 1853, Md. 
ser, F. H. D., 1890, Md. 
ser, Tilghman, 1826, Md. 
shop, Elijah T., 1855, Md. 

Bishop, F. Bessant, 1883, N. C. 
Bissell, J. D., 1888, S. C. 
Black, Hugh K., 1883, S. C. 
Black, J. B., 1872, S, C. 
Black, J. Cyrus, 1886, N. C. 
Black, William C, 1886, N. C. 
Blackiston, T. C, 1889, W. Va. 
Blackistone, R. Pinkney, 1849, ^d. 
Blackwell, E. Maurice, 1890, Va. 
Blair, John L., 186S, Md. 
Blake, James H., 1873, Texas. 
Blake, John B., 1824, D. C. 
Blake, Thomas, 1820, Md. 
Blakistone, W. S., 1861, Md. 
Bland, T. Jackson, 1887, Va. 
Blandford, Joseph H., 1856, Md. 
Blanding, A. Louis, 1881, S. C. 
Blanton, Orville M., 1850, Miss. 
Bledsoe, Powhatan, i860, Va. 
Blubaugh, Charles B., 1880, Va. 
Blue, Kenneth A., 1889, N. C. 
Blum, Joseph, 1885, Md. 
Board, Francis H., 1854, N. C. 
Boardman, Francis E., 1869, Md. 
Boarman, Charles, 1849, ^^• 
Boarman, Charles S., 1837, Md. 
Boarman, John H., 1835, Md. 
Boarman, William J., 1855, Md. 
Bobbitt, Emmett H., 1877, N. C. 
Bodder, Horatio T., 1844, Md. 

BOERSTLER, GeORGE W., 1834, Md. 

Boerstler, George W., 1820, Md. 
Boggs, James A., 1824, Md. 
Boggs, Samuel E., 1834, Pa. 
Bogue, Robert J., 1866, Md. 
Bohanan, James S., 1863, Md. 
Bohannan, William T., 1866, Md. 
Bohrer, Benjamin F., 1843, U. C. 
Bolenius, R. M., 1873, Pa. 
Bolton, L Henry, 1862, Ky. 
Bolton, James W. W., 1883, W. Va. 
Bond, A. Kerr, 1882, Md. 
Bond, Benson, 1848, Md. 
Bond, Elijah J., 1822, Md. 
Bond, Henry, 181 7, Md. 
Bond, James, 1824, Md. 



Bond, Joshua, 18 19, Md. 
Bond, Robert, 1880, Md. 
Bond, Summerfield B., 1883, Md. 
Bond, Thomas E., 1819, Md. 
Bond, Thomas E., Jr., 1S34, Md. 
Bond, Y. H., 1867, Md. 
Booker, Thomas N., 1863, Md. 
Boon, Charles E., 1848, Md. 
Boon, John F., 1837, Md. 
Boon, William H., 1850, Pa. 
Boone, James H., 185S, Md. 
Boone, Jerningham, 1844, Md. 
Boone, W. C, 1872, Md. 
Booth, William, 1865, Md. 
Borck, E. A. M., Jr., 1863, Md. 
Bordley, James, 1829, Md. 
Bordley, James, 186S, Md. 
Bordley, William W., 1842, Md. 
Borgman, Charles J., 1S52, Sweden. 
Bosley, Grafton M., 1847, Md. 
Boteler, Edward L., 1S26, Md. 
Boteler, George W., 18(18, Md. 
Boteler, John T., 1S34, Md. 
Boteler, R. H. E., 1861, Md. 
Boteler, W. Clarence, 1S78, Md. 
Boucsein, Gustav F., 1885, Md. 
Boulden, James E. P., 1850, Del. 
Bouldin, Robert K., 1865, Md. 
Bowden, David Thomas, i8S9,N. J. 
Bowdle, William J., 1S57, Md. 
Bowen, Josiah S., 1865, Cal. 
Bowen, W. B., 1871, Va. 
Bowen, William S., 18S8, Md. 
Bower, George B. M., 18S7, Pa. 
Bowers, Jacob L., 1888, S. C. 
Bowie, Allen, 1835, Md. 
Bowie, Allen T., 1836, Md. 
Bowie, Augustus J., 1843, Md. 
Bowie, H. Strafford, 1870, Md. 
Bowie, Humphrey, 1S24, Md. 
Bowie, J. F., 187 1, Va. 
Bowlen, George W., 1856, Va. 
Bowles, R. C, 1S61, Va. 
Bowman, Charles W., i88i. Pa. 
Bowman, Rufus C, 18S3, Va. 
Boyd, Harry, 1888, Md. 

Boyd, Philip W., 1868, Va. 
Boyd, William S., Jr., 18S6, S. C. 
Boyd, William T., 1834, Md. 
Boyle, Charles B., 1869, Md. 
Boyle, Daniel S., i860, Md. 
Boyle, J. Brooke, Jr., 1869, Md. 
Boyle, John H., 1839, Md. 
Boyle, Samuel, 1861, Bermuda. 
Boyle, William, 1838, Md. 
* Boyleston, W. A., 1871, La. 
Brace, Russel, 1849, Md. 
Bradford, Charles H., 1830, Md. 
Bradford, Edward, 1822, N. C. 
Bradford, Randolph, 1824, Md. 
Bramwell, Henry V., 1828, Md. 
Branham, B. W., 1824, Va. 
Braswell, James C, 1882, N. C. 
Braswell, Mark R., 1S86, N. C. 
Brattan, Lemuel R., 1854, Md. 
Brawner, J. B., 1872, Md. 
Braymer, Frank H., 18S6, Vt. 
Breathed, James, i860, Md. 
Breda, Philip, 1833, France. 
Brent, Henry W., 1855, Md. 
Brewer, Charles, 1855, Md. 
Brewer, Edward, 1826, D. C. 
Brewer, George G., 1856, Md. 
Brewer, Marbury, 1850, Md. 
Brewer, William, 1827, Md. 
Briel, Fred. M., 1877, Va. 
Brien, John, 1824, Md. 
Brinton, Wilmer, 1876, Md. 
Briscoe, C, 1823, Md. 
Briscoe, Henry, 1855, Md. 
Broadbent, William, 1863, Md. 
Broadnax, Robert H., 1827, Va. 
Broadwater, Joseph E., i860, Va. 
Brock, Jesse W., 1855, Ohio. 
Brockbank, Joseph W., 1887, Pa. 
Brodbeck, John R., 1879, Pa. 
Brodie, Walter, 1867, N. C. 
Brodnax, D. W., 1836, Va. 
Brogden, Arthur, 1859, Md. 
Bromwell, J. E., 1867, Md. 
Bromwell, J. R., 1871, Md. 
Bromwell, Robert £., 1850, Md. 

1 66 


Brook, Henry, 182S, Md. 
Brooke, Alexander M., 1856, Md. 
Brooke, Ballard S., 1S58, Md. 
Brooke, Edgar A., 1887, Montana. 
Brooke, Roger, 1887, Md. 
Brooke, William J. R., 1830, Md. 
Brookings, Richard, 1830, Md. 
Brooks, Horace A., 1861, Md. 
Brooks, H. M., 1S79, N. C. 
Brothers, Rufus S., 1859, N. C. 
Broughton, Henry B., 1822, Md. 
Brown, Catesby G., 1834, Md. 
Brown, Ephraim L., 1838, Md. 
Brown, George H., 1864, Md. 
Brown, George W., 1889, S. C. 
Brown, Henry C, 1865, Md. 
Brown, James, 1875, ^^'^* 
Brown, John H., 1S34, S. C. 
Brown, John J., 1S78, Pa. 
Brown, John P., 1883, N. C. 
Brown, Lloyd W., 1847, Mo. 
Brown, Nathan, 1826, Md. 
Brown, Richard W., 1853, Md. 
Brown, Samuel P., 1850, Va. 
Brown, Septimus, 1849, ^'^• 
Brown, Thomas R., 1866, Md. 
Brown, Walter H., 1889, Md. 
Browne, B. Bernard, 1867, Md. 
Browne, Joseph, 1830, Md. 
Browne, Nathan, 1826, Md. 
Browne, William H., 1850, Md. 
Bruce, John J., 1S50, Md. 
Bruce, William H., 1856, Md. 
Brune, T. Barton, 1878, Md. 
Bryan, Edward H., 1829, Md. 
Bryan, N. B., 1S61, Pa. 
Bryce, John C, 1874, S. C. 
Buchanan, James A., 1827, Md. 
Buck, Carey, 1S74, Va. 
Buck, John S., 1825, Md. 
Buckler, John, 1817, Md. 
Buckler, Riggin, 1853, ^'^^ 
Buckler, Thomas H., 1835, Md. 
Buckler, Thomas H., 18S8, Md. 
Buckley, Jesse J., 1855, Md. 
Buckner, C. Beverly, 1842, Va. 

Buckner, Charles S., 1843, Mo. 
Buckner, Leigh, 1885, Va. 
Buhrman, Harvey, 1862, Md. 
Bulluck, David W., 1873, N. C. 
Burch, Dennis C, 1S65, Md. 
Burch, James C, 1862, Md. 
Burch, William, 1844, Md. 
Burch, William Baltzell, 1890, Md. 
Burchinal, Lowry N., 1S86, W. Va. 
Burdick, Isaac D., 1853, N. Y. 
Burgess, John J., 1854, Md. 
Burgess, Lloyd D., 1862, Md. 
Burgess, Richard B., 1833, Md. 
Burgin, Harvey F., 1S75, N. C. 
Burgos, Pastor Y. G., 18S0, Cuba. 
Burkhardt, William D., 1852, Va. 
Burleigh, W. Elizur, 1865, Mass. 
Burneston, Edward R., 1851, Md. 
Burnett, William, 1828, Va. 
Burns, Arthur, 1850, Md. 
Burr, William H., 1884, Del. 
Burrington, Solon O., 1S66, Vt. 
Burton, Aaron, 1813, Va. 
Burton, J. Woolf, 1865, Md. 
Burton, Martin, 1828, Va. 
Bush, John C, 1S54, Md. 
Bushay, Franklin A., 1861, Pa. 
Bussey, Bennet, 1828, Md. 
Bussey, B. F., 1885, Md. 
Bussey, Harry G., Jr., iS64,Pa. 
Butler, Charles T. V. S., 1874, W.Va. 
Butler, Francis, 1834, Md. 
Butler, Fred., 1835, Md. 
Butler, George W., 1882, N. C. 
Butler, James H., 1857, Md. 
Butler, John B., 1877, Md. 
Butler, John J., 1858, Md. 
Butler, J. Camp, 1882, Md. 
Butler, M. S., 1874, W. Va. 
Butler, Vincent M., i84i,Va. 
Butler, Wm. W. S., 1881, Va. 
Byer, Frederick, 182S, Md. 
Byrne, Barnard M., 1S28, Md. 
Byrne, Charles, 1825, Ireland. 
Byrne, Charles C, 1859, Fla. 
Byrne, Edmond, 1837, Md. 



Byrne, John, 1837, Md. 

Cabaniss, Thomas T., 1848, Va. 
Cabell, James L., 1834, Va. 
Cabell, J. Grattan, 1840, Va. 
Cairnes, George H., 1864, Md. 
Cairns, C. F., 1874, Md. 
Caldwell, D. Greenlee, 1885, N, C. 
Caldwell, John B., 1816, Md. 
Caldwell, Samuel H., 1828, Md. • 

Callaway, Paul C, 1837, Va. 
Calvert, William H., 1835, Md. 
Camm, Frank, 1S85, Va. 
Campbell, Archibald, 1889, N. C. 
Campbell, Bernard J., 1864, Md. 
Campbell, James B., 1833, Va. 
Campbell, Joseph D., 1846, Va. 
Campbell, L. F., 1867, Va. 
Campbell, Robert, 1823, Md. 
Campbell, R. H., 1S89, Md. 
Campbell, William H. H., 1869, Va. 
Canfield, W. Buckingham, 1880, Md. 
Canter, Gustavus, i860, Md. 
Capehart, B. Ashbourne, 1S86, N. C. 
Carlin, James S., 1S62, Md. 
Carlisle, James B., 1847, Ohio. 
Carmichael, Edward H., 1817, Va. 
Carmichael, George F., 1828, Va. 
Carmichael, James, 1822, Va. 

Carpenter, George H., 1868, Va. 

Carpenter, James A. S., 1848, Pa. 

Carper, Elkanah U. W., 1851, Md. 

Carr, Benjamin, 1822, Md. 

Carr, Benjamin A., 1853, Md. 

Carr, John, 1833, Ireland. 

Carr, John B., 1885, N. C. 

Carr, John D. M., 1S67, Ohio. 

Carr, Joseph, 1827, Md. 

Carr, Mortimer A. R. F., 1851, Va. 

Carr, Richard W., 1852, Md. 

Carr, Samuel J., 1834, S. C. 

Carr, Watson, 1846, Va. 

Carrere, Edward W., 1825, Md. 

Carrick, H. J., 1889, Md. 

Carrico, Lewis C, 18S5, Md. 

Carrico, Thomas A., 1S48, Md. 

Carroll, Charles A., 1864, Md. 
Carroll, Daniel C, 1S84, Ark. 
Carroll, J. G., 1872, Md. 
Carroll, Joseph, 1880, Md. 
Carroll, Thomas King, Jr., 1846, Md. 
Carroll, William K., 1873, Md. 
Carson, William C, 1856, Md. 
Carter, C. Shirley, 1881, Va. 
Carter, Edward L., 1S45, Md. 
Carter, George W., 1849, Va. 
Carter, George W., 1S78, Va. 
Carter, Henry H., 1879, Va. 
Carter, James M., 1864, Md. 
Carter, James P., 1852, Va. 
Carter, John C, 1858, Pa. 
Carter, Paul B., 1885, Va. 
Carter, Richard T., 1847, Md. 
Carter, Robert C, 1845, Md. 
Carter, Walter K., 1849, Md. 
Cassidy, Harry Francis, 1890, Md. 
Casteel, D. T. E., 1885, Md. 
Catlett, John J., 1823, Va. 
Catlin, William J., 1875, ^^' 
Caulk, William, 1867, Md. 
Chabot, G. Henry, 1883, Md. 

Chabot, Lawrence J., 1850, Md. 

Chaisty, Edward J., 1837, Md. 

Chamberlain, John R., 1847, Md. 

Chamberlaine, H. R., 1872, Md. 

Chamberlaine, J. E. M., 1849, Md. 

Chamberlayne, C. Eugene, 1875, Md. 

Chamberlin,Addrestus R.,1822, N.H. 

Chancellor, E. A., 1877, Va. 

Chandlee, Henry, 1882, Md. 

Chandler, John R., 1S24, D. C. 

Chaney, Joseph P., 1852, Md. 

Chaney, Thomas M., 1866, Md. 

Chaplain, James S., 1S54, Md. 

Chaplain, Louis, 1S77, Md. 

Chapman, James K., 1869, S. C. 

Chapman, John S., 1847, Md. 

Chapman, N., 1872, Md. 

Chapman, Pearson, Jr., 1865, Md. 

Chapman, Robert F., 1865, Md. 

Chapman, William A., 1887, Va. 

Charles, Frederick H., 1886, Md. 



Charters, C. L., 1S89, Va. 

Chatard, Ferdinand E., 1826, Md. 

Chatard, F. E., Jr., i86r, Md. 

Chatard, Silas M., 1856, Md. 

Cheatham, Arch., iSSS, N. C. 

Cheatham, U. Lewis, 1874, Ga. 

Cheeves, L. A., 1878, Ga. 

Chenault, William F., 1888, N. C, 

Cherbonnier, Joseph H., 1870, Md. 

Cherry, W. F., 18S7, N. C. 

Chesley, James A., 1S23, Md. 

Chesley, James B., 1868, Md. 

Chesley, Nathaniel U., 1836, Md. 

Cheston, James, 1S25, Md. 

Chevis, Francis T., 1827, Va. 

Chew, John H., 1863, Md. 

Chew, Samuel, 1S29, Md. 

Chew, Samuel C, 1858, Md. 

Chew, Thomas J,, 1868, Md. 

Chew, Thomas S., 1818, Md. 

Childs, William W., 1854, Md. 

Chilton, Samuel B., 1S80, W. Va. 
Chisolm, Edward N., 1826, S. C. 
Chisolm, Francis M., 1889, Md. 
Christian, Charles C, 18S6, Va, 
Christie, Arthur, 1866, England. 
Chunn, James T., 1851, Va. 
Chunn, W. Pawson, 1880, Md. 
Clagett, Benjamin F., 1856, Md. 
Clagett, Grafton A., 1848, Md. 
Clagett, Horatio, 1814, Md. 
Clagett, Robert G., 1863, Md. 
Claggett, James H., 1826, Md. 
Claridge, Joseph S., 1864, Me. 
Clark, Charles, 1859, Md. 
Clark, Charles B., 1882, Miss. 
Clark, Charles IT., 1S80, Pa. 
Clark, Cheever S., 18S7, Ohio. 
Clark, George Edward, 1889, Md. 
Clark, Homer L., 1885, Pa. 
Clark, Joseph C, 1S80, Md. 
Clark, Robert, 1818, Md. 
Clark, S. Corbin, 1882, N. Y. 
Clark, Thaddeus W., 1880, Md. 
Clarke, Andrew P., 1S73, Md. 
Clarke, Byron, 1881, Pa. 

Clarke, Henry J., 1879, N. C. 
Clarke, Sydenham R., 1S44, Md. 
Clarvoe, John B. H. W., 1827, Md. 
Clary, Jonathan, 1844, Md. 
Claude, Abraham, 1838, Md. 
Claude, Washington C, 1875, M^- 
Clawson, James E., 1855, Md. 
Clawson, J. H., 1872, S. C. 
Clayton, Lawrence G., 1878, S. C, 
Claytor, Herbert, 18S6, Md. 
Claytor, William Q., 1852, Md. 
Cleaveland, Anthony B., 1824, Md. 
Cleaver, J. Harvey, iS8o, Pa. 
Clendinen, Adam, 1829, Md. 
Clendinen, Alexander, 1815, Md. 
Clendinen, Alexander, 1859, Md. 
Clendinen, Wm. Alex., 1840, Md. 
Clendinen, W. H., 1838, Md. 
Clendinen, William H., 1850, Md. 
Clift, Francis A., 1847, Md. 
Cline, Henry C, 1876, Va. 
Cloud, Caleb W., 1827, Md. 
Clyburn, William R., 1890, S. C. 
Clymer, Frank L., 1SS6, W. Va. 
Coale, Skipwith H., 1816, Md. 
Coale, Skipwith H., 1S43, Md. 
Coale, William, 1827, Md. 
Coale, William E., 1836, Md. 
Coates, Stapleton, 1833, Va. 
Cobb, William A., 1845, Md. 
Coble, Aaron C, 1885, Pa. 
Coblentz, Jacob, 18 19, Md. 
Cochran, John H., 1S60, Md. 
Cochran, William W., 1833, Md. 
Cochran, William W., 1848, Md. 
Cochrane, R. McCluney, 1846, Md. 
Cockey, Charles, 1S66, Md. 
Cockey, Charles II., 1867, Md. 
Cockey, Frank, 1874, Md. 
Cockey, John Pauf, 1817, Md. 
Cockey, Joseph C, 1835, Md. 
Cockey, Joshua, 1818, Md. 
Cockey, Melchor G., 1879, Md. 
Cockrell, William S., 1879, Mo. 
Cockrill, J. Jackson, 1837, Md. 
Cockrill, J. M., 1871, Md. 



Coffrotb, H, J., 1879, Md. 
Cohen, F. P., 1881, Cal. 
Cohen, Henry M., 1848, Va. 
Cohen, Joshua I., 1823, Md, 
Coiner, N. L., 18S4, Va. 
Colburn, Edmund F., 1845, Md. 
Colburn, Hervey, 1838, Md. 
Cole, G. R. Lee, 18S7, Va. 
Cole, Geo. W. A., 1842, Md. 
Cole, Isaac, 1827, Md. 
Cole, William J., 1877, Md. 
Coleman, Edward C, 1885, Miss. 
Collenberg, J. Henry, 1879, ^d. 
Collier, Thomas H., 1837, Md. 
Collins, Edward J., 1827, Md. 
Collins, George T., 1854, Md. 
Collins, John G., 1827, La. 
Collins, Rollin P., 1890, Md. 
Collinson, J., 1872, Md. 
Comas, Philip H., 1882, Ga. 
Combs, Charles, 1861, Md. 
Comegys, Henry C, 1854, Md. 
Comegys, Nathaniel, 1866, Md. 
Compton, Joseph B., 1880, Va. 
Conaway, Wesley, 1830, Md. 
Conley, H. C, 1885, W, Va. 
Conner, John A., 1862, Md. 
Connor, John W., 1825, S. C. 
Constable, Charles B., 1883, ^^• 
Conway, William D., 1816, Md. 
Cook, Elisha J., 1847, Md. 
Cook, George W., 1869, Va. 
Cook, Octavius A., 1862, Md. 
Cook, William G., 1833, Va. 
Coo^, William P., 1827, Va. 
Cooke, Charles A., 1883, Md. 
Cooke, Francis J., 1888, Texas. 
Cooke, James P., 1858, Md. 
Cooke, John, 1846, Md. 
Cooke, 'Theodore, 1859, ^^d- 
Cooke, W. J., 1872, N. C. 
Coombe, James S., 1835, U. C. 
Coombs, Philip F., 1839, Md. 
Coonan, Daniel S., 1866, Md. 
Coonan, John N., 1861, Md. 
Cooper, George R., 1851, Md. 

Coplin, David C, 1877, W. Va. 
Corbell, E. Y., 1886, Va. 
Corbett, Richard, 1824, S. C. 
Corcoran, George, 1887, Md. 
Cordell, Eugene F., 186S, W. Va. 
Cordell, Levi O'C, 1825, Va. 
Corkran, Alexander M., 1858, Md. 
Corkran, James, 1887, Del. 
Corkran, Millard F., 1884, Md. 
• Correll, Thomas A., 1875, Md. 
Corse, George F., 1864, Md. 
Corse, William D., 1887; Md. 
Corse, W. J. C, 1872, Md. 
Cort, John C, 1885, Pa. 
Coskery, Felix, 1836, Md. 
Coskery, Oscar J., 1865, Md. 
Coskery, William, 1827, Md. 
Costin, Severn P., 1880, Va. 
Costin, William F., 1S54, Md. 
Gotten, J., 1S67, N. C. 
Cottman, Thomas E. PL, 1S30, Md. 
Couch, G. Miller, 1883, Pa. 
Coudon, James, 1813, Md. 
Coulbourn, Joseph T., 1886, Md. 
Coulter, Henry S., 1826, Md. 
Coulter, Mifflin, 1823, Md. 
Councilman, John T., 1844, Md. 
Councilman, William T., 1878, Md. 
Coursault, Edme Louis, 1836, Mo. 
Covey, Edward N., 1855, Md. 
Cowles, Joseph L., 1856, Ga. 
Cowles, Josiah E., 18S0, N. C. 
Cowman, Richard H., 1849, Md. 
Cowman, Thomas I., 1825, Md. 
Cox, B. Thaddeus, 18S8, N. C. 
Cox, E. L., 1889, N. C. 
Craig, John A., 1830, Md. 
Craighill, James M., 1882, Md. 
Grain, Robert, 1851, Md. 
Grain, Robert, Jr., 1819, Md. 
Crampton, Joseph K., 1858, Md. 
Crampton, Louis W., 1869, Md. 
Crane, George H., 1869, Md. 
Crane, Thomas H., 1845, Md. 
Crane, William B., 1S48, Md. 
Crapster, Milton H., 1850, Md. 



Crause, John L., 1859, Md. 
Crawford, Abraham N., 1S53, ^^' 
Crawford, Basil B., 1S51, Md. 
Crawford, George B., 1867, Md. 
Crawford, James V., 1845, ^^*^- 
Crawford, John M., 1836, Md. 
Crawford, Nathan H., 1835, ^^' 
Creager, William H., 1835, Md. 
Creasy, W. F., 1S90, N. C. 
Creighton, Samuel B., 1833, Md. 
Crim, William H., 1870, Va. 
Crogan, John M., 1868, Md. 
Cromble, John B., 1883, Pa. 
Cromwell, John, 1814, — . 
Cromwell, John C, 1819, Va. 
Cromwell, William, 1836, Md. 
Crone, Jonathan, 1842, Md. 
Cronise, J. Stoll, 1S45, ^^'^• 
Cronk, Abm. T., 1890, Md. 
Cronk, Edwin D., 1884, Md. 
Cronmiller, John, 1826, Md. 
Cronmiller, John, Jr., 1856, Md. 
Cronmiller, Thomas Le P., 1849, Md. 
Cronmiller, William, 1826, Md. 
Crook, James, 1852, Ohio. 
Cropper, Kendall S., i860, Md. 
Crossland, William, 1824, S. C. 
Crosson, Henry J., 1836, Md. 
Crothers, A. C, 18S8, Md. 
Crothers, Ransom R., 1873, Md. 
Crouch, J. Frank, 1890, Md. 
Cruikshank, Harrison, 1865, Md. 
Cruikshank, James A., 1S64, La. 
Cruikshanks, Robert, 1833, Md. 
Crum, C. W. R., 1888, Md. 
Crum, J. Henry, 1875, Md. 
Crutchfield, Eugene Lee, 18S7, Md. 
Cuddy, John W. C, 1863, Md. 
Culler, James J., 1848, Md. 
Culver, Henry, 1822, Md. 
Cummings, John C, 1884, Pa. 
Cunningham, Chas. T. D., 1852, Md. 
Cunningham, James H., 1841, Pa. 
Curlett, William S., 1829, Va. 
Curley, Joseph H., 1850, Md. 
Currey, James H., 1859, Md. 

Currey, W. C, 1881, W. Va. 
Currey, Wilbur C, 1889, Md. 
Curry, William H., 1866, Md. 
Curtis, Henry, 1812, Va. 
Gushing, Wilson R., 1881, Md. 

Dade, Lawrence T., 1829, Va. 
Daily, John, 182 1, Md. 
Dale, Dennis J., 1846, Md. 
Dallam, Edward P., 1878, Md. 
Dallam, William H., 1845, Md. 
Dalrymple, Augustin J., 1854, Md. 
Dalrymple, William D., 1844, Md. 
Daly, Anthony, 1827, Md. 
Danforth, Nathaniel B., 1845, Mass. 
Daniel, John M., 1822, Va. 
Daniel, John S., i860, Va. 
Daniel, Spencer, 1855, N. C. 
Daniel, Starkie S., 1S87, N. C. 
Dare, George, 1818, Md. 
Dare, George H.. 1858, Md. 
Dare, John, 1846, Md. 
Darling, E. G., 1882, Md. 
Darling, Henry, 1867, Md. 
Darwin, J. T., 1889, S. C. 
Dashiel, Cadmus, 1835, Md. 
Dashiel, George W., 1817, Md. 
Dashiel, J. Yellott, 1S24, Md. 
Dashiell, Addison, 1818, Md. 
Dashiell, J. W., 1843, Md. 
Dashiell, Nicholas L., 1837, Md. 
Dashiell, Nicholas L., Jr., 1882, Md. 
Dashiell, Seth, 1819, Md. 
Dashiell, W. H. H., 1865, Md. 
Daugherty, Thomas, 1848, Md. 
Daughtridge, William T., 1882, N. C. 
Dausch, Peter, 1S68, Md. 
Davidson, Andrew, 1847, Ohio. 
Davidson, B. R., 1867, Md. 
Davidson, C. H. W., 1849, Md. 
Davidson, Charles F., 1888, Md. 
Davidson, James, 1827, Md. 
Davidson, Samuel A., 1841, Md. 
Davidson, W. S., 1887, N. C. 
Davis, Charles K., 1890, Md. 
Davis, Charles S., 1S15, Md. 



Davis, Francis M., 1856, Md. 
Davis, George W., 1869, Md. 
Davis, Gooderum, 1822, N. C. 
Davis, Henry W., 1852, Ind. 
Davis, Isaac H., 1885, Md. 
Davis, James, 1822, S. C. 
Davis, John, 1S87, Md. 
Davis, John A., Jr., 1889, N. C. 
Davis, John W., 1821, Pa. 
Davis, Pinkney L., 1888, Md. * 

Davis, Richard W., 1821, Md. 
Davis, Samuel, 1817, Md. 
Davis, Septimus, 1824, Md. 
Davis, Thomas J., 1828, Md. 
Davis, William H., 1833, Md. 
Davison, Garland H., 1864, Md. 
Davison, William, 1876, Va. 
Dawkins, John T., 1858, Md. 
Dawson, James, 1828, Md. 
Dawson, J. Alvan, 1874, Md. 
Dawson, J. T., 1871, Md. 
Dawson, Robert M,, 1869, Md. 
Dawson, William H., 1856, Md. 
Dawson, W. Terrell, 1880, Md. 
Day, Baldwin, 1883. Va. 
Day, Benjamin, 1821, Md. 
Day, Edward W., 1853, Md. 
Day, Henry, 1868, Va. 
Day, John T., 1851, Md. 
Day, .'<. T., 1889, Md. 
Deagan, Henry N., 1826, Md. 
Deal, W. Grove, 1846, Md. 
Deale, James N., 1863, Md. 
Dean, Francis, 1840, N. Y. 
De Armon, John McC, 1886, N. C. 
Deas, Elias H., 1825, S. C. 
Deaver, Joshua M., 1843, Md. 
De Butts, John, 1848, Md. 
Deck, Milton B., 1879, Md. 
Deets, James E., 1882, Md. 
De Ford, Paul F., 1889, Md. 
Delancy, Denis, 1830, Md. 
Delany, John, 1823, Md. 
Delashmutt, Van E., 1854, Md. 
De Leon, M. A., 1834, S. C. 
Delony, William H., 1819, Md. 

Deloughery, Edward, 1829, Md. 
Denny, Alexander P. L., 1823, Pa. 
Denny, James A., 1817, Pa. 
Denny, John, 1825, Md. 
Denny, William, 1853, ^I'^- 
Dent, George T., 1888, Md. 
Dent, Walter B., 1852, Md. 
Dent, W, B., 1889, Md. 
Derieux, J. L., 1883, Tenn. 
Derr, H. K., 1881, Md. 
Derr, Joseph L., 1889, Pa. 
De Veber, J. Witt, 1886, N. B. 
Devilbiss, D. M., 1872, Md. 
Dew, Samuel B., 1885, N. C. 
Dewling, Isaiah, i860, Md. 
De Yoe, Charles P., 1883, N. J. 
Dial, W. Hastings, 1884, S. C. 
Dickerson, Edwin G. P., 1854, Md. 
Dickerson, Lewis L., 1824, Md. 
Dickinson, Albert H., 1856, Md. 
Dickinson, Henry J. P., 1S50, Md. 
Dickinson, Samuel P., 1826, Md. 
Dickinson, S. W., 1872, Va. 
Dickson, Benjamin, 1820, Md. 
Dickson, Isaac N., 1S38, Md. 
Dickson, John, 1852, Md. 
Didier, Franklin J,, 1816, Md. 
Dietrich, William A., 1879, Ind. 
Diffenderffer, Henry, 1827, Md. 
Diffenderffer, Michael N., 1833, Md. 
Diffenderffer, William H., 1843, Md. 
Digges, Robert, 1850, Md. 
Digges, William D., 1837, Md. 
Digges, William J., 1842, Md. 
Diggs, Charles H., 1861, Va. 
Dill, Ph. Gustav, 1885, Md. 
Dillard, D. L., 1883, Va, 
DiUer, C. H., 1872, Md. 
Diller, David, 1836, Pa. 
Ditson, Asa M., 1833, Me. 
Dixon, Basil S., 1854, Md. 
Dodge, A. P., 1881, N. Y. 
Dodge, Amos P., 1874, N. Y. 
Dodge, Augustus W., 1864, N. Y, 
DoDsoN, Robert A., 1859, Md. 
Dodson, W. Walter, 1888, S. C. 



Doerksen, J. Leight, 1880, Md. 
Doerner, John A., 1877, Md. 
Dohme, Gustavus C, 1864, Md. 
Donaldson, Francis, 1846, Md. 
Donaldson, Frank, Jr., 1883, Md. 
Donaldson, Miles L., 1840, Md. 
Donaldson, William, 1818, Md. 
Donavan, James, 1846, Md. 
Donavin, Matthew W., 1866, Pa. 
Donnelly, J. C, 1881, Md. 
Donsife, Henry L., 1864, Md. 
Dorminy, Edwin J., 1890, Ga. 
Dorr, Lucius Bradley, 1890, N. Y. 
Dorsey, Alexander W., 1857, Md. 
Dorsey, Edward J., 1850, Md. 
Dorsey, Edwin, 1825, Md. 
Dorsey, Frederick, 1824, Md. 
Dorsey, Hanson, 1833, Md. 
Dorsey, J. Horatio, 18S5, Minn. 
Dorsey, John C, 1827, Md. 
Dorsey, Julius O., 1863, Md. 
Dorsey, Lloyd, 1821, Md. 
Dorsey, Lloyd, Jr., 1854, Md. 
Dorsey, Nicholas J., 1847, Md. 
Dorsey, Richard, 1824, Md. 
Dorsey, Richard L, 1850, Md. 
Dorsey, Robert, 1820, Md. 
Dorsey, Robert E., 1819, Md. 
Dorsey, Robert \V., 1856, Md. 
Dorsey, Thornton, 1853, Md. 
Dorsey, William P., 1849, Md. 
Dorsey, William R., 1825, Md. 
Dorsey, William T., 1870, Md. 
Dougherty, Bernard A., 1847, Md. 
Douglass, Eugene, 1889, ]\Id. 
Dowler, Bennet, 1827, Va. 
Dowling, Henry M., 1827, Va. 
Downes, William H., Jr., 1864, Md. 
Downey, B. Dorsey, 1883, Va. 
Downey, Jesse W., 1869, Md. 
Downey, William A., 185S, Ind. 
Downing, Stratton B., 1856, Va. 
Downman, Joseph H., 1826, Va. 
Downs, E. L., i886, Md. 
Doyle, Augustine D., 1854, Pa. 
Doyle, Frederick C, 1859, Md. 

Doyle, John A., 1850, Pa. 
Doyle, Thomas C, 1889, S. C. 
Drach, Hansom M., 1S52, Md. 
Drach, J. H,, 1880, Md. 
Drewry, Madison R., 1887, Va. 
Drought, Albert M., 1888, Md. 
Drummond, William F., 1850, Va. 
Drury, John J., 1825, Md. 
Du Bose, D. St. P., 1886, S. C. 
Duckett, B. Furman, 1884, S. C. 
Duckett, Richard J., 1866, Md. 
Duckett, Thomas B , 1824, Md. 
Dudderow, John W., 1866, Md. 
Dudley, S. C., 1867, Md. 
Dugas, Louis Alexander, 1827, Ga. 
Du Hadway, John, 1887, Md. 
Du Hamel, William J. C, 1849, Md. 
Duke, Basil, 1834, Ky. 
Duke, James, 1820, Md. 
Duke, James J., 1856, Md. 
Dukes, A. C, 1871, S. C. 
Dulaney, J. Lambert, 1868, Md. 
Dulaney, William H., 1859, Md. 
Dulin, Alexander F., 1878, Md, 
Dunan, Adolphus, 1827, Md. 
Duncan, Charles G., 1881, Ohio. 
Duncan, Edward M., 1884, Md. 
Duncan, James J.', 1854, Pa. 
Dunkel, Ernestus A., 181 5, Md. 
Dunlap, Albert, 1864, Md. 
Dunlap, George W., 1823, S. C. 
Dunn, Conolly L., 1879, ^'*- 
Dunn, Edward H., 1869, Md. 
Dunn, Thomas H., 1851, Va. 
Durkin, William C., 1841, Va. 
Dusenbery, E. La F., 1849, N. C. 
Duvall, Alexander, 182C, Md. 
Duvall, Howard M., 1830, Md. 
Duvall, Ph. Barton, 1837, Md. 
Duvall, Phihp B., 1859, Md. 
Duvall, Washington, 1820, D. C. 
Duvall, William W., 1843, Md. 
Duvall, Wirt A., 1888, Md. 
Dwight, Francis Marion, 18S9, S. C. 
Dyson, Robert, 1850, Md. 



Eakle, J. Everett, 18S9, Va. 
Ealer. Peter G., 1823, Md. 
Eareckson, Edwin, i860, Md. 
Eareckson, Roderick W., 1848, Md. 
Eareckson, William K., 1890, Md. 
Earhart, J. H. T., 1888, Md. 
Earle, John C, 1845, Md. 
Earle, Samuel T., 1870, Md. 
Early, William W., 1868, Md. 
Eastman, Lewis M., 1859, Md, « 

Ebaugh, Andrew J., 1848, Md. 
Ebaugh, Irvin, 1889, Md. 
Ebert, Edwin, 1850, Pa. 
Eccleston, John C, 1850, Md. 
Eckenrode, U. Myers, 1868, Pa. 
Edelen, Benjamin, 1837, Md. 
Edelen, Philip K., 1815, Md. 
Edelen, Philip R., 1841, Md. 
Edelen, William J., 1825, Md. 
Edelin, Alfred, 1850, Md. 
Edelin, Edward V., 1848, Md. 
Edelin, Henry C, i860, Md. 
Edmonds, Henry J., 1855, Va. 
Edmondson, Thomas, Jr., 1834, Md. 
Edmunds, H. J., 1887, Va. 
Edmunds, William T., 1882, S. C. 
Edrington, Edmund G., 1825, Va. 
Edwards, Alexander E., 1861, Md. 
Egerton, James L., 1877, N. C. 
Eichelberger, Charles D., 1868, Md. 
Eichelberger, James W., 1827, Md. 
Eichelberger, James W., 1870, Md. 
Eilau, E. W., 1879, Md. 
Eisenhart, William H., 1868, Pa. 
Elam, Albert M., 1829, Va. 
Elbert, Joseph, 1821, Md. 
Elderdice, James L., 1878, Pa. 
Elgin, W. F., 1887, Md. 
Eliason, James C, 1826, D. C, 
Ellerb'e, Crawford, 1S28, S. C. 
Ellery, William E., 1844, Md. 
EUicott, Lindley, 1870, Md. 
Elliott, John, 1827, Md. 
Elliott, Thomas M., 1853, Md. 
Ellis, Robert H. P., 1877, Md. 
Elmer, Gilbert E., 1826, La. 

Elwes, Alfred W. H., 1820, Pa. 
Emack, A. F. Dulin, 1875, Md, 
Emmitt, John M , 1885, N. C. 
Emory, Augustine W., 1852, Md. 
Emory, Daniel C. H., 1849, Md. 
Emory, John K. B., 1822, Md. 
Emory, Richard, 1861, Md. 
Emory, Thomas H., 1827, Md. 
England, Frank F., 1S68, Md. 
Englar, James W. J., 1S70, Md. 
Engle, O. C, 1887, Pa. * 

Ennett, W. T., 1S67, N. C. 
Ensor, L Fulton, 1862, Md. 
Eppes, Victor Moreau, 18S2, Va. 
Epting, R. Barley, 1885, S. C. 
Erich, Augustus F., 1861, Md. 
Ervin, Robert W., 1813, S. C. 
Eschbach, Joseph A., 1854, Md, 
Esgate, John, 1864, Md. 
Espin, Jose R., 1856, Cuba, 
Etchison, Elisha C, 1874, Md. 
Eubank, Thomas D,, 1857, Va, 
Evans, Richard D., 1S86, South 

Evans, Sidney, 1827, Md. 
Evans, William W,, 1866, Md. 
Everett, W. B., 1862, Md. 
Everhart, George H., 1890, Md. 
Everhart, George Y., 1S85, Md, 
Everhart, Oliver T,, 1856, Md, 
Eversfield, John T., 1859, Md, 
Ewell, Augustus D. F., 1864, Va, 
Ewing, John, 1857, Md, 
Ezell, Lafayette, 1829, Tenn, 

Fadeley, George B, , 1889, Va. 
Fahnestock, Peter, 1843, P^- 
Fairall, Truman E., 1873, Md. 
Fairbank, Samuel, 1862, Md, 
Falls, Oliver G., 1881, N. C. 
Farish, Edward T., 1820, Va. 
Farmer, John W., 186S, Va. 
Farnandis, George G., 1852, Md. 
Fauntleroy, Robert B., 1854, Va. 
Favorite, John, 185S, Md. 
Fawcett, Christopher, 1864, Md. 



Fay, George W., i860, Md. 
Fearing, Woodson B., 18S1, N. C. 
Fearington, Joseph P., 18S7, N. C. 
Fearn, Thomas S., 1890, Md. 
Feddeman, William H., 1888, Va, 
Feeser, Hezron R., 1886, Pa. 
Fenby, Edwin B., 1878, Md. 
Fendall, Joshua F. C, 1850, Md, 
Fenton, G. A., 1875, Md. 
Fenwick, Leo, 1821, Mo. 
Fenwick, Martin, 1813, La. 
Ferebee, N. M., 1871, N. C. 
Ferguson, Uavid C, 1855, Va. 
Ferguson, Oscar A., 1849, ^I^. 
Ferguson, Robert, 1829, Md. 
Fetterhoff, Ira L., 1885, Md. 
Few, Columbus, 1875, S. C. 
Fickes, G. Milton, 1885, Pa. 
Field, John W., i860, Va. 
Field, Philip S., 1852, Md. 
Fiery, Samuel V., 1888, W. Va. 
Filler, Charles W,, 1876, Va. 
Finch, Edward W., 1868, Va. 
Findley, Joshua A., 1884, W. Va. 
Finley, Joseph L., 1884, Md. 
Finley, S. C, 1867, Md. 
Finley, Washington, 1835, Md. 
Finney, Crawley, 1823, Va. 
Firey, Lewis Beall, 1890, Va. 
Fishel, Henry W., 1886, Pa. 
Fisher, George M., 1S62, Md. 
Fisher, Jacob, 1821, Del. 
Fisher, James, 1823, Md. 
Fisher, John, 1S24, Md. 
Fisher, Samuel G., 1854, Md. 
Fisher, Samuel <&., Jr., 1890, Md. 
Fisher, William, i8i6, Md. 
Fisher, William F., 1856, Va. 
Fiske, John D., 1875, Md. 
Fitzhugh, Francis C, 1824, Va. 
Fitzhugh, George W., 1836, Va. 
Fitzhugh, Henry W., 1825, Va. 
Fitzhugh, John, 1817, Md. 
Fitzhugh, William H., 1850, Md. 
Flannery, Francis J., 1880, Md, 
Fleming, U. L., 1861, Md. 

Fleming, George A., 1884, Md. 
Fleming, Jenorious K., 1852, Md. 
Fleming, John P., 1851, Pa. 
Fleming, Robert, 1857, Va. 
Flint, James M., 1852, Md. 
Flint, Joseph, 1834, Md. 
Flournoy, Peter C, 1851, Va. 
Flowers, Millard F., 1873, Pa. 
Floyd, Alva G., 1885, N. C. 
Floyd, William G., 1878, Ga. 
Follansbee, James M., 1846, D. C. 
Fonerdin, John, 1823, Md. 
Fontaine, J. McL. R., 1851, Md. 
Fooks, Kendall, 1833, Uel. 
Forbes, J. Smith, 1876, Ind. 
Ford, Henry A., 1843, Md. 
Foreman, E. Knox, 1S62, Md. 
Forman, Alfred J., 1827, Md. 
Forman, William B., 1867, Fla. 
Forney, Cornelius W., 1851, Md. 
Forrest, Moreau, 1826, D. C. 
Fort, Alfred J., 1827, Md. 
Forwood, Parker, 182 1, Md. 
Foster, Henry Costello, 1889, Md. 
Fowler, Allen, 1867, W. Va. 
Fowler, Edward, Jr., 185S, Md. 
Fowler, James C, 1857, Md. 
Fowler, John E., r847, Md. 
Fowlkes, Francis V., 1887, Va. 
Frailey, Charles S., 1825, Md. 
Frampton, Lingard A., 1834, S, C. 
France, George W., 1852, Md. 
France, J. William P., 1890, Md. 
Frank, Samuel L., 1862, Md. 
Franklin, Benjamin G., 1S66, Md. 
Franklin, James A., i860, Md. 
Franklin, Thomas J., 1834, Md. 
Fraser, Edward C, 1883, Pa. 
Frasher, Elmer F., 1887, W. Va. 
Frazier, John, Jr., 1820, Md. 
Fredlock, Armistead M., 1S89, W. 

Free, Adam C, 1865, Pa. 
Free, George B. M., 1883, Pa. 
Free, John L., 1848, Pa. 
Freeland, Edward H., i8e6, Md. 



Freeman, H. D., 1877, N. C. 
Freeny, G. W., 1862, Md. 
French, George, 1823, Va. 
French, R. Melville, 1844. Pa. 
Frey, Robert R,, 1868, W. Va. 
Frey, William, Jr., 1852, Md. 
Frick, J, Charles, 1845, Md. 
Friedenwald, Aaron, i860, Md. 
Frierson, Wickliffe, 1874, Tenn. 
Fringer, Winfield K., 1866, Md. ♦ 
Frontis, David B., 1880, N. C. 
Frost, Henry, 1843, Md. 
Frost, Henry P., 1889, Va. 
Frum, L. D., 1883, Pa. 
Frush, Carroll V., 1866, Md. 
Frush, Moreau F., 1863, Md. 
Fry, Henry D., 1876, D. C. 
Fulks, James S., 1864, Md. 
Fuller, A. R., 1884, Tenn. 
Fulton, John S., 1881, Md. 
Fulton, Robert, 1827, Md. 
Fulton, Robert, i860, Md. 
Funck, J. William, 1888, Md. 
Furman, Davis, 1882, S. C. 
Fussel, Bartholomew, 1824, Md. 

Gaddy, John A., 1890, N. C. 
Gaither, Abram B., 18S7, Md. 
Gale, Frank, i860, Md. 
Gale, H. E., 1885, Md. 
Gale, V. W., 1873, Va. 
Gall, E. Doudon, 1887, W. Va. 
Galligher, Plenry P., 1879, ^'^^ 
Galloway, J. Busey, 1875, Md. 
Galloway, John, 1847, Md. 
Galloway, Thomas K., 1876, Md. 
Gait, John M., 1830, Md. 
Gamble, Gary B., 1846, Md. 
Gamble, Gary B., 1887, Md. 
Gamtile, John G., 1S43, Fla. 
Gamble, Robert G., 18S4, Fla. 
Gambrill, Amos G., 1826, Md. 
Gambrill, W. Bartlett, 1878, Md. 
Gantt, H. Baldwin, 1880, Md. 
Gantt, Thomas C, 1841, Md. 
Gantt, William T., 1826, Md. 

Gardiner, Benedict J., 1835, Md. 
Gardiner, Charles L., 1820, Md. 
Gardiner, J. B. Walbach, 1866, Md. 
Gardner, F. B., 1867, Md. 
Gardner, H. W., 1861, N. C. 
Gardner, Joseph N., 1889, Va. 
Garlick, Theodatus, 1834, Ohio. 
Garner, Plenry G., 1869, Md. 
Garner, John E., 1842, Md. 
Garnett, Alfred H., 1833, Va. 
Garnett, Joseph, 1820, Va. 
Garnett, William, 1828, Va. 
Garr, B. F., 1861, Va. 
Garrett, Frank J., 1889, N. C. 
Garrett, R. Edward, 1890, Md. 
Garrott, Erasmus, 1S56, Md. 
Garrott, John D., 1826, Md. 
Garrott, John E., i85i,Md. 
Garry, James, 1830, Md. 
Garry, Michael M., 1846, Md. 
Garverich, Frank H., 1888, Pa. 
Gassaway, Thomas J., 1825, Md. 
Gates, Elijah, 1824, S. C. 
Gattis, R. L., 1888, N. C. 
Gaulden, Samuel S., 1S86, Ga. 
Gaver, William E., 1888, Md. 
Gavin, F. Denton, 1874, Md. 
Gay, William F., 1882, Ga. 
Gazzam, Joseph P., 1834, Pa. 
Gehrman, Albert J., 1869, Md. 
Geiger, John D. G., 1863, Md. 
Gemmill, Wm. McBride, 1822, Del. 
George, Archibald, 1854, Md. 
George, E., 1872, Md. 
Gerry, E. H., 1867, Pa. 
Gerry, Nathaniel R., 1864, Md. 
Gerstell, Richard, 1873, \\\ Va. 
Gerstell, Robert, 1873, W. Va. 
Getty, Oliver G., 1878, Md. 
Getz, Charles, 1879, Md. 
Ghiselin, James T., 1852, Md. 
Ghiselin, William, 1834, Md. 
Gibbons, Alex. M., 186S, Ohio. 
Gibbons, Edwin P., 1862, Md. 
Gibbs, Edmund C, 18S4, Del. 
Gibson, Alexander E., 1865, Md. 



Gibson. George S., 1823, Va. 

Gibson, George S., 1856, Md. 

Gibson, James, 1846, Pa. 

Gibson, John C, 1848, Md. 

Gibson, J. Gerard, 1S83, Pa. 

Gibson, John St. P., 1858, Va. 

Gibson, M. W., 1884, N. C. 

Gibson, Thomas S., 1887, Va. 

Gibson, William, Jr., 1846, Md. 

Gichner, Joseph, iSgo, Md. 

Giddings, William V., 1868, Va. 

Giger, Frederick S., 1844, Md. 

Gilbert, George M., 1847, l^el. 

Giles, Alfred B., 1880, Md. 

Gill, W. F., 186 1, Md. 

Gillam, Francis, 1861, N. C. 

Gillard, Arthur E., 1887, Mass. 

Gilleland, Charles J., 1835, Pa. 

Gillespie, George W., 1880, Md. 
Gilliland, Robert J., 1883, S. C. 
Gillingham, Ezra, 1816, Md. 
Gillis, John P. R., 1829, Md. 
Gillon, Victor, Jr., 1829, Md. 
Gilman, Judson, 1845, N. H. 
Gilmer, Peachy H., 1835, Va. 
Gilpin, George E., 1882, D. C. 
Gilpin, John, 1827, Md. 
(iimenez, Gabriel, 1875, Porto Rico. 
Gittings, David S., 18 18, Md. 
Glacken, Joseph, 1855, Md. 
Glacken, Michael, 1859, Md. 
Gladfelter, J. Allen, 1878, Pa. 
Glascock, A. B., 1888, W. Va. 
Glassel), Robert T., 1S86, Va. 
Glenn, William E., 1856, Va. 
Glisan, Rodney, 1849, Md. 
Glocker, Theodore, 1861, Md, 
Gloninger, John W., 1841, Pa. 
Godman, John U., 1818, Md. 
Golder, George, 1844, Md. 
Goldsborough, Charles, 1823, Md. 
Goldsborough, Chas. W., 1863, Md. 
Goldsborough, Edward Y., 1825, Md. 
Goldsborough, Griffin W., 1838, Md. 
Goldsborough, Henry T., 1852, Md. 
Goldsborough, John, 1857, Md. 

Goldsborough, Leander W., 1828, 

Goldsborough, Robert G., 1820, Md. 

Goldsmith, Robert H., 1852, Md. 

Goodman, Hector M., 18S1, Md. 

Gordon, Basil F., 1S64, Md. 

Gordon, James W. W., 1836, Md. 

Gordon, John L. M., 1845, Ohio. 

Gordon, L. Charles? 1877, Md. 

Gordon, Samuel H., 1822, Va. 

Gore, James, 1867, Md. 

Gore, William, 1842, Pa. 

Gorgas, Ferdinand J. S., 1863, Md. 

Gorgas, Laurence De L., 1883, Md. 

Gorman, Robert, 1852, Fla. 

Gorsuch, J. Edmund, 1874, Md. 

Gorsuch, James F. H., 1876, Md. 

Gorsuch, William S., 18S8, Md. 

Gorter, Nathan R., 1879, Md. 

Gott, Lewis E., 1861, D. C. 

Gott, Richard T., 1868, Md. 

Gough, Uixon, 1844, Md. 
Gough, Richard T., 1849, Md. 

Gouldin, J. Milton, 1861, Va. 
Graff, George B., 1836, Ind. 
Grafton, William H., 1849, Md. 
Graham, George R., 1883, Md. 
Graham, William A., 1881, Md. 
Grammer, Frederick L., 1826, Md. 
Grant, Henry A., 1834, Ga. 
Gray, Albert W., 1852, Va. 
Gray, Benjamin R,, 1842, Md. 
Gray, James R., 1S19, Ky. 
Gray, John T., 1837, Md. 
Gray, Samuel, 1858, Md. 
Green, G. F., 1S71, Ga. 
Green, Hugh R., 1867, Va. 
Green, John S., 1882, Md. 
Green, Richard H., 1859, Md. 
Green, Thomas R., 1867, Md. 
Greene, Triplet! C, 1833, Va. 
Greenley, V^'illiam, 1862, Md. 
Greenly, Thomas W., 1888, Md. 
Greentree, Hiram, 1855, Md? 
Greenway, Gilbert C, 1S68, Va. 
Greenwood, Caleb B., 1825, Ga. 



Greetham, John W., 1833, Md. 
Gregg, Cornelius K., 1879, Texas. 
Gregg, H. W., 1S71, Va. 
Grier, Arthur S., 1883, N. C. 
Grieves, Horatio G., 182S, Md. 
Griffin, John S., 1878, N. C. 
Griffith, Alfred, 1866, Md. 
Griffith, Edward, 1826, Md. 
Griffith, Edward J., 1852, Md. 
Griffith, George R., 1857, Miss. . 
Griffith, Lewis, 1818, Md. 
Griffith, Lycurgus E., 1833, Md. 
Griffith, Robert H., 1824, Del. 
Griffith, S. H., 1890, S. C. 
Griffith, William B., 1870, Md. 
Griggs, Harvey Melvin, 1890, Md. 
Grimes, Gassaway S., 1838, Md. 
Grimes, John H., 1868, Md. 
Grimes, William H., 1828, Md. 
Grimes, William K., 1842, Md. 
Groff, J. Humphreys, 1866, N. J. 
Gross, Henry, 1842, Md. 
Gross, H. B., 1871, Md. 
Gross, John I., Jr., 1865, Md. 
Groton, William D., 1879, Va. 
Grove, Augustus G., 1845, Md. 
Grove, B. Frank, Jr., 1877, Md. 
Grove, Frank W., 1880, Va. 
Grove, Fullerton A., 1862, Md. 
Grove, W. R., 1865, Md. 
Groves, Benjamin B., 1865, Del. 
Grymes, Robert C. N., 1830, Va. 
Guidry, Alexis O., 1842, La. 
Gullat, Charles A., 1824, Va. 
Gunby, Hiram H., 1855, Md. 
Gunby, John, 1830, Md. 
Gunn, John P., 1S41, Md. 
Gunter, Enos F., 184S, Va. 
Gurley, James W., 1874, S. C. 
Guy, James C, 1837, Va. 
Guyton, B. Augustus, 1869, Md. 
Gwinn, William B., 1827, Md. 
Gwynn, Charles L., i860, Va. 
Gwynn, William H., 1857, Md. 

Hadel, Albert K., 1889, Md. 

Haefner, G. A., 1867, Md. 
Hagerty, Edward, 1843, Md. 
Hahn, Samuel, 1875, N- J- 
Haig, William, 1848, Md. 
Haile, James T., 1886, Va. 
Hains, Franklin W., 1888, Va. 
Hall,Albon E., 1866, Ohio. 
Hall, Benjamin R., 1841, Md. 
Hall, Daniel D., 1828, Va. 
Hall, Dudley M., 1886, N. Y. 
Hall, Edward M., 1841, Md. » 

Hall, Estep, 1844, Md. 
Hall, E. T. Wade, 1885, W. Va. 
Hall, George N., 1837, Md. 
Hall, James, 1846, N. Y. 
Hall, James B., 1868, N. C. 
Hall, John E., 1856, Md. 
Hall, Julius, 1841, Md. 
Hall, J. Thomas, 1847, Md. 
Hall, Rezin W., 1874, W. Va. 
Hall, Thomas B., 1826, Md. 
Hall, Thomas McKean, 1820, Pa. 
Hall, Thomas Parry, 1816, Md. 
Hall, William Fletcher, 1885, Md. 
Hall, William H. D., 1833, Md. 
Halsey, B. Bartow, 1885, Va. 
Hamilton, Alexander D., 1856, Md. 
Hamilton, Hugh, 1825, Va. 
Hamilton, James, 183S, Md. 
Hamilton, Samuel H., 1869, Md. 
Hamilton, Sum'rfield P., 1847, Md. 
Hamilton, William A., 1869, Md. 
Hammer, M. E., 1890, Md. 
Hammond, George, 1854, Md. 
Hammond, James R., 1866, Md. 
Hammond, John W., 1825, Md. 
Hammond, Milton, 1850, Pa. 
Hammond, Nicholas, 1823, Md. 
Hammond, R. L., 1882, Md. 
Hammond, Thomas, 1823, Md. 
Hammond, Thomas W., 1849, Md. 
Hammond, William, 1821, Md. 
Hammond, William, 1847, Mo. 
Hammond, William M., 1845, Md. 
Hammontree, John S., 1855, Ohio. 
Hance, Thomas C, 1849, Md. 



Hand, Emanuel K, J., 1826, Md. 
Handy, Littleton D., 1828, Md. 
Handy, Samuel K., 1821, Md. 
Handy, Thomas H., 1824, Del. 
Handy, William N., 1874, Md. 
Handy, William W., iSig, Md. 
Hanna, Albert A., 1875, Pa. 
Hanna, George S., 1S58, Md. 
Harbaugh, Chas. V. L., i8Sg, Ind. 
Harby, Thomas J., 1829, Md. 
Hardcastle, Ed. M., Jr., 1889, Md. 
Harden, John H., 1887, N. C. 
Hardey, George J., 1824, Md. 
Hardey, Thomas E., 1849, Md, 
Hardey, William H., 1852, Md. 
Hardin, Edward K., 1885, S. C. 
Harding, Hiram W., i860, Va. 
Hardy, William G., 1827, Md. 
Hargis, C. F., 1890, Md. 
Hargrove, Charles Budvvood, 1890, 

N. C. 
Hargrove, Robert H., 1877, N. C. 
Harker, J. F., 1871, Md. 
Harker, Richard M. J., 1858, Md. 
Harkins, J. W., 1871, Md. 
Harlan, Herbert, 1879, Md. 
Harlan, Reuben S., 1842, Md. 
Harley, John H., 1857, Md. 
Harman, John D., 1867, Md. 
Harmon, G. E. H., 1872, Del. 
Harper, Charles W., 1869, Md. 
Harper, Goodwyn H., 1822, Va. 
Harper, Isaac S., 1864, Md. 
Harper, James, 1817, D. C. 
Harper, Robert W., 1S15, — . 
Harper, Samuel, 1827, Md. 
Harrell, Abraham, 1833, Va. 
Harrell, Francis W., 1879, Md, 
Harrell, James J., 1883, N. C. 
Harrell, William B., 1849, N. C. 
Harrington, J. Oliver, 1S75, Md. 
Harrington, John C, 1869, Md. 
Harrington, John E., 1873, Md. 
Harris, Adam C, 1850, N. C. 
Harris, Chapman, 1856, Md. 
Harris, Charles C, 1883, Md. 

Harris, George, 1823, Md, 
Harris, George W,, 1826, Va. 
Harris, J. E,, 1883, Mo. 
Harris, James C, 1883, S. C. 
Harris, James E., 1886, Md. 
Harris, John C, 1862, Md, 
Harris, John W., 1870, Va. 
Harris, Joseph, 1869, Md. 
Harris, Mackall, 1836, Md. 
Harris, Thomas B., 1834, Md. 
Harrison, Archie C, 1887, Va. 
Harrison, Aristides S., 1888, N. C. 
Harrison, II. T., 1874, Va. 
Harrison, John S., 1S37, Va. 
Harrison, Samuel A., 1843, ^'^' 
Harrod, John, 1834, Md. 
Harrow, Charles A., 1819, Va. 
Harrow, John W., 1853, Md. 
Hart, J. B., 1883, Md. 
Hart, William, 1852, La. 
Hartman, Jacob H., 1869, Md. 
Harvey, G. B., 1877, W. Va. 
Harwood, Benjamin, 1844, Md. 
Harwood, Richard, 1835, Md. 
Haskins, Carter, 1869, Md. 
Hatton, Richard M. S., i860, Md. 
Haw, Henry, 1820, D. C. 
Hawkins, H. S., 1822, Md. 
Hawkins, J. Weems, 1865, Md. 
Hawkins, John A., 1853, Va. 
Hawkins, John B., 1825, Md. 
Hawkins, Peter W., 1852, Md. 
Hawkins, Theophilus, 1819, Md. 
Haxall, Robert W., 1826, Va. 
Hay, Jacob, 1S55, Pa. 
Hay, John, 1848, Pa. 
Hayden, Horace H., 1840, Md. 
Haynes, George W., 1857, Miss. 
Haynes, J. W. Dorsey, 1889, Va, 
Hays, Archer, 1858, Md. 
Hays, George T,, 1850, Va. 
Hays, Jacob, 1823, Pa. 
Hays, John J., 1819, Md. 
Hays, Joseph C, 1824, Md. 
Hays, Joseph G., 1834, Va. 
Hays, T. Hey ward, 1886, S. C. 



Hazlehurst, Abraham M., 1825, Pa. 
Heagy, George W., 1850, Md. 
Healey, Thomas A., 1S35, Md. 
Healy, James E., 1855, Md. 
Heard, Edward J., 1844, La. 
Hearn, John L., 1846, Md. 
Heath, Horace M., i860, Va. 
Heaton, Albert, 1827, Md. 
Heaton, Eppa H., 1889, Va. 
Heaton, Vincent B., 1S51, Md. * 

Hebb, John W., i860, Md. 
Hebrack, E. R., 1889, Pa. 
Hebrank, J. Fuller, 1883, Pa. 
Hedges, H. Slicer, 1883, W. Va. 
Heerman, Adolphus L., 1846, Md. 
Heffenger, Arthur C, 1875, Md. 
Heffenger, C. Warwick, 1881, Md. 
Heighe, James, Jr., 1822, Md. 
Heiner, John, 1846, Md. 
Heldrick, Phillipp, 1883, Germany. 
Hellen, William D., 1856, Md. 
Helm, Meredith, 1825, Md. 
Helmsley, William, 1845, Md. 
Helsby, Thomas H., 1859, Md. 
Hemmeter, John C, 1884, Md. 
Henderson, Charles B., 1858, Md. 
Henderson, R. B., Jr., 1884, N. C. 
Henderson, W. B., 1887, N. C. 
Hendricks, N. M., 1885, W. Va. 
Hendrix, Henry A., 1855, Pa. 
Hendrix, Joseph W., 1849, Pa. 
Hengst, William F., 1876, Md. 
Henkel, Charles Bernard, 1889, Md. 
Henkle, Eli J., 1850, Md. 
Henry, Edward H., 1835, Va. 
Henry, Robert J., 1846, Md. 
Henry, Robert J., 1866, Md. 
Henry, Robert S., 1883, Md. 
Henry, Thomas Y., 1841, Va. 
Herbert, William P., 1818, Md. 
Hering, Edwin A., 1855, Md. 
Hering, Joseph T., 1885, Md. 
Hering, Joshua W., 1855, Md. 
Herman, Henry S., 1876, Md. 
Hermange, Anthony, 1826, Md. 
Herndon, Brodie S., 1829, Va. 

Herndon, Edwin, 1830, Va. 
Heslip, Thomas, 1827, Md. 
Hetrick, Horace B., 18S8, Pa. 
Hewitt, Charles, 1868, Md. 
Hewitt, George W., 1854, Pa. 
Hewitt, Rezin D., 1825, Md. 
Hicks, Charles J. J., 1877, Ga. 
Higgins, H. Lot, 1853, Va. 
Higgins, James, 1839, Md. 
Highberger, William T., 1883, Md. 
Hilgartner, Henry L., 1889, Md. 
Hill, Alexander, 1874, Md. 
Hill, Charles H., 1846, Md. 
Hill, Eugene W., 1886, N. H. 
Hill, George, 1823, Va. 
Hill, H. F., 1877, Ala. 
Hill, J. Shelton, 1871, Ala. 
Hill, Joseph H., 1845, Mo. 
Hill, L. Theophilus, 1882, S. C. 
Hill, Norman F., 1882, Md. 
Hill, Rhydon G., 1823, S. C. 
Hill, T.L., 1872, Md. 
Hill, W. Junius, 1889, N. C. 
Hilleary, W. M., i860, Md. 
Hilliard, Robert C, 1843, Va. 
Hilton, Julius J., 1886, N. C. 
Hinchman, William A., 1873, ^^• 
Hines, Philip John, 1838, Md. 
Hines, William M., 1846, Md. 
Hinkle, George W., 1826, Pa. 
Hinkley, Hargrove, 1847, Md. 
Hintze, Frederick E. B., 1823, Md. 
Hitch, Samuel G. L., 1875, Md. 
Hitch, William, 1824, Md. 
Hitchcock, Charles M., 1835, Ohio. 
Hitt, Washington W., 1825, Ohio. 
Hitzelberger, Francis L., 1836, Md. 
Hobbs, Warner, 1845, ^d. 
Hoch, Charles August, 1890, Md. 
Hocking, George H., 1879, W. Va. 
Hocking, John W., 1884, W. Va. 
Hocking, W. C, 1890, Md. 
Hodgdon, Alexander L., 1884, Va. 
Hodges, Benjamin B., 1S24, Md. 
Hodges, William E., 1S56, Md. 
Hodges, William R., i860, Md. 



Hodgkin, Alexander B., 1859, Md. 
Hodson, Eugene, 1856, Md. 
Hoen, A. G., 1873, Md. 
Hoff , Monzell M., 1889, W. Va. 
Hoffman, George H. C, 1869, Md. 
Hoffman, J. Homer, 1881, Md. 
Hoffman, Lawrence B., 1861, Md. 
Hoffman, Samuel J., 1877, Va. 
Hoffmeier, Frank €., 1867, Md. 
Hoge, G. Dickson, 1868, Va. 
Hogg, Samuel, 1819, Tenn. 
Holbrook, Edward H., 1868, Md. 
HoLcoMB, George, 1826, N. J. 
Holden, Randall, 1861, Va. 
Holland, Griffin W., 1827, Va. 
Holland, John T., 1862, Md. 
Holleman, Whitfield, 1829, Va. 
Holley, James T., 18S1, Va. 
Holliday, Lewis L., 1825, Va. 
Holliday, W. Zellars, 1882, Ga. 
Hollifield, Horatio B., 1882, Ga. 
Hollingsworth, Chas. A., 1S81, Md. 
Hollingsworth, Chas. M., 1882, Va. 
Hollingsworth, Robert, 1852, Md. 
Hollingsworth, Parkin, 1825, Md. 
Hollis, Willis H., 1879, W. Va. 
Holloway, William, 1846, Md. 
Hollyday, John G., 1868, Md. 
Holmes, Jeremiah E., 1863, Md, 
Holmes, John W., 1882, Va. 
Holmes, Lewis, 1855, Md. 
Holstein, John W., 1883, W, Va. 
Holstenbake, A., 1865, Ga. 
Holt, Thomas S., 1869, Md. 
Holton, Thomas S., i860, Md. 
Hood, Charles H., 1846, Ohio. 
Hooe, Abraham B., 1826, Va. 
1 Hook, Daniel, 1820, Ga. 
Hooper, Jeremiah P., 1828, Md. 
Hooper, John H., 181 5, Md. 
Hooper, John R., 1866, Md. 
Hoover, C. S., 1884, W. Va. 
Hoover, F. Pierce, 1884, Md. 
Hope, W. D., 1887, S. C. 
Hopkins, Arundel, 1863, Md. 

Hopkins, Charles L., 1887, W. Va. 
Hopkins, D, W., 1877, Md. 
Hopkins, Ephraim, Jr., 1859, Md. 
Hopkins, Howard H., 1869, Md. 
Hopkins, Joel, 1815, Md. 
Hopkins, John W. H., 1854, Va. 
Hopkins, Thomas C, 1S30, Md. 
Hopkins, Wakeman B., 1828, Md. 
Hopkins, William W., 1858, Md. 
Hopkinson, B. Merrill R., 1885, Md. 
Horn, August, 1888, Md. 
Horn, Louis C, 1869, Md. 
Horner, Joseph S., 1843, Mo. 
Horsey, James B., 1827, Md. 
Horsey, William S., 1838, Md. 
Horwitz, Eugene, 1889, Md. 
Horwitz, Phineas J., 1845, M'^- 
Horwitz, Theophilus B., 1844, Md. 
Hoskins, J. R. B., 1871, Va. 
Hotchkiss, George E., 1887, Va. 
Houck, Henry J., 1870, Md. 
Houck, Jacob W., 1842, Md. 
Houseal, W. Gustave, 1886, S. C. 
Houston, Benjamin F., 1833, ^'^* 
Houston, Henry G., 1881, Va. 
Houston, Joseph M., 1855, Del. 
Howard, Alexander W., 1870, Pa. 
Howard, Cornelius, 1848, Md. 
Howard, E. Lloyd, 1861, Md. 
Howard, George A., 1851, Va. 
Howard, H. S,, 1867, Ala. 
Howard, James M., 1889, Ga. 
Howard, James McH., 1869, Md. 
Howard, John C, 1825, Md. 
Howard, William, 1817, Md. 
Howard, William Travis, Jr., 1889, 

Howell, T. P., 1872, Chickasaw Na- 
Hower, Jonathan A. C, 1854, Md. 
Howland, John M., 1823, Md. 
Hoxton, T. Semmes, 1852, Va, 
Hubard, J. E., 1872, Va. 
Hubbard, W. H., 1881, Va. 
Hubberd, Charles M., 1830, Va, 

'Also B. M., 1819. 



Hudgins, Albert G., 1826, Va. 
Hudralt, Alfred, 1828, Va. 
Hudson, George W., 1875, Ark. 
Hudson, Herbert S., 1868, Ala. 
Huffington, Edward K., 1821, Del. 
Hughes, Charles F., 182S, Md. 
Hughes, Ellis, 1834, Md. 
Hughes, George, 1819, Md. 
Hughes, James F., i860, Va. 
Hughes, Joseph C, 1845, Pa. 
Hughey, James B., 1883, S. C. 
Hughey, William, 1829, Pa. 
Hughlett, John, 1S29, Va. 
Hulse, Isaac, 1823, N. Y. 
Hultz, R. M., 187 1, Md. 
Hummel, A. L., 1884, Pa. 
Humphrey, J. Rufus, 1874, Va. 
Humphreys, Cathell, 1819, Md. 
Humphreys, E. W., 1872, Md. 
Humrichouse, J. W., 1873, Md. 
Humrickhouse, George, 1884, Md. 
Humrickhouse, John M., 1885, Iowa. 
Hundley, J. Mason, 1882, Va. 
Hungerford, Thomas B., 1822, Md. 
Hungerford, Wm. Smith, 1836, Md. 

Hunley, Luther B., 1877, Va. 

Hunt, Henry, 1824, D. C. 

Hunter, James, 1827, N. C. 

Hunter, John H., 1855, Va. 

Hunter, T. C, 1867, Va. 

Hunter, William A., 1858, Ga. 

Hurst, George N., 1849, Ky. 

Hurt, Richard T., 1861, Va. 

Hurtt, Edgar D., 1854, Md. 

Hurtt, Edward, 1848, Md. 

Hurtt, Thomas D., 1851, Md. 

Hussey, William S. L., 1846, Md. 

Hutchings, David, 1S53, Md. 

Hutchins, Nicholas P., 1834, Md. 

Hyatt^ F., 1872, Md. 

Hyslop, John T. B., 1885, Va. 

Hysore, William F., 1866, Md. 

I'Anson, William H., 1846, Va. 
Iddings, Charles M., 1888, Md. 
Iglehart, David T., 1856, Md. 

Iglehart, Joseph, 1S28, Md. 
Iglehart, N. E. Berry, 1889, Md. 
Iglehart, Osborn S., 1857, Md. 
Ijams, George E., 1879, Md. 
Inge, Richard, 1823, Ala. 
Inloes, Henry A., 1833, Md. 
Innes, James, 1868, Pa. 
Ireland, James G., 1852, Md. 
Ireland, John F., 1856, Md. 
Irons, Edward P., 1865, Md. 
Irwin, J. Robinson, 1877, N. C. 
Isaacs, Charles E., 1833, N. Y. 
Ivey, William P., 1883, N. C. 
Izlar, A. L., 1889, S. C. 

Jackman, Frederick Bayard, 1890, 

Jackson, Charles R., 1828, Md. 
Jackson, Samuel R., 1848, Va. 
Jacob, George P., 1826, Va. 
Jacobs, James K. H., 1877, Md. 
Jacobs, James T., 1855, Md. 
Jaeger, W. R., 1871, Md. 
James, Edmund P., 1842, Md. 
James, W. Dudley, 1881, Pa. 
James, W. H., 1872, Va. 
Jameson, Benjamin A., 1855, Md. 
Jameson, George W., 1819, Md. 
Jameson, Horatio G., 1813, Pa. 
Jameson, Rush, 1827, Md. 
Jameson, William H., 1S22, Va. 
Jamesson, Harper C, 1885, W. Va. 
Jamison, Thomas W., 1838, Md. 
Jamison, William D., 1845, Md. 
Janney, Charles H., 1885, Va. 
Janney, Edward W., 1863, Va. 
Janney, Nathan H., 1843, ^^• 
Janney, O. Edward, 1881, Md. 
Jarrett, James H., 1852, Md. 
Jarrett, Martin L., 1864, Md. 
Jarvis, William C, 1876, Md. 
Jay, John G., 1S71, Md. 
Jefferson, Charles W., 1852, Md. 
Jefferson, Robert K., 1890, Md. 
Jenifer, Daniel, of H. Thos., 1837, 




Jenifer, John C, 1836, Md. 
Jenkins, Charles A., 1869, Md. 
Jenkins, Felix, 1849, Md. 
Jenkins, Felix S., Jr., 1887, Md. 
Jenness, John H., 1887, Md. 
Jennings, Jacob M., 1826, Md. 
Jennings, Samuel K., 1818, Md. 
Jennings, Samuel K., Jr., 1820, Md. 
Jennings, Thomas K., 1826, Pa. 
Jennings, William T., 1867, Va. 
Jerome, James R., 1890, N. C. 
Jessop, Abraham, 1821, Md. 
Jessop, C. Ashton, 1881, Md. 
Jeter, Ned M., 18S7, Va. 
Jewett, J. Gushing, 1849, Md. 
Jewett, James J., 1833, N. Y. 
Johns, Benjamin T., 1829, Md. 
Johns, Edward W., 1849, Md. 
Johns, Montgomery, 1853, Md. 
Johnson, Andrew J., 1855, Md. 
Johnson, Benjamin, 1818, Va. 
Johnson, Benjamin D., 1826, Md. 
Johnson, C. S., 1873, Md. 
Johnson, Charles F., 1879, W. Va. 
Johnson, David H., 1819, Md. 
Johnson, Edward, 1S33, Md. 
Johnson, George O., 1869, Iowa. 
Johnson, Henry M., 1827, Va. 
Johnson, J. A., 187 1, Md. 
Johnson, James, 1827, Md. 
Johnson, James T., 1848, Md. 
Johnson, Jeremiah, 1852, Md. 
Johnson, John B., 1852, Va. 
Johnson, Milton, 1826, Md. 
Johnson, Richard P., 1849, Md. 
Johnson, Samuel A., 1828, Md. 
Johnson, Thos. Brashear, 18S9, Md. 
Johnson, Thomas F., 1853, Md. 
Johnson, Thomas R., 1828, Md. 
Johnson, W. Holton, 1882, Pa. 
Johnson, William H., 1830, Va. 
Johnson, William H., 1849, ^^' 
Johnston, Christopher, 1844, Md. 
Johnston, Christopher, Jr., 1880, Md. 
Johnston, Ovid M., 1862, Pa. 
Johnston, Robert, 1823, Va. 

Johnston, Robert, 1852, Va. 
Johnston, R. E. Lee, 1885, Va. 
Johnston, William S., 1887, Ga. 
Jones, Buckler, 1852, Md. 
Jones, Caleb, 1830, Md. 
Jones, Charles H., 1851, Md. 
Jones, Ue V. D., 1872, Ala. 
Jones, Edward W., 1824, S. C. 
Jones, F. E., 1871, Miss. 
Jones, Galen, 1824, Pa. 
Jones, G. Frank, 1889, Del. 
Jones, George H. W., 1867, Md. 
Jones, G. M., 1873, Ga. 
Jones, George Perry, 1836, Md. 
Jones, George P., 1865, Md. 
Jones, H. H., 1867, Va. 
Jones, Henry M., i860, Md. 
Jones, Henry Z., 1865, Md. 
Jones, Jacob H., 1852, Md. 
Jones, James D., 1887, Va. 
Jones, J. N., 1871, Ga. 
Jones, John H., 1825, Md. 
Jones, Joshua, Jr., 1829, Md. 
Jones, Oliver F., 1880, Pa. 
Jones, Philip G., Jr., 1829, Md. 
Jones, Reuben E., 1849, ^^• 
Jones, Samuel J., 1851, Ala. 
Jones, Silas, 1875, -P^* 
Jones, Thomas D., 1812, Md. 
Jones, T. Marshall, 1870, Va. 
Jones, William A., 1873, ^^• 
Jones, W. Hardaway, 1882, Va. 
Jones, William J., 1883, Md. 
Jones, William T., 1835, Md. 
Jones, Wilson W., 1846, Va. 
Jordan, Charles H., 1857, Va. 
Jordan, J. R., 1884, Va. 
Jordan, J. W. S., 1871, Md. 
Jordan, Mills M., 1841, Va. 
Jordan, R. Merton, 1852, Va. 
Jordan, Thomas M., 1856, Pa. 
Julian, Abner J. P., 1883, N. C. 
Julian, H. M., 1885, N. C. 
Jump, Clarence K., 1885, Md. 

Kasten, W. Julian, 1886, Md. 



Keagy, John M., 1S22, Pa. 
Kealhofer, Richard H., 1866, Md. 
Kearney, William A., 1883, W. Va. 
Keech, J. O., 1872, Md. 
Keech, J. Sothoron, 18S8, Md. 
Keech, Thomas A. R., 1856, Md. 
Keedy, Daniel G., 1835, Md. 
Keedy, Samuel H., 1864, Md. 
Keen, A. T., 1885, Va. 
Keen, Thomas F., 1881, Va. .♦ 

Keenan, Joseph A., 1848, Md. 
Keene, Alexander C, 1822, Ky. 
Keene, John, 1826, Md. 
Keene, Samuel J. A., 1865, Md. 
Keener, David, 1825, Md. 
Keener, William H., 1845, Md. 
Keerl, Charles F., 1870, Md. 
Keerl, William, 1827, Md. 
Keets, John T., 1858, Md. 
Keffer, William H., 1850, Va. 
Keirle, Nathaniel G., 1858, Md. 
Keirn, Garret, 1819, Md. 
Keisler, M. B., 1872, S. C. 
Keith, James B., 1851, N. C. 
Keith, Joseph P., 1882, N. C. 
Kellam, E. E., 1861, Va. 
Kellam, Frederick C. A., 1866, Va. 
Keller, B. F., 1871, Md. 
Keller, Daniel, 1847, Md. 
Keller, Franklin P., 1878, Md. 
Keller, Josiah G., 1863, Md. 
Kelly, J. Lawrence, 1874, Ga. 
Kelly, James W., 1887, Va. 
Kelly, John I., 1864, Md. 
Kelly, Lewis, 1865, Md. 
Kelly, S. Robert, 1890, W. Va. 
Kelly, Thomas, 1866, Md. 
Kemp, Henry C, 1863, Md. 
Kemp, H. M., 188 1, Md. 
Kemp, John D., 1856, Ohio. 
Kemp, J. McKendree, 1863, Md. 
Kemp, Joshua S., 1858, Md. 
Kemp, Luther, 1887, Md. 
Kemp, W. F. A., 1872, Md. 
Kemp, W. Thomas, 1S63, Md. 
Kendal, William T., 1867, Miss. 

Kennard, Joseph M., 1857, Del. 
Kennard, Thomas C, 1822, Md. 
Kennedy, Arthur T., 1851, Va. 
Kennedy, Booth, 1856, Md. 
Kennedy, Howard, 182S, Md. 
Kennedy, John, 1820, Md. 
Kennedy, Stephen D., 1855, Md. 
Kennedy, William P., 1885, N. C. 
Kent, Daniel, 1845, Md. 
Kent, Joseph, Jr., 1830, Md. 
Ker, Samuel H., 1865, Md. * 

Kernan, Charles K., 1887, Va. 
Kerr, Charles S., 1868, N. C. 
Kerr, J. Purd, 1888, Pa. 
Kerr, Robert J., 1858, Md. 
Kessler, Albert M., 1870, Md. 
Key, Robert M., 1854, Md. 
Keyser, Charles C, 1850, Md. 
Keyser, N. A. S., 1883, Md. 
Kibler, Benjamin F., 1880, Va. 
Kibler, James M., 1886, S. C. 
Kidd, William G., 1853, Md. 
Kidder, Jerome H., 1866, Md. 
Kilty, Richard M., 1826, Md. 
Kinard, George C, 1885, Pa. 
Kinard, J. Wesley, 1882, Pa. 
King, Benjamin, 1818, Md. 
King, Daniel, 1823, D. C. 
King, David, 1824, Md. 
King, E. S., 1889, N. C. 
King, Hiram, 1834, Md. 
King, John T., 1S51, Md. 
King, John T., 1866, Md. 
King, John W., 1819, Md. 
King, Michael, 1820, Va. 
King, P. W., 1884, Pa. 
King, Vincent O., 1847, D. C. 
Kinkle, James C, 1847, Md. 
Kinne, George L., 1887, Vt. 
Kinnemon, George S., 1874, Md. 
Kinnemon, Perry S., 1833, Md. 
Kinzer, John S., 1881, Pa. 
Kinzer, Samuel G., 1857, Md. 
Kinzer, Thomas O., 1863, Md. 
Kirby, Thomas E., 1S66, Md. 
Kirby, William A., 1886, S. C. 

1 84 


Kirk, William, 1828, Va. 
Kirk, William M,, 1868, Va. 
Kirkpatrick, T, S., 1884, N. C. 
Klinedinst, J, Ferd., 1889, Pa. 
Kloeber, John S., 1886, Va. 
Kloman, William C, 1855, Md. 
Klueber, C. J., 1872, Germany. 
Knight, Cornelius S., 1858, Md. 
Knight, Louis W., 1866, Md. 
Knight, Samuel T., 1835, Md. 
Knight, Samuel T., Jr., 1868, Md. 
Knipp, Harry E., 1887, Md. 
Knott, William F., 1830, Md. 
Knotts, George P., 1852, Md. 
Knotts, James V., 1866, Md. 
Knox, John H., 1829, Pa. 
Koechling, Charles W., 1857, Md. 
Korner, Alexander H., 1886, Ohio. 
Krise, C. H., 1871, Pa. 
Kroh, William H., 1886, Md. 
Krozer, John J. R., 1848, Va. 
Kugler, Joseph, 1865, Germany. 
Kuhn, Henry, 1825, Md. 
Kuhn, Jeremiah F., 1830, Md. 
Kuykendal, Clarence M., 1890, S. C. 
Kuykendall, Edwin H., 1888, W. Va, 

Laborde, John B., 1822, S. C. 
Lackland, Eli, 1822, Md. 
La Compte, Stephen, 1827, Md. 
Lacy, John B., 1858, Va. 
Lacy, John H., 1879, N- C. 
Lafferty, James A., i88r, N. C. 
Laird, Edward C, 1877, Va, 
Lake, Robert Pinkney, 1849, M^d. 
Lamb, Charles W., 1863, Md. 
Lambdin, Edward S., 1880, Md. 
Lambdin, William W., 1854, Md. 
Lambert, Colin H., 1857, Md. 
Lambert, Francis, 1836, D. C. 
Lambert, John, 1828, Md. 
Lambeth, William L., 1820, Va. 
Land, Emerson, Jr., 1S86, Va. 
Landers, Thomas, 1865, Md. 
Landis, Joseph A., 1828, Md. 
Laney, Joseph M., 1853, Pa. 

Lanier, Benjamin, 1827, Va. 
Lanier, N. R. S., 1880, Md. 
Lankford, A. J. H., i860, Md. 
Lansdale, B. Frank., 1866, Md. 
Lappe, Martin, Jr., 1888, Pa. 
Large, Jonathan L., 1851, Pa. 
Larkin, William D. F., 1849, Md. 
Laroque, Alfred, 1847, Md. 
Larrick, George W., 1878, Va. 
Larsch, James C, 1S42, Md. 
Larsh, Silas, 1826, Md. 
Lassell, William H., 1853, Md. 
Latham, Fayette M., 1885, Va. 
Latham, O. W., 1882, N. Y. 
Latham, P. H., 1876, Md. 
Latimer, John R., 1881, S. C. 
Latimer, Thomas S., 1861, Pa. 
Lauck, Theodore H., 1868, Va. 
Lauderbaugh, F. B., 1883, Md. 
Lautenbach, Robert, 1865, Md. 
Lauver, Milton A., 1865, Md, 
Laveille, Uriah, 1S53, Md. 
Lawrence, Daniel H., 1869, Md. 
Lawrence, Richard, 1843, '^^^• 
Lawrence, Thomas J., 18 19, Md. 
Lawrence, Upton H., 1836, Md. 
Lawrence, Virgil C, 1857, Md. 
Laws, Cassius D., 1877, Va. 
Lawson, Lemuel S., 1867, Md. 
Leach, Richard V., 1849, Md. 
Leamy, James C, 1866, Md. 
Leary, T. H., 1886, N. C. 
Leason, James A., 1881, Md. 
Leatherbury, George P., 1857, Va. 
Le Cato, Edwin W., i860, Va. 
Le Cato, George W., 1864, Va. 
Lecato, John T., 1884, Va. 
Lecompte, G. Byron, 1861, Md. 
Lecompte, William B., 1833, Md. 
Ledbetter, Arthur E., 1888, N. C. 
Le Doux, J. A., 1889, Cal. 
Lee, Benjamin, 1818, Va. 
Lee, Charles A., 1858, Md. 
Lee, Daniel E., i860, N. C. 
Lee, Maxey G., 1888, S. C. 
Lee, Richard C, 1859, Va. 



Lee, William, 1865, Md. 
Leech, B. Towner, 1881, Md. 
Le Fevre, H. W., 1867, Pa. 
Leggette, E. M. B., 1872, Miss. 
Leh, Henry D., 1884, Pa. 
Leigh, John F., 1834, Md. 
Lemaster, Andrew J., 1879, W. Va. 
Lemen, William M., 1855, Md. 
Lemmer, Johann C, 1885, Pa. 
Lemmon, A. H., 1822, Md. 
Lemmon, Richard H., 1876, Va. 
Leonard, Benjamin F., 1876, Md. 
Lester, Shipley, Jr., 1849, Md. 
Lester, William McC, 1887, S. C. 
Levely, William, 1839, Md. 
Levering, James, 1837, Md. 
Lewin, J. Y., 1876, Va. 
Lewis, Alfred, 1826, Va. 
Lewis, Charles G., 1821, La. 
Lewis, Frank W., 1878, Va. 
Lewis, George W., 1886, N. C. 
Lewis, James E. H., 1861, Md. 
Lewis, John L., 1888, Va. 
Lewis, John W., 1826, N. C. 
Lewis, John W., 1854, N. C. 
Lewis, Richard H., 1871, N. C. 
Lewis, W. Milton, 188S, Ohio. 
Lewis, Warner, Jr., 1867, Va. 
Ligget, James, 1827, Md. 
Ligget, John J., 1869, Md. 
Lilly, Henry A., 1847, P^- 
Lilly, Virgil H. B., 1869, Pa. 
Lincoln, Frank T., 1879, G^* 
Lincoln, Nathan S., 1852, Mass. 
Lindsay, John J., 1887, S. C. 
Lining, Thomas, 1822, S. C. 
Linthicum, Asa S., 1852, Md. 
Linthicum, Hezekiah, 1855, Md. 
Linthicum, Jamgs G., 1859, Md. 
Linthicum, John W., 1884, Md. 
Linthicum, Otis Mills, 1S90, Md. 
Linthicum, Theodore, 1835, Md. 
Linthicum, Thomas W., 1879, Md. 
Lish, A. R. J., 1871, Md. 
Littig, Thomas, 1830, Md. 

Littleton, James C, 1883, Md. 
Livingston, Andrew D., 1827, Pa. 
Livingston, John H., 1878, Ga. 
Lloyd, Francis M., 1855, Md. 
Lloyd, George S., 1881, N. C. 
Lockridge, J. B., 1885, W. Va. 
Lodge, William J., 1859, Pa. 
Loftin, Preston B., 1888, N. C. 
Logan, Edward N., 1887, Va. 
Logie, B. Rush, 1890, Md. , 

Lomax, Richard S., 1855, Va. 
Long, B. L., i88i,N. C. 
Long, Durritt, 1816, Va. 
Louchery, Daniel C, 1880, Md. 
Love, Eli N., 1849, Va. 
Love, James H., 1878, W. Va. 
Love, William S., 1890, Md. 
Lovett, David H., 1833, Va. 
Lowe, A. €,, 1877, Md. 
Lowe, James A., 1858, Pa. 
Lowndes, Charles, 1855, Md. 
Lowndes, Charles H. T., 1888, Md. 
Lowndes, Edward H., 1828, Md. 
Lowry, Alexander, 1822, S. C. 
Lowry, F. W., 1883, N. C. 
Lowry, James B. , 18S3, N. C. 
Lucas, Charles C, 1886, W. Va. 
Lumsden, William J., 1S69, N, C. 
'Lumsden, William O., 1849, Md. 
Lyles, William D., 1848, Md. 
Lyles, William Durham, 1837, S. C. 
Lynch, Andrew A., 1S29, Pa. 
Lynch, Francis E., 1851, Md. 
Lynch, Jethro, 1855, Md. 
Lynch, John S., 1853, Md. 
Lynch, Thomas A., 1847, Md. 
Lynde, Frederick M., 1876, Mich. 
Lynn, George, 1829, Md. 
Lyon, Albert, 1828, Md. 
Lyon, Samuel H., 1827, Md. 
Lyon, Washington, 1S35, Tenn. 

Maccubbin, John M. S., 1823, Md. 
Mace, John, 1887, Md. 
Mace, S. Veirs, 1884, Md. 

lAlso B. M., 1848. 



Mace, Samuel V., 1849, Md. 
Macgill, Charles, 1828, Md. 
AlacgiU, Charles B., 1823, Md. 
Macgill, Charles G. W., 1856, Md. 
Macgill, William D., 1823, Md. 
Mackall, Leonard, 1826, D. C. 
Mackall, Lewis, 1824, D. C. 
Mackall, Louis, Jr., 1851, Md. 
Mackall, Richard, 1838, Md. 
Mackall, Richard C, 1847, Va. 
Mackenheimer, Chas. P., 1853, Md. 
Mackenzie, Edward E., 18S4, Md. 
Mackenzie, George B., 1828, Md. 
Mackenzie, George B., 1862, Md. 
Mackenzie, John C, 1847, Md. 
Mackenzie, John P., 1821, Md. 
Mackenzie, Thomas G., 1861, Md. 
Mackey, Argyle, 1890, D. C. 
Mackie, James S., 1848, Md. 
Mackubbin, Richard C, 1839, Md. 
Macon, Philemon J., 1883, N. C. 
Maddox, Adderton, 1836, Md. 
Maddox, Charles J., 1843, Md. 
Maddox, James T. N., 1832, Md. 
Maddox, Robert B., 1837, La. 
Magill, William H., 1S17, Pa. 
Magruder, D. Lynn, 1849, ^'^'^• 
Magruder, Edward R., 1833, Md. 
Magruder, Hezekiah, 1826, D. C. 
Magruder, I. Wilson, 1862, Md. 
Magruder, John A., 1825, Md. 
Magruder, T. L. C, 1867, Md. 
Magruder, Thomas B., 1821, Md. 
Magruder, William B., 1825, Md. 
Magruder, William B., 1831, D. C. 
Magruder, William E., 1854, Md. 
Magruder, William W., 1819, Md. 
Maguire, Charles, 1829, Ireland. 
Maguire, C. Frank, 1S83, Md. 
Mahon, James T., 1864, Pa. 
Malloy, Charles A., 1838, Md. 
Malone, F. R., 1882, Md. 
Malone, J. D., Jr., 1884, Ga. 
Malone, Wilson P., 1888, Va. 
Mamster, Samuel, 1828, Md. 
Manifold, W. H., 1S61, Pa. 

Mann, Arthur H., Jr., 1890, Md. 
Manning, Anthony La F., 1852, Md. 
Manning, Henry E. T., 1869, N. C. 
Manning, William, 1833, Md. 
Manning, William P., 1869, Va. 
Manro, Jonathan, Jr., 1825, Md. 
Mansfield, Arthur D., 1890, Md. 
Mansfield, R. W., 1865, Md. 
Manson, Francis E., 1822, Va. 
Mapp, Samuel W., 1844, Va. 
Mapp, Thomas R., 1856, Va, 
Marbury, Alexander M., 1S29, Md. 
Marbury, William A., 1867, Md. 
Marchand, Louis A. B., 1830, Md. 
Marcy, Virgil M. D., 1847, N. J. 
Maris, Edward A., 1841, Md. 
Maris, George W., 1833, Md. 
Markham, James B., 1843, Ala. 
Marmillion, Edmund B., 1847, La. 
Marrast, John, 1818, Md. 
Marriott, Henry B., 1883, N. C. 
Marsden, James J., 1823, Va. 
Marsh, Grafton, 18 13, Md. 
Marsh, Josiah, 1819, Md. 
Marsh, W. H., 1876, Md. 
Marshall, Ashton A., 1845, ^^^ 
Marshall, Edward W., 1852, Md. 
Marshall, John S., 1853, Md. 
Marshall, Robert M., 1S66, Md. 
Marsteller, Cyrus C, 1818, Va. 
Marsters, William C, 1853, Md. 
Martenet, J. Fussell, 1880, Md. 
Martin, Andrew J., 1853, Md. 
Martin, Charles M., 1863, Md. 
Martin, Ennalls, 1818, Md. 
Martin, Frank, 1886, Md. 
Martin, George M., 1882, Md. 
Martin, George T., 1819, Md. 
Martin, Honori, 1829, Va. 
Martin, Hugh, 1853, Del. 
Martin, J. Everette, 1890, N. C. 
Martin, John H., 1862, Md. 
Martin, Joseph, 1823, Md. 
Martin, Joseph, 1825, Md. 
Martin, Mathias, 1865, Md. 
Martin, Samuel, 1813, Md. 



Martin, Samuel B., 1838, Md. 
Martin, William N., 1853, Md. 
Martindale, Samuel, 1823, Md. 
Mason, John Seddon, 1836, Va. 
Mass, Franklin, 1850, Md. 
Massenburg, Richard C, 1884, Md. 
Massey, Charles H. B., 1849, Md. 
Massey, J. E., 1871, S. C. 
Massey, Rigbie, 1830, Md. 
Massie, William A., 1816, Va; 
Mathews, James E., i860, Md. 
Mathews, Thomas, 1837, Md. 
Mathias, John S., 1879, Md. 
Mathias, William A., 1843, Md. 
Matlack, Armistead G., 1859, Md. 
Mattfeldt, Charles L., 1886, Md. 
Matthews, Alexander, 1847, U. C. 
Matthews, Charles H., 1830, Md. 
Matthews, Francis, 1830, Md. 
Matthews, Hugh H., 1828, Md. 
Matthews, Robert, 1822, Md. 
Matthews, Thomas A., 189c, N. C. 
Maughlin, Hugh A., 1864, Md. 
Maund, Frederick, 1848, Md. 
Maus, L. Mervin, 1874, Md. 
Maxwell, W. S., 1873, Md. 
Maxwell, William S., 1830, Del. 
May, Bushrod L., 1850, Va. 
May, Edmund T., 1S85, Ga. 
May, Frederick, 1S69, Md. 
May, Robert L., 1S90, Fla. 
Maybank, Joseph, 1889, S. C. 
Maynard, Clinton, 1870, Md. 
Maynard, James, 1833, Md. 
Maynard, James H., 1866, Md. 
Mayo, John, 1835, Va. 
Mayo, William R., 1890, N. C. 
Mays, Rhydon G., 1823, S. C. 
McAden, Giles M., 1889, N. C. 
McAliley, J. Wallace, 1889, S. C. 
McAlpine, George, 1S50, Miss. 
McCabe, Edmund H., 1822, Pa. 
McCaffrey, William, 1822, Md. 
McCain, Starke J., 1879, Mo. 
McCann, Hugh, 1822, S. C. 
McCauley, Charles, 1878, Md. 

McCauley, Lawrence J. A., 1856, Md. 

McCeney, Edward, 1828, Md. 

McCleary, J. R., 1872, W. Va. 

McCleary, John, 1852, Md. 

McClellan, C. R., 1835, Md. 

McClellan, D. W. B., 1829, Md. 

McClintock, Jonas R., 1830, Pa. 

McClure, William J., 1866, Md. 

McComas, Henry W., 1888, Md. 

McComas, Josiah L., 1858, Md. 

McConachie, A. D., 1890, Canada. 

McConnell, Harvey E., 1S90, S. C. 

McConnell, James, 1827, Pa. 

McCormick, A. M. Uupuy, 1888, Va. 

McCormick, Charles, 1835, D. C. 

McCormick, Cyrus, 1868, Va. 

McCormick, C. A,, 1871, Md. 

McCormick, G. Carville, 1890, Md. 

McCormick, James L., 1846, Md. 

McCormick, James L., 1884, La. 

McCormick, Thomas P., 1877, La. 

McCoy, Francis, 1825, Md. 

McCoy, Robert, 1826, Md. 

McCulloh, John K., 1857, Md. 
McCullough, J. Haines, 1861, Md. 
McDevitt, Edward P., 1875, Md. 
McDoNOUGH, Anthony A., 1841, 

McDowell, Charles C, 1874, Md. 
McDowell, Ephraim, 1825, Ky. 
McDowell, Eugene T., 1870, Md. 
McDowell, James, 1844, Va. 
McDowell, James H., 1857, Pa. 
McDowell, John, 1817, Pa. 
McDowell, John B., 182S, Md. 
McDowell, Maxwell, 18 18, Md. 
McDowell, William J., 1874, Md. 
McDuffie, James H., 1887, N. C. 
McElderry, Henry, 1865, Md. 
McElfresh,Charles W.,i8S9, W. Va. 
McElhiney, William J., 1827, Md. 
McEnry, Donat, 1839, Md. 
McGary, Peter J., 1S56, Va. 
McGee, T. J., 1880, Ohio. 
McGee, William, 1818, Tenn. 
McGill, Thomas J., 1834, Md. 



McGill, Wardlaw, 1867, Md. 
McGlaughlin, John M., 1888, W. Va. 
McGuGiN, David L., 1844, Ohio. 
McGuire, Bernard C, 1857, N. Y. 
McHenry, Martin J., 1870, Ark. 
Mcllhany, J. Stuart, 18S4, Va. 
Mcllvain, John E., 1851, Pa. 
McKaw, Uavid, 1823, Va. 
McKay, Haynes, 1826, Va. 
McKee, Charles E. S., 1858, Md. 
McKee, W. Arthur E., 1883, Md. 
McKeeby, W. Coe, 1887, N. Y. 
McKenzie, A. H., 1872, S. C. 
McKew, Dennis I., 1850, Md. 
McKinnon, Archibald, 1886, N. C. 
McKinnon, Matthew J., 1853, Pa. 
McKnew, W. R., 1862, Md. 
McKown, John M., 1870, Va. 
McLane, Moses, 1855, Md. 
McLaughlin, David B., 1842, Md. 
McLaughlin, John E., 1S86, N. C. 
McLeod, Alexander H., 1866, Md. 
McLeod, Gilbert, 1882, N. C. 
McManigal, Joseph M., 1886, Pa. 
McManus, F. A., i860, Md. 
McManus, Felix R., 1829, Md. 
McManus, Felix S., 1855, Md. 
McManus, William L., 1833, Md. 
McMaster, John T. B., 1850, Md. 
McMeal, Daniel, 1836, Md. 
McMeal, Daniel, Jr., 1862, Pa. 
McMeal, Felix D., 1829, Md. 
McMechen, William T., 1854, Va. 
McMillan, Benjamin F., 1882, N. C. 
McMillan, J, Luther, 1881, N. C, 
McMillan, William D., 1869, N. C. 
McMullan, John H., 1876, N. C. 
McNatt, Henry Wise, 1881, N. C. 
McParlin, Thomas A., 1847, Md. 
McPherson, J. Chester, 1880, Md. 
McPherson, Maynard, 1865, Md. 
McPherson, William C, 1834, Pa. 
McPherson, William S., 1848, Md. 
McQuinn, William, 1849, Va. 
McRae, Charles D., 1889, Ga. 
McShane, James F., 1870, Md. 

McSherry, H. C, 1872, Md. 
McSherry, Henry F., 1858, Va. 
McSherry, James W., 1855, Md. 
McSherry, Richard, 1880, Pa. 
McSherry, W. Kilty, 1868, Md. 
McSherry, William S., 1867, Md. 
Mead, Walter C, 1837, Md. 
Mechem, Abel F., 1859, Md. 
Mechem, Richard, 1827, Md. 
Medford, William, 1828, Md. 
Mehring, A. Buffington, 1S64, Md. 
Meierhoff, Eleazer, 1881, Md. 
Melton, Horace T., 1890, Va. 
Melvin, James A., 1887, Md. 
Melvin, McCarty B., 1849, Md. 
Mendenhall, James N., 1880, S. C. 
Meredith, George E., 1886, Va. 
Merrefield, W. J., 1878, Md. 
Merrick, S. K., 1872, Md. 
Merrilsen, Zachariah, 1828, Md. 
Merritt, Alexander T. B., 1823, Va. 
Merryman, Elias H., 1824, Md. 
Merryman, Moses W., 1850, Md. 
Metzger, John S., 1827, Pa. 
Mewborn, George Thomas, 1890, N.C. 
Michael, J. Edwin, 1873, ^^' 
Mickle, F. B., 1882, Md. 
Middlekauff, Joleph H., 1879, Md. 
Middleton, A. L., i860, Md. 
Middleton, John D., 1820, Md. 
Middleton, John D., 1847, Md. 
Miles, B. B., 1861, Md. 
Miles, Edward S., 1874, Md. 
Miles, James H., 1845, ^^'^' 
Miles, W. P., Jr., 1890, La. 
Milholland, Edward F., 1858, Md. 
Millar, John W., 1850, Md. 
Miller, Aaron B , 1882, N. Y. 
Miller, C. Edward, 1869, Md. 
Miller, Edward, 1826, Md. 
Miller, E. L., 1884, Pa. 
Miller, Henry, 1824, Md. 
Miller, Irving, 1877, Md. 
Miller, James B., 1873, Mo. 
Miller, James B., 1878, Md. 
Miller, James W., 1849, ^^- 



Miller, John L., 1819, S. C. 
Miller, Tempest C, 1889, Pa. 
Milligan, L. Hubert, 1890, Tenn. 
Mills, Bernard, 1853, Md. 
Mills, Sylvanus B., 1849, Md. 
Mills, Thomas F., 1846, Md. 
Mills, William G., 18 4, S. C. 
Mills, William V., 1866, Va. 
Miltenberger, George W., 1840, Md. 
Minor, Charles, 1S35, Va. 
Minor, Jefferson, 1824, Va. 
Minor, John H., 1852, Va. 
Mitchell, Andrew B., 1866, Md. 
Mitchell, A. R., 1877, Md. 
Mitchell, Charles W., 1881, Md. 
Mitchell, Clarence L., 1875, Md. 
Mitchell, Frederick D., 1846, Md. 
Mitchell, Frederick G., 1S80, Md. 
Mitchell, George A., 1853, Md. 
Mitchell, George L., 1848, Md. 
Mitchell, Howard E., 1882, Md. 
Mitchell, James E., 1865, Md. 
Mitchell, James R., 1827, Md. 
Mitchell, Lawrence G., 1884, Va. 
Mitchell, Lemuel P., 1847, Md. 
Mitchell, Millard L., 1876, Md. 
Mitchell, Richard T., 1854, Va. 
Mitchell, Thomas E., 1853, Md. 
Mitchell, William, 1889, Md. 
Mitchell, William F., 1889, S. C. 
Moale, William A., 1879, Md. 
Mobberley, J. Bradley, 1870, Md, 
Moler, John E., 1840, Va. 
Moncure, James U., 1868, Va. 
Monkur, John C. S., 1822, Md. 
Monmonier, J. Carroll, 1886, Md. 
Monmonier, John F., 1834, Md. 
Monmonier, John N. K., 1858, Md. 
Monmonier, Louis, 1861, Md. 
Monmonier, Louis A., 1864, Md. 
Monroe, William A., 1886, N. C. 
Montgomery, Charles P., 1836, S. C. 
Montgomery, James, 1819, Md. 
Montgomery, William T., 1851, Md. 
Moon, Dennis F., 1824, S. C. 

Moon, M. W., Jr., 1822, S. C, 

Moore, Daniel M., 1813, Pa. 

Moore, Dickey, 1859, N. C. 

Moore, Edwin G., 1883, N. C. 

Moore, George, 1826, Pa. 

Moore, Gledstanes A., 1848, Md. 

Moore, Harrison C, 1869, 111. 

Moore, J. H., 1872, Va. 

Moore, James M., 1867, Md. 

Moore, Lawson B., 1S87, Va. ^ 

Moore, Nathaniel T. H., 1838, Md. 

Moore, Reuben H., 1857, Va. 

Moore, Robert, 18 19, Pa. 

Moore, William Boswell, 1840, Ire- 

Moore, William S., 1825, Ohio. 

Moorehead, Charles C, 1868, Md. 

Moores, Samuel L., 1852, Md. 

Moorman, J. A., 1868, Va. 

Moorman, John B., 1888, Va. 

Moran, George H. R., 1S65, Md. 

Moran, John J., 1845, Md. 

Moran, Pedro de Serquira, 18S7, Va. 

Morancy, Emilius, 1822, Md. 

MoRFiT, Campbell, 1853, Md. 

Morfit, Charles M., 1861, Md. 

Morgan, DeWitt C, 1857, Md. 

Morgan, John, 1821, Va. 

Morgan, WMlbur P., 1862, Va. 

Morgan, IVilliatn, 1821, Del. 

Morgan, William T., 1833, Md. 

Morgan, William T., 1884, Pa. 

Morgan, William W., 1S25, Va. 

^Moritio, Manuel, 1822, Buenos 

Morison, James, 1846, Md. 

Morison, James M., 1859, Md. 

Morison, John P., 1824, Pa. 

Morison, Robert B., 1874, Md. 

Morla, Jose A., 1858, Guayaquil. 

Morrill, Jenness, 1888, N. C. 

Morris, George G., 1884, Pa. 

Morris, Henry, 1828, Md, 

Morris, John, 1826, Va. 

Morris, Lewis, 1890, Md. 

lAlsoHon. M.D. 

I go 


Morris, Louis W., 1847, Md. 
Morris, Louis W., 18S5, Md. 
Morrison, Edwin T., 1887, Ohio, 
Morrison, George W., 1862, Md. 
Morrison, Harry C, 1866, Md. 
Morrison, Fhilo P., 18S9, N. C. 
Morrow, Charles W., 188S, Md. 
Mosher, William, 1823, Md. 
Mosier, J. Russell, 1883, Pa. 
Motte, Francis M., 1845, La. 
Motter, Edward S., 1S54, Md. 
Mountz, John W., 1827, Md. 
Mowers, Joseph H., 1878, Pa. 
MowRY, Peter, 1825, Pa. 
Moyer, Lewis W., 1887, Pa. 
Mudd, George D., 1848, Mo. 
Mudd, James M., 1856, Md. 
Mudd, Jerome F., 1828, D. C. 
Mudd, John B., 1827, Md. 
Mudd, Joseph A., 1864, Mo, 
Mudd, J. T., 1884, Md. 
Mudd, Samuel A., 1856, Md. 
MuiR, Samuel C, 1819, D. C. 
Mullan, James A., 1857, Md. 
Muller, John R., 1852, Md. 
Mullikin, Benjamin O., 1838, Md, 
Mullikin, James McE., 1842, Md. 
MuUineux, Elisha E., 1874, Md, 
Mullins, John B., 1887, Va. 
Mumford, David E., 1852, Md. 
Mumma, Edward W., 1851, Md. 
Muncaster, James C., 1819, U. C. 
Muncaster, Magruder, 1S83, D. C. 
Muncaster, Otho M., 1866, Md. 
Mundell, John H., 1849, Md. 
Munnickhuysen, William T., 1826, 

Munroe, Thomas, 1829, Md. 
Munroe, Thomas F., 1868, Fla. 
Murdock, Thomas F., 1850, Md. 
Murphy, Dennis, 1833, Md, 
Murphy, E. Y., 1872, Tenn. 
Murphy, P. L., 1871, N. C. 
Murphy, Thomas L., 1819, Md. 
Murray, James H., 1838, Md. 
Murray, John A., 1885, Pa. 

Murray, Robert M., 1882, Va. 
Murray, T. Morris, 1873, Md. 
Murray, William H., 1854, Md. 
Murrell, Thomas E., 1875, Ark. 
Muse, James A., 1834, Md. 
Muse, Joseph E., 1838, Md. 
Muse, Josiah A. B., 1S60, Md. 
Musgrove, Robert T., 1825, Md. 
Myers, A. Harald, 18S2, Pa. 
Myers, Charles L., 1S88, Pa. 
Myers, Edward W., 1862, Pa. 
Myers, Errett C, 1879, W. Va. 
Myers, H. K., 1867, Pa. 
Myers, Theodore, 1823, Md. 
Myers, Z. C, 1881, Pa, 

Nairn, John Charles, 1835, Md. 
Nalley, Robert J. R., 1850, Md. 
Naylor, Henry L. P., i860, Md. 
Naylor, William L., 1S69, D. C. 
Neal, Anselm W., 1855, Md. 
Neale, Bennett, 1838, Md. 
Neale, Francis, 1821, Md. 
Neale, Francis C, 1852, Md. 
Neale, L. Ernest, 1881, Md. 
Neale, Robert, 1825, Md. 
Neale, Stephen L. D., 1870, Md. 
Neblitt, Sterling, Jr., 1816, Va. 
Neff, Irwin H., 1889, Md. 
Neill, John H., 1889, N. Y. 
Neilson, C. F. M., 1861, Md. 
Nelson, Edward L., 1823, Va. 
Nelson, George F., 1883, Md, 
Nelson, G. W. H., 1864, Md. 
Nelson, H. C, 1861, Md. 
Nelson, Joshua R., 1837, Md. 
Nelson, Louis F., 1849, Md. 
Nelson, Nathan, 1845, Md. 
Nelson, Robert H., 1825, Va. 
Nelson, William, 1882, Va. 
Nelson, William Joseph, 1883, Md. 
Nevitt, Napoleon B., 1S57, Va. 
Nevitt, Thomas, 1828, Md. 
Newbill, William J., 1868, Va. 
Newcomer, Samuel F., 1834, Md. 
Newman, Casper M., 184?, Md. 



Newman, Casper M., 1S66, Md. 
Newman, F. Hollis, 1827, Md. 
Newman, J. Barbour, 186S, Va. 
Newman, James F., 1883, N. C. 
Newman, William G. U., 1849, ^d. 
Nichols, Charles F., 1S87, Del. 
Nichols, Jeremiah, 1861, Md. 
Nichols, William C, 1857, Ala. 
Nicholson, W. H., 1889, N. C. 
Nickerson, Charles C, 1856, Md. * 
Nicolassen, George A., 1862, Md. 
Nixon, Alfred C, 1863, N. C. 
Nixon, James W., 1883, N. C. 
Nixon, Joel W., 1878, Va. 
Noble, Charles P., 1884, Md. 
Noble, Jacob L., 1876, Md. 
Noble, William D., 1851, Md. 
Noble, William H., 1883, Md. 
Noel, Agideus, 1862, Pa. 
Nolen, Charles F., 1890, Md. 
Noonan, Francis H., 1866, Md. 
Norcom, John, 1825, N. C. 
Norfolk, William H., 1856, Md. 
Norment, R. B., Jr., 1880, Md. 
Norris, Basil, 1849, Md. 
Norris, G. W., 1872, Md. 
Norris, H. Eugene, 1874, Md. 
Norris, John B., 1866, Md. 
Norris, J. Uimmitt, 1878, Wash. Ter. 
Norris, Milton McR., 1880, Md. 
Norris, Rhesa M., 1878, Md. 
Norris, Richard, 1828, Va. 
Norris, Robert R., 1878, Md. 
Norris, Samuel J., 1854, Md, 
Norris, William, 1824, Md. 
Norris, William H., 1853, Md. 
Norris, W. H. W., 1871, Md. 
Norwood, Vernon L., 1885, Md. 
Nott, J. Ridley, 1886, England, 
Notting'ham, Thos. J. L, L,, 1830, Va, 
Nowland, Edward F., 1852, Md. 

O'Bryan, Lawrence, 1821, Md. 
O'Connor, John, 1812, Md. 
O'Donnell, Joseph J., 1854, Md. 
O'Donnoghue, Florence, 1855, U. C. 

O'Donovan, Charles, 1853, ^'^• 
O'Donovan, Charles, 1881, Md. 
O'Donovan, John H. D., 1824, Md. 
Offutt, Barrack, 1859, Md. 
Offutt, J. Samuel, 1887, W. Va. 
Offutt, Lemuel, 1876, Md. 
Ogle, George C, 1838, Md. 
Ohle, Henry C, 1886, Md. 
Ohr, Charles H,, 1834, Md, 
Oliver, Joseph L,, 1859, Md. ^ 

Oliveros, Bartolo, 1883, Ga, 
Onderdonk, Henry U., 1873, Md. 
O'Neal, J. W. Crapster, 1844, Md. 
O'Neal, W. H., 1871, Pa. 
O'Neil, Howard D., 1867, 111. 
O'Reilly, William B., 1875, Md. 
Orrick, John H., 1857, Md. 
Orrick, William, 1819, Md. 
Osborn, A. M., 1834, N. C, 
Osborn, William H., 1859, Md. 
Osburn, Abner, 1848, Va. 
Osburn, Howard, 1877, W. Va, 
Oswald, John, 1834, Md. 
Ould, Elisha R., 1862, Md. 
Outten, Cincinnatus, 1855, ^^• 
Owen, Charles W., 1845, Md. 
Owen, John, 1818, Md. 
Owens, Augustus G. W., 1849, Md. 
Owens, George E. R., 1861, Va. 
Owens, Isaac B., 1833, Md. 
Owens, James S., 1823, D. C. 
Owens, Joseph R., 1859, Md. 
Owens, Thomas, 1S59, Md. 
Owings, E. R., 1889, Md. 
Owings, Harry W., i860, Md. 
Owings, James H., 1854, Md. 
Owings, John H., 1861, Md. 
Owings, Orellana H., 1829, Md. 
Owings, Samuel B., 1823, Md. 
Owings, S. Kennedy, 1845, Md. 
Owings, Thomas, 1825, Md. 
Owings, Thomas B., 1852, Md. 
Owings, Thomas F., 1844, Md. 
Oxley, Silas W., 1882, W. Va. 

Pacetti, Joseph A,, 1858, Fla. 



Pacetti, L. B., 1873, Fla. 
Page, Evelyn, 1889, Va. 
Page, John W„ 1848, N. C. 
Page, W. H., 1871, Ga. 
Painter, J. Orville, 1884, Va. 
Pallen, M. Montrose, 1835, Va. 
Palmer, Alfred C, 1881, Va. 
Palmer, Benjamin R., 1844, Pa. 
Palmer, James C, 1834, Md. 
Palmer, J. D., 1S72, Fla. 
Palmer, John W., 1846, Md. 
Palmer, Thomas M., 1844, Fla. 
Pape, G. W., 1871, Md. 
Parke, Joseph M., 1850, Pa. 
Parker, A. E., 1872, Md. 
Parker, Charles W., 1828, Md. 
Parker, George, 1823, Va. 
Parker, John B., 1887, Va. 
Parker, John H., 1822, N. C. 
Parker, M. C, 1872, S. C. 
Parramire, Edward L., 1865, Va. 
Parran, Richard, 1830, Md. 
Parran, Thomas, 1817, Md. 
Parrish, William G., 1875, ^^• 
Parshall, J. Worthington, 1887, Va. 
Parsons, Alfred V., 1889, Md. 
Parsons, Anson, 1865, Pa. 
Parsons, James W., 1825, D. C. 
Parsons, Samuel D., 1S80, S. C. 
Partridge, Frank E., 1848, Md. 
Parvis, J. H., 1867, Del. 
Parvis, W. W., 1871, Del. 
Patillo, William H., 1817, Va. 
Patrick, George R., 1879, S. C. 
Patrick, Thomas L., 1859, Md. 
Patterson, B. M., i860, Pa. 
Patterson, Frank, 1848, Md. 
Patterson, Frank W., 1889, Md. 
Patterson, George, 1825, Va. 
Patterson, John H., 1836, Md. 
Patterson, John H., 1837, Md. 
Patterson, William, 1S26, Md. 
Pattison, John, 1825, Scotland. 
Patton, J. William, 1886, W. Va. 
Patton, William F., 1826, Va. 
Paul, William T., 1869, N. C. 

Payne, Josiah T., 1862, Md. 
Peabody, William F., 1846, Md. 
Peach, John, 185S, Md. 
Peach, Wm. E., 1849, Md. 
Peake, William O., 1824, Va. 
Pearce, George R., 1826, Md. 
Pearce, Ross, 1837, Md. 
Pearsall, Jere R., 1888, N. C. 
Pearson, Charles L., 1883, Md. 
Pearson, Frank W., 1873, Md. 
Pearson, W. R., 1884, Md. 
Peck, Nelson, 1SS6, W. Va. 
Peirce, Elias H., 1857, Md. 
Pemberton, W. D., 1S87, N. C. 
Pembroke, George W., 1868, Md. 
Pender, W. D., 1883, N. C. 
Pendleton, Elisha B., 1841, Va. 
Pendleton, F., 1871, Va. 
Penn, J. H. H., 1820, Md. 
Penn, Richard T., 1826, Md. 
Pennington, Clapham, 1882, Md. 
Pennington, John J., 1869, Md. 
Pennington, J. Rawson, 1887, Ind. 
Pennington, Samuel, 1888, Tenn. 
Pennington, W. Cooper, 1861, Md. 
Percival, Charles, 1836, S. C. 
Perkins, Elisha, 1838, Pa. 
Perkins, George T., 1874, Md. 
Perkins, James A., 1854, Md. 
Perkins, Joseph F., 1833, Pa. 
Perkins, Joseph F., 1875, ^^' 
Perkins, J. Turner, Jr., 1877, Md. 
Perrie, James R. E., 1858, Md. 
Perry, Benjamin J., 1829, Md. 
Perry, George C, 1835, Md. 
Perry, Heman F., 1855, N. Y. 
Perry, J. Clifford, 1885, N. C. 
Perryman, E. G., 1880, Md. 
Peterson, Solon S., 1883, N. C. 
Petherbridge, Gustavus W., 1866, 

Pettebone, Philip, Jr., 1854, Md. 
Fetters, W. G., 1867, Texas. 
Pettit, Alfred T., i85i,Md. 
Pettit, W. B., Jr., 1883, Va. 
Pfaltzgraff, Samuel K., 1886, Pa. 



Phelps, Francis P., 1853, Md. 
Philips, C. C, 1866, Va, 
Phillips, B. F., 1878, Md. 
Phillips, Cyrus B., 1882, N. J. 
Phillips, James R., 1869, Md. 
Phillips, Samuel, 1853, Md. 
Phillips, S. Latimer, 1885, Va. 
Pick, Augustus T., 1863, Md. 
Pierce, H. Lindsley, 1862, Va. 
Pierce, W. Allen, 1847, Md. « 

Piggot, Aaron S., 1845, Md. 
Piggot, Cameron, 1882, Md. 
Pillsbury, William J., 1889, Md. 
Pinckard, F. A., 1867, Va. 
Pindell, Joseph T., 1865, Md. 
Pindell, William N., 1848, Md. 
Pinkston, Camillus L., 1868, Ala. 
Piper, Jackson, 1853, Md. 
Piper, William E., 1830, Md.* 
Piper, W. J., 1867, Md. 
Pipino, W. C, 1873, 111. 
Pitman, Samuel S., 1882, Ga. 
Pitsnogle, Jeptha Elworth, 1889, W. 

Pitts, Barton, 1881, Va. 
Pitts, Charles, 1870, Va. 
Pitts, James D., 1882, Va. 
Plaster, George E., 1848, Va. 
Pleckner, Walter A., 18S5, Va. 
Plowden, William H., 1839, Md. 
Plummer, J. W., 1829, N. Y. 
Poe, William C, 1865, Md. 
Poindexter, James W., 1834, Va. 
Poitts, William E., 1829, Md. 
Pole, Arminius C, 1876, Md. 
Pollock, Lewis L., 1856, S. C. 
Poole, J. S., 1887, Md. 
Poole, Thomas, 1825, Md. 
Porcher, Peter, 1823, S. C. 
Porter,^A. L., 1888, Md. 
Porter, Alexander Shaw, 1889, Md. 
Porter, David, 1826, Pa. 
Porter, M. Gibson, 1886, Md. 
Porter, Robert F., 1888, Va. 
Porter, Robert J., 1876, N. C. 
Posey, Cataldus H., 1886, Md. 

Pottenger, John H., 1844, Md. 
Pottenger, Thomas W., 1847, Md. 
Pottle, Charles, 1826, Va. 
Powell, Alexander, 1829, Md. 
Powell, John F., 1853, Md. 
Powell, John H. E., 1879, Va. 
Powell, Junius L., 1867, Va. 
Powell, Samuel F., 1861, Md. 
Power, James, 1834, D. C. 
Power, William, 1835, Md. 
Pratt, Stephen H., 1849, Md. * 

Prentiss, Harry G., 1881, Md. ' 
Prentiss, John H., 1848, Md. 
Pressly, Ebenezer W., 1887, S. C. 
Pressly, J. M., 1884, N. C. 
Preston, Alonzo, 1820, Md. 
Preston, Jacob A., 1817, Md. 
Price, A. B., 1867, Md. 
Price, A. H., 1861, Md, 
Price, Benjamin F., 1857, Md. 
Price, Edward B., 1849, 111. 
Price, Eldridge C, 1874, Md. 
Price, Elias C, 1848, Md. 
Price, Ignatius, 1816, Va. 
Price, James H., 1864, Md. 
Price, James Marshall, 1890, Md. 
Price, John C, 1852, Md. 
Price, John F., 1835, Md. 
Price, Joshua T., 1868, Md. 
Price, Mahlon C, 1830, Md. 
Price, Richard E., 1862, Md. 
Price, Robert F., 1857, Va. 
Price, Robert J., 1866, Md. 
Price, William R., 1829, Md. 
Priestly, Edward, 1851, Md. 
Prigg, Joseph, 1828, Md. 
Prince, Anthony W., 1827, Md. 
Prosser, Albert H., 1829, Va. 
Pryor, George E., 1824, Md. 
Pryor, James W., 1828, Md. 
Pue, Arthur, 1826, Md. 
Pue, Michael, 1825, Md. 
Pue, Michael, 1S79, Md. 
Pue, Richard R., 183S, Md. 
Pue, Robert, 1833, Md. 
Pue, William H., i860, Md. 



Pumphrey, B. W., 1830, Va. 
Pumphrey, Horace W. W., 1830, Va. 
Purcell, James B., 1866, Mo. 
Purdie, John K., 1829, Va. 
Purnell, James B. K., 1850, Md. 
Purnell, Ralph C, 1887, Md. 
Pye, Charles H., 1851, Md. 
Pye, Edward A., 1842, Md. 

Quail, Charles E., 1867, Md. 
Quinan, Pascal A., 1851, Md. 
Quinn, Samuel S., 1859, Md. 

Raborg, Christopher H., 1837, Md. 
Raborg, J. S., 1867, Md. 
Raborg, Samuel A., i860, Md. 
Ragan, O. H. Williams, 1874, Md. 
Ragan, William, 1845, Md. 
Rainey, William A., 1825, Md. 
Randolph, Robert L., 1884, Va. 
Rankin, Robert G., 1850, Md. 
Ranson, Briscoe B., 1869, Va. 
Rawlings, William, 1875, ^^• 
Ray, H. J., 1872, Miss. 
Ray, Joseph C. B., 1888, Ky. 
Read, James B., 1849, Ga. 
Read, John L., 1849, ^^• 
Read, Nelson C, 1841, Md. 
Readel, John D., Jr., 1850, Md. 
Reamer, Howard C, 1885, Va. 
Reamer, Norman G., 1870, Md. 
Reardon, William M., 1874, Va. 
Rebman, George A., 1876, Pa. 
Reed, George V. A., 1836, Va. 
Reed, James A., 1841, Md. 
Reed, John H., 1885, Ind. 
Reed, William P., 1865, Va. 
Reeder, George, 1840, Md. 
Reeder, John B., 1839, Md. 
Reese, David M., 1819, Md. 
Reese, D. Meredith, 1889, Md. 
Reeves, John R. T., 1858, Md. 
Regester, Wilson G., 1880, Md. 
Rehberger, John H., 1873, Md. 
Reiche, Peter H., 1869, Md. 
Reid, E. Miller, 1S64, Md. 

Reid, John T., 1881, N. C. 
Reindollar, William, 1847, Pa- 
Reinhart, D. J., 1871, Md. 
Reintzel, Henry, 1828, U. C. 
Remsberg, Albert J., 1S74, Md. 
Rench, Samuel H., 1827, Md. 
Renner, W. H., 1876, Md. 
Rennolds, Henry T., 1867, Md. 
Rennolds, William R., 1866, Va. 
Reutter, George N., 1S58, Pa. 
Revell, Henry M., 1876, Md. 
Revell, William Theodore, 1847, Md. 
Reynolds, A. S., 1S80, W. Va. 
Reynolds, John, 1840, Va. 
Reynolds, Thomas, 1841, Md. 
Rice, Charles H., 1S85, W.Va. 
Rich, Arthur, Jr., 1836, Md. 
Rich, Arthur J., 1848, Md. 
Rich, Frank R., 1889, Md. 
Richard, Victor P., 1850, Md, 
Richards, H. Preston, 1889, Md. 
Richards, John C, 1834, Md. 
Richardson, Braxton B., 1887, Md. 
Richardson, Charles, 1816, Md. 
Richardson, Charles C, 1855, Md. 
Richardson, Henry, 1864, Md. 
Richardson, J. Julius, 1889, W. Va. 
Richardson, Marcus U., 1846, Ky. 
Richardson, Samuel S., 1848, Md. 
Richmond, Nathaniel E., 1S84, Va. 
Rickards, H. N., 1888, Md. • 
Ricketts, David F., 1859, Md. 
Rider, Charles E., 1850, Md. 
Rider, Noah S., 1850, Md. 
Rider, Thomas W. P., 1852, Md. 
Rider, William B., 1879, Md. 
Rider, William H., 1827, Md. 
Ridgely, Aquila T., 1848, Md, 
Ridgely, B. Rush, 1847, Md. 
Ridgely, Charles, 1836, Md. 
Ridgely, James L., 1888, Md. 
Ridgely, John, 1841, Md. 
Ridgely, Nicholas G., 1862, Md. 
Ridgely, Richard G., 1827, Md. 
Ridout, Samuel, 1840, Md. 
Ridout, Samuel, 1846, Md. 



Kidout, Z. Duvall, 1869, Md. 
Riggin, H. H., 1822, Md. 
Riggs, Augustus, 1874, Md. 
Riley, Charles H., 1880, Md. 
Riley, David, 1861, Md. 
Riley, Joshua, 1824, Md. 
Rippard, William H., 1863, Md. 
Ristau, Thomas C, 1819, Md. 
Ritter, Francis O., 1881, Pa. 
Rivers, Edmund C, 1879, Md. 
Rivers, Philip, 1848, Md. 
Roach, Edward W., 1880, Ga. 
Roach, Elisha J., 1854, Md. 
Robb, John A., Jr., 1880, Md. 
Robb, Patrick C, 1815, Va. 
Robbins, D. H., 1850, Md. 
Roberts, Charles E., 1864, Md. 
Roberts, George, 1818, Md. 
Roberts, George M. C, 1826, Md. 
Roberts, James, 1834, Pa. 
Roberts, Samuel L. P., 1820, Md. 
Roberts, Thomas A., 1825, Md. 
Roberts, William B., 1851, Md. 
Roberts, William H., 1841, Md. 
Robertson, Benjamin F., 1822, Tenn. 
Robertson, Charles, 1837, N. Y. 
Robertson, Edgar W., 1866, Md. 
Robertson, Fenwick, 1854, Md. 
Robertson, Frederick U., 1826, Tenn. 
Robertson, George J., 1834, Md, 
Robertson, H. W., 1828, Md. 
Robertson, James, 1820, Md. 
Robertson, James B., 1826, Md. 
Robertson, Peyton, 1824, Tenn. 
Robertson, Samuel H., 1853, Md. 
Robertson, Thomas, 1822, Va. 
Robertson, William W., 1864, Md. 
Robins, William H., i860, Va. 
Robins^ William L., 1890, Md. 
Robinson, Alexander, 1845, Va. 
Robinson, Charles B., 1853, Md. 
Robinson, George L., 1865, Md. 
Robinson, George W., 1824, Va. 
Robinson, John A., 1883, Va. 
Robinson, John B., 1862, Md. 
Robinson, John H., 1883, Kansas. 

Robinson, L. B., 1886, Pa. 
Robinson, Robert K., 1859, Md. 
Robinson, W. L., 1887, Pa. 
Robosson, Thomas P., 1859, Md. 
Rogers, Charles E., 1885, Va. 
Rogers, Francis, 1845, '^^* 
Rogers, Henry C, 1856, Md. 
Rogers, James B., 1822, Va. 
Rogers, John, 1822, S. C. 
Rogers, Samuel O., 1846, Md. 
Rogers, William, 1834, La. 
Rogers, William H., 1850, Md. 
Rogers, William H., 1873, Va. 
Rogers, Winston D., 1853, Pa. 
Rohe, George H., 1873, Md. 
Rohrbaugh, Edwin P., 1881, Pa. 
Rolando, Henry, 1883, Md. 
Roman, Philip D., 1858, Md. 
Romero, Jose L., 1879, Cuba. 
Roose, William S., Jr., 1890, D. C. 
Roripaugh, Louis L., 1889, N. Y. 
Rosamond, James O., 1889, S. C. 
Rose, William R., 1834, Va, 
Roseberry, Benjamin S., 1874, Md. 
Roseborough, John R., 1829, Pa. 
Ross, Charles Ellis, 1889, N. C. 
Ross, John B., 1833, Md. 
Ross, William T. H., 1852, Md. 
Rosse, Irving C, 1866, Md. 
Rosse, Zadock H., 1822, Md. 
Roszell, Stephen W., 1826, Md. 
Roundtree, Thos. W., 1841, Ireland. 
Rourk, Francis, 1865, Canada West. 
Rowan, M., 1815, Va. 
Rowe, George T., 1877, Md. 
Rowe, Robert S., 1880, Md. 
Rowe, Walter B., 1862, Md. 
Rowland, Samuel, 1874, Md. 
Rowland, William B., 1834, Md. 
Rowzee, Edward A., 1827, Va. 
Rudenstein, John, 1842, Md. 
Rusk, G. G., 1867, Md. 
Russell, Charles, 1848, Me. 
Russell, C. F., 1867, Va. 
Russell, R. J., 1882, Pa. 
Russell, William L., 1869, Md. 



• Rutland, William C, 1844, Tenn, 
Rutledge, John B., 1822, Md. 
Rutter, Alexander, 1864, Md. 
Rutter, Edward J., 1837, Md. 
Rymer, William A., 1890, W. Va. 

Sadtler, C. E., 1873, Md. 
Salley, M. G., 1872, S. C. 
Sams, Carlton C, 1834, Md. 
Sanders, Joel B., 1819, Ky. 
Sanders, J. W., 1873, Ga. 
Sanders, William W., 1861, Md. 
Sanderson, William K., 1834, Md. 
Sanderson, W. Raymond, 1882, Md. 
Sandrock, William C, 1878, Md. 
Sands, Robert McM., 1883, Pa. 
Sands, William, 1823, Md. 
Sappington, Asbury S., 1856, Md. 
Sappington, Augustine A., 1853, Md. 
Sappington, G. R., 1843, ^d. 
Sappington, P. F., 1887, Md. 
Sappington, Richard, 1851, Md. 
Sappington, Sidney A., 1848, Md. 
Sappington, Thomas P., 1869, Md. 
Sartwell, Henry P., 1841, N. Y. 
Sasscer, Frederick, 1850, Md. 
Saunders, Walton, 1856, Va. 
Savage, William, 1826, Ga. 
Sawyer, Charles W., 1885, N. C. 
Sawyer, Leroy L., 1890, N. C. 
Saxton, Alexander H., 1863, Md. 
Scarboro, Silas, 1857, Md. 
Scarff, William T., 1857, Md. 
Schaefer, Theodore W., 18S0, Md. 
Schaeffer, Edward M., 1880, Md. 
Schaffner, D. W., 1887, Pa. 
Scheldt, Otho F., 1856, Md. 
Schiltneck, Vandyke G., 1882, Md. 
Schindel, E. Myley, 1883, Md. 
Schindel, O. M., 1873, Md. 
Schley, Fairfax, 1846, Md. 
Schley, Frederick A., 1866, Md. 
Schley, W. K., 1835, Ga. 
Schloss, A. S., 1884, N. Y. 
Schoch, J. L., 1870, Va. 
Scholl, C. E., 1873, Md. 

Schuessler, Frank W., 1890, Md. 
Schultz, Henry, 1830, Md. 
Schwalbe, Samuel, 1885, Hungary. 
Schwatka, J. Bushrod, 1882, Md. 
Scott, Daniel, 1820, .Md. 
Scott, Edward A., 1886, Md. 
Scott, Henry C, 1857, Md. 
Scott, John H., 1828, Md. 
Scott, John S., 18 19, Md. 
Scott, J. Ward, Jr., 1866, Mo. 
Scott, Lee, 1S6S, Mo. 
Scott, Norman B., 1886, Md. 
Scott, Oliver G., 1833, Pa. 
Scott, Richard J., 1855, Md. 
Sears, James E., 1866, Md. 
Sears, Thomas E., 1874, Md. 
Sease, John M., 1886, S. C. 
Sedwick, John A., 1830, Md. 
Sedwick, William A., i860, Md. 
Sailer, Jeremiah, 1843, Pa. 
Seiss, Raymond S., 1852, Md. 
Selby, Milton, 1839, N. C. 
Seldner, S, W., 1872, Md. 
Seldon, Richard V., 1827, Va. 
Sellers, Henry U., 1825, Md. 
Sellman, John H., 1830, Md. 
Sellman, W. A. B,, 1872, Md. 
Seth, James, 1865, Md. 
Sewall, Clement K., 1836, Md. 
Sewell, Franklin L., 1851, Va. 
Sexton, C. H., 1890, N. C. 
Sexton, James A., 1873, I^- C. 
Seys, Henry H., 1853, Md. 
Shackelford, J. A., 1873, Miss. 
Shamburger, J. B., 1890, N. C. 
Shands, Aurelius R., 1884, Va. 
Shane, Samuel, 1827, Md. 
Sharp, Ezra B., 1888, N. J. 
Shaw, Frank T., 1864, Md. 
Shea, Richard, 1830, Md. 
Shearer, Niles H., 1866, Pa. 
Shearer, P. T., Jr., 1889, W. Va. 
Sheehy, Edward La F., 1851, Md. 
Shefleton, J. J., 18S4, Ohio. 
Shelburn, Silas E., 1883, Va. 
Shelmerdine, Robert, 1820, Md. 



Shetnwell, J. F., 1889, Md. 
Shepherd, Henry L., 1S80, Md. 
Shepherd, J. Hooper, 1880, Md. 
Shepherd, J. T., 1874, Ga. 
Shertzer, Abram T., 1869, Md. 
Shields, Jefferson, 1825, Md. 
Shields, John W., 1853, Md. 
Shields, John W., 1808, Ind. 
Shields, Thomas K., 1890, W. Va. , 
Shipley, Benjamin F., 1883, Md. 
Shipley, D. McG., 1871, Md. 
Shipley, George S. D., 1837, Md. 
Shipley, Henry C., 1865, Md. 
Shipley, Joseph P. H., 1844, Md. 
Shipley, Luke M., 1869, Ind. 
Shipley, Nimrod O., 1848, Md. 
Shipley, William S., 1868, Md. 
Shipp, G. Linton, 1885, Va. 
Shippen, Charles C, 1879, Md. 
Shirley, J. Fletcher, 1883, S. C. 
Shoemaker, Edwin B. S., 1864, Md. 
Shoemaker, William A., 1885, Pa. 
Shoemaker, W. J., 1882, Pa. 
Shorb, Basil J., 1889, Pa. 
Shorb, Edmund F., 1846, Pa. 
Shorb, Joseph A., 1823, Pa. 
Shower, Jacob, 1825, Md. 
Shower, Theodore A., 1856, Md. 
Shreeve, Thomas J., 1886, Md. 
Shreve, Charles W., 1858, Md. 
Shriver, George, 1829, Md. 
Shubrick, J. Templar, 1877, S. C. 
Shueey, Joseph K., 1864, Md. 
Shupe, Mersellous B., 1885, Pa. 
Shure, Charles A., 1S62, Md. 
Sidwell, Frank H., 1S80, Md. 
Sigler, George P., 1877, W. Va. 
Sikes, Ginnado T., 1883, N. C. 
Silljacks, George S., 1886, Md. 
Silver, David H., 1839, Md. 
Silver, Howard C, 1888, Md. 
Silver, Peachy H., 1835, Va. 
Sim, Thomas, 1823, Md. 
Simkins, Jesse J., 1827, Va. 
Simmons, Albert T., 1864, Cuba. 
Simmons, Francis Y., 1825, S. C. 

Simmons, Horace M., 1881, Ohio. 
Simon, Charles E., 1890, Md. 
Simpson, Edward B., 1862, Md. 
Sims, L. v., 1871, S. C. 
Sinclair, Duncan, 1855, N. C. 
Singewald, Edward M., 1888, Md. 
Sinnott, John D., 1813, Md. 
Sinsel, Charles A., 1888, W. Va. 
Sitler, James McCoy, 1828, Md. 
Skilling, W. Quail, 1883, Md. , 

Skinner, Daniel H., 1825, Md. 
Skinner, John O., 1866, Md. 
Skinner, Thomas E., 1858, Md. 
Skinner, Thomas H., 1873, Tenn. 
Skinner, William T., 1870, Md. 
Slade, H. Montrose, 1884, Md. 
Slaughter, James M., 1855, Md. 
Slaughter, John P., 1867, Va. 
Slaymaker, Edmund W., 1888, Va. 
Sledge, James T., 1877, N. C. 
Slemons, Albert B., 1855, Md. 
Slemons, F. M., i860, Md. 
Slemons, Thomas, 1828, Md. 
Slennecke, Henry A., 1822, Md. 
Slingluff, Frank, 1868, Md. 
Slingluff, Reuben H., 1848, Md. 
Small, Alexander, 1826, Pa. 
Smallwood, John P., 1885, N. C. 
Smith, Alan P., 1861, Md. 
Smith, Austin, 1827, Va. 
Smith, Ballard R., 1882, Va. 
Smith, Benjamin Le C, 1859, Md. 
Smith, Benjamin M., 1888, Va. 
Smith, Berwick B., 1849, Md. 
Smith, Charles E., 1825, Pa. 
Smith, Charles H., 1844, Va. 
Smith, C. Urban, 1889, Md. 
Smith, Daniel W., 1884, Md. 
Smith, Edward Jenner, 1825, Md. 
Smith, Fielder B., 1855, Md. 
Smith, Francis J., 1862, Md. 
Smith, Gideon B., 1840, Md. 
Smith, G. E. Milton, 1888, Md. 
Smith, Howard M., 1889, Va. 
Smith, Isaac, 1844, Va. 
Smith, James, 1855, Va. 



Smith, J. Dawson, 1874, Va. 
Smith, James M., 1856, Md. 
Smith, James McDuffie, 1833, S. C. 
Smith, John Campbell, 1885, W.Va. 
Smith, John U., 1846, Mass. 
Smith, John Pearson, 1835, S. C. 
Smith, John S,, 1856, Md. 
Smith, John Tyler, 1877, Va. 
Smith, Joseph T., Jr., 1872, Md. 
Smith, Joseph Y., 18 ig, Va. 
Smith, Leonard J., 1819, Md. 
Smith, Manning P., 1881, S. C. 
Smith, Marshall G., 1887, Md. 
Smith, Nathan Ryno, 1886, Md. 
Smith, Nathan K., Jr., 1855, Md. 
Smith, Nathaniel S., 1864, Va. 
Smith, Otho J., 1833, Md. 
Smith, Randolph P., 1881, Va. 
Smith, Raphael W., 1838, La. 
Smith, Reuben, 1855, Va. 
Smith, R. C, 1868, N. C. 
Smith, Richard H., 1875, Md. 
Smith, Robert E., 1825, Md. 
Smith, Samuel P., 1817, Md. 
Smith, Scott B., 1857, Va. 
Smith, T. Emory, 1864, Md. 
Smith, Thomas H. L., 1847, Miss. 
Smith, Walter P., 1863, Md. 
Smith, Walter P., 1890, Md. 
Smith, Washington A., 1842, Va. 
Smith, William A., 1880, Va. 
Smith, W. Gray, 1880, Md. 
Smith, William G., 1823, Va. 
Smith, William H., 1829, Md. 
Smith, William IL, 1833, Md. 
Smith, William M., 1830, Va. 
Smith, William Morgan, 1880, Md. 
Smith,' William S., 1883, Md. 
Smithson, Frank P., 1880, Pa. 
Smoot, Andrew J., 1852, Md. 
Smouse, David W., 1876, Md. 
Snodgrass, Joseph E., 1836, Va. 
Snowden, Arthur ^L, 1855, Md. 
Snowden, De Wilton, 1840, Md. 
Snyder, Charles L., 1812, Va. 
Snyder, George D.,fi827, Md. 

Snyder, Henry D., 1890, Pa. 
Snyder, Henry W., 1825, Md. 
Snyder, John C, Jr., 1817, Md. 
Snyder, Peter, 1823, Md. 
Sohn, Edward C, 1854, Pa. 
Somers, Fletcher, 1885, Md. 
Somerville, William A., 1823, Md. 
Sommerville, Richard H., 1882, Md. 
Soule, James, 1852, Ohio. 
Soule, Joshua, 1826, Md. 
Spalding, John T., 1867, Md. 
Spalding, Leonard, 1869, Ky. 
Spalding, Stephen C, 1870, Md. 
Sparks, Edward, 1824, Md. 
Sparrow, Lewis G., 1S53, Md. 
Spath, Charles, 1861, N. C. 
Speck, Joseph, 1846, Pa. 
Speight, Richard H., 1870, N. C. 
Spence, Ara, 1848, Md. 
Spence, Robert T., 1844, Md. 
Spencer, Burton M., 1880, N. Y. 
Spencer, Francis, 1849, Md. 
Spencer, George W., 1876, Pa. 
Spencer, Samuel, 1828, Md. 
Sperry, J. Austin, 1847, Md. 
Spicer, Hiram L., i860, Md. 
Spiller, James S., 1S70, Va. 
Spindle, John P., 1827, Md. 
Spindle, Philip S., 1850, Va. 
Spring, Archibald, 1822, England. 
Spruill, St. Clair, 1S9P, N. C. 
Spruill, W. T., 1885, N. C. 
Spurrier, H. G., 1889, Md. 
Stafford, John, 1823, Md. 
Stager, Isaac R., 1851, Pa. 
Stable, Robert S., 1882, Pa. 
Stanforth, Richard, 1855, Md. 
Stanley, Thomas J., 1S89, Va. 
Stansbury, O., 1873, Miss. 
Stansbury, John T., 1870, Md. 
Stansbury, John W., 1S70, Md. 
Stansbury, Washington M., i836,Md. 
Stansell, J. McQ., 1S72, N. C. 
Stanton, William, 1834, S. C. 
Starr, Hezekiah, 1S36, Md. 
Steel, Charles L., 1S82, Va. 



Steel, Frank R., U. D. S., 1890, Va. 
Steele, Charles H., 1835, Md. 
Steele, Joseph W., 1856, Md. 
Steele,_Thomas B., 1844, Md. 
Steele, Thomas R., 1849, Va. 
Stein, Attila E., 1S68, Md. 
Steiner, Ralph, 1S83, Texas. 
Steinhofer, Christian, 1854, Md. 
Stenson, J. Fenwick, 1863, Md. 
Stephen, Charles H., 1839, Md. ♦ 
Stephens, Albert, 1869, Md. 
Stephens, William T., 1826, Md. 
Stephenson, Matt K., i88i, N. C. 
Stephenson, Philip P. W., 1836, Va. 
Steptoe, George N., 1817, Va. 
Steuart, Caecilius C, 1882, Md. 
Steuart, James A., 1850, Md. 
Steuart, James H., 1857, Md. 
Steuart, Richard S., 1822, Md. 
Steuart, William F., 1839, Md. 
Stevens, Edward T., 1853, Md. 
Stevens, Jesse L., 1878, Md. 
Stevens, John H., 1857, Md. 
Stevens, N. C, 1875, Ga. 
Stevenson, Charles P., 1848, Md. 
Stevenson, J. M., 1883, N. C. 
Stevenson, James S., 1841, Ky. 
Stevenson, John M., 1S62, Md. 
Stevenson, W. W., 1880, Md. 
Stewart, Benjamin F., 1826, Va. 
Stewart, Benjamin W., 1S37, Md. 
Stewart, David, 1844, Md. 
Stewart, Hainmond, 1828, Md. 
Stewart, Orlando C, 1878, Pa. 
Stewart, Reverdy B., 1865, Va. 
Stier, Jay H., 1886, Md. 
Stillman, William A., 1823, Va. 
Stirling, Robert H., 1859, Md. 
Stites, John S., 1856, Md. 
Stockett, Richard G., 1826, Md. 
Stoddard, W. T., 1882, S. C. 
Stokes, James H., 1868, Md. 
Stokes, Lawrence C, 1886, N. C. 
Stokes, Whitefoord S., 1887, S. C. 
Stokes, William B., 1861, Md. 
Stokes, William H., 1834, Md. 

Stone, C. G., 1872, Md. 
Stone, D. Edwin, 1864, Md. 
Stone, George 5., 1890, S. C. 
Stone, Henry L., 1868, Ala. 
Stone, L S., 1872, Md. 
Stone, James M., 1843, Md. 
Stone, John P. R., 1830, Va. 
Stone, John W., 1835, Md. 
Stone, Llewellyn P., 1866, Md. 
Stone, Michael J., 1834, Md. 
Stone, Thomas J., 1837, Md. 1 

Stone, Thomas W., 1836, Md. 
Stone, W. H., 1864, Md. 
Stonebraker, A. S., 1856, Md. 
Stonesifer, Lewis, 1852, Pa, 
Stonestreet, Edward E., 1852, Md. 
Stout, John W., 1833, Va. 
Stout, William F., 1887, Va. 
Strahan, Theodore, 1867, Md. 
Straughn, Frederick, 1870, Md. 
Street, Abraham, 1821, Md. 
Streets, Samuel W., 1853, Md. 
Strickland, J. T., 1890, N. C. 
Strode, Edward L., 1889, W. Va. 
Strong, Charles M., 188S, N. C. 
Strother, Edwin F., 1867, S. C. 
Stuart, Charles B., 1818, Md. 
Stuart, George W., 1833, Md. 
Stuart, Joseph N., 1828, U. C. 
Stuart, William W., 1842, Del. 
Stump, William H., 1848, Md. 
Sugg, Phesanton S., 1826, N. C. 
Sulivane, Vans M., 1830, Md. 
Sullivan, George B., 1859, Md. 
Sullivan, John J., 1875, Md. 
Sullivan, J. McK., 1861, Ireland. 
Sulton, Henry C, 1880, N. Y. 
Summers, Charles L., Jr., 1887, N. C. 
Summers, James P., 1868, Md. 
Summers, Reuben, 1824, Md. 
Sunderland, William H., 1858, Md. 
Suter, W. Norwood, 1886, Va. 
Sutton, James D., 1827, Md. 
Sutton, Lewis J., 1854, Md. 
Sutton, Richard E., 1851, Md. 
Sutton, William L., 1819, Ky. 



Swan, Charles F, B., 1847, Md. 
Swearingen, Charles V., 1825, Md. 
Sweeney, Timothy C, 1868, Md. 
Sweeting, James K, P., 1868, Md. 
Swentzell, Walter T., 1877, Md. 
Swope, John, 1821, Md. 
Swope, Samuel, 1830, Md. 
Symington, John, 1867, Md. 

Taggart, Charles C, 1887, S. C. 

Talbott, Henry T., 1887, W. Va. 

Talbott, L, Wilson, 1883, W. Va. 

Talbott, T. Melville, 1870, D. C. 

Taliaferro, Benjamin, 1853, Va. 

Tall, Reuben J. H., 1865, Md. 

Tally, Ezekiel S., 1824, Va. 

Taney, Augustine, 1821, Md. 
» Taney, Octavius C, 181 5, Md. 
Taneyhill, G. Lane, 1865, Ohio. 
Tanner, James, 1823, Md. 
Tarr, Charles E., 1854, Md. 
Tatman,C. D., 1837, Del. 
Taylor, Ashby M., 1887, Va. 
Taylor, Frederick W., 1884, Va. 
Taylor, George, 1851, Md. 
Taylor, George A., 1890, Md. 
Taylor, George W., 1850, Mo. 
Taylor, Isaac F., 1846, Ohio. 
Taylor, Isaac H., 1836, Va. 
Taylor, Jesse, 1816, Va. 
Taylor, John A., 1836, Md. 
Taylor, John A., 1866, Pa. 
Taylor, John B., 1855, Va. 
Taylor, Leonard C, 1830, Va. 
Taylor, M., 1871, Md. 
Taylor, Major S., 1857, Md. 
Taylor, W. F., 1884, Md. 
Tayman, Thomas N., 1838, Md. 
Teackle, St. George W., Jr., 1870, 

Teacle, John M., 1827, Va. 
Teague, Rufus J., 1890, N. C. 
Tearney, Joseph F., 1879, W. Va. 
Telfair, William G., 1S82, N. C. 
Temple, John T., 1824, Va. 
Temple, Rufus H., 1884, N. C. 

Templeman, James A., 1861, Va. 

Tenney, John W., 1828, Mass. 

Terrel, Nicholas, 1825, Va. 

Terrell, George F., 1877, Ga, 

Thayer, A. H., 1876, W. Va. 

Theobald, E. Warfield, 1S75, Md. 

Theobald, Samuel, 1867, Md. 

Thistle, James, 1829, Md, 

Thomas, Bruce, 1852, Md. 

Thomas, Creed, 1835, Va. 

Thomas, C, Byron, 1S69, Md. 

Thomas, Daniel W., 1849, Md. 

Thomas, Edwin S., 1849, Md. 

Thomas, Frederick S., 1878, W. Va. 

Thomas, G. G., 1871, N. C. 

Thomas, George S. C, 1849, Md. 

Thomas, Harry M., 1885, Md. 

Thomas, Henry B., 1888, Md. 

Thomas, Ira H., 1S83, Va. 

Thomas, James, 1847, Md. 

Thomas, James C, 1854, Md. 

Thomas, James D., 1848, Md. 

Thomas, James H., 1851, Md. 

Thomas, John Hanson, 1836, Va. 

Thomas, John M., 1826, Md. 

Thomas, J. McGill, 1822, Md. 

Thomas, Joseph F., 1863, Md. 
Thomas, Moses S., 1853, Md. 
Thomas, Philip F., Jr., 1856, Md, 
Thomas, Richard H., 1875, Md, 
Thomas, S. F., 1867, Md. 
Thomas, William IX, 1887, Md. 
Thomas, William M., 1852, Wis. 
Thomas, William N., 1875, W. Va. 
Thompson, Charles B,, 1829, Tenn. 
Thompson, Frank H., 1879, Md. 
Thompson, James F., 1865, Md. 
Thompson, John, 1823, Va. 
Thompson, John C, 1855, Ohio. 
Thompson, J, Ford, 1857, Md. 
Thompson, Knox, 186S, Va. 
Thompson, Pembroke A., 1868, Va. 
Thompson, Rezin R., 1855, Md. 
Thompson, Robert G., 1830, Ky. 
Thompson, Samuel G., 1868, Md. 
Thompson, Thomas J., 1856, Md, 



Thompson, Wm. H., Jr., 1854, Va. 
Thomson, Charles, 1867, Md. 
Thomson, I. Uavis, 1861, Md. 
Thomson, M. Augustus, i88o, S. C. 
Thornton, Henry F., 1817, Va. 
Thornton, James B. C. P., 1818, Va. 
Thornton, J. M., 1882, Ky. 
Thornton, O. A., 1879, Md. 
Thornton, Thomas A. H., 1836, Va. 
Thornton, William G., 1830, Va. 
Thruston, H. Scott, 1864, Md. 
Tidings, Edwin R., 1853, Md. 
Tiffany, Louis McL., 1868, Md. 
TiLDEN, J. B., 1826, Va. 
Tilghman, Charles H., 1866, Md. 
Tilghman, S. R., 1843, Md. 
Tillett, T. T., 1842, N. C. 
Tilman, Frisby, 1829, Md. 
Tinges, A. S., 1872, Md. 
Tingle, Edwin McK., 1853, Md. 
Titcomb, Beriah, 1864, Md. 
Tobey, Nathan U., 1863, Md. 
Todd, Benjamin H., 1874, Md. 
Todd, George W., 1847, Md. 
Todd, George W., 1885, Md. 
Todd, Henry L., 1851, Md. 
Tolson, Alexander, 1836, Md. 
Tompkins, John H., 1828, Va. 
Tongue, Gideon G,, 1825, Md. 
Tongue, H., 187 1, Md. 
Toombs, Robert, 1873, Ga. 
Towles, LeRoy C, 1878, Va. 
Townsend, Granville S., 1819, Md. 
Townsend, W. Guy, 18S8, Md. 
Toy, Richard, 1827, Md. 
Trader, C. Jules, 1876, Texas. 
Trader, Charles W., 1878, Texas. 
Trapnell, Richard W., 1866, Md. 
Trautipan, C. Theodore, 1862, Md. 
Travers, Frank R., i860, Md. 
Trenchard, Curtis J., 1850, Md. 
Trent, R. O., 1872, Md. 
Triana, Adolpho M., 1886, Cuba. 
Trimble, Ridge J., 18S4, Md. 
Trippe, Edward R., 1862, Md. 

Trippe, Samuel C, 1875, Md. 
Tritman, John O., 1843, Pa. 
Troupe, Samuel C, 1868, Md. 
Truesdel, B. J., 1881, S. C. 
Truett, George W., 1850, Pa. 
Truitt, David J. O., 1857, Md. 
Truitt, George T., 1869, Md. 
Truitt, George W., 1875, Md. 
Truitt, George W., 1889, Md. 
Trumbo, George H., 1862, Md. j 
Tuck, Washington G., 1856, Md. 
Tucker, John T., 1861, Md. 
Tull, Edward E., 1887, Md. 
Tull, J. Emory, 1855, Md. 
' TurnbuU, Duncan, 1826, Scotland. 
Turnbull, Theodore, 1881, Fla. 
Turner, Edward P., 1885, Va. 
Turner, J. G., 1878, Md. 
Turner, James H., 1847, Md. 
Turner, John, 1834, Md. 
Turner, John H., 1840, Md. 
Turner, L. Ignatius, 1877, Md. 
Turner, Philip A., 1S50, Md. 
Turner, William B., 1878, Md. 
Turner, W. D., 1880, Va. 
Tussey, A. Edgar, 1883, Pa. 
Tutt, Robert M., 1830, Va. 
Tutwiler, H. A., 1867, Ala. 
Twigg, W. Franklin, 1883, Md. 
Tydings, Oliver, 1877, Md. 
Tyler, Grafton, Jr., 1833, Md. 
Tyson, Alexander, 1834, Md. 

Uhler, John R., 186 1, Md. 

Ulman, S. J., 1889, Md. 

Umpierres, Artemio A., 1876, Porto 

Underwood, Edward F., 1887, Bom- 
bay, E. I. 

Updike, C. F., 1889, Va. 

Urie, William T., 1863, Md. 

Urquhart, John E., 1883, Md. 

Valiant, John A., 1830, Md. 
Vallandigham, Irving S., 1862, Del. 

lAlso Hon. B. M., 1822. 



Vampill, Rudolph, 1857, Poland. 
Van Bibber, Claude, 1877, Md. 
Van Bibber, Frederick, 1857, Va. 
Van Bibber, John P., 1871, Md. 
Van Bibber, W. Chew, 1845, Md. 
Vance, Norwood K., 1882, S. C. 
Vance, William T., 1881, Pa. 
Vandersloot, Frederick W., Jr., 1855, 

Vandeventer, Joseph, 1869, Va. 
Van Dyke, Robert H., 18S4, Md. 
Van Lear, A, G. L., 1867, Va. 
Van Marter, James G., Jr., 1890, Italy. 
Vannort, Ezra A., 1862, Md. 
Van Wyck, John C, 1848, Md, 
Varden, Robert B., 1882, Md. 
Vaughan, Henry, 1855, Miss. 
Veazey, Edward, 1822, Md. 
Veazey, James L., 1836, Md. 
Veitch, Eldridge R., Jr., 1857, Va. 
Vickers, Albert, 1866, Md. 
Vickers, Robert E., 1884, W. Va. 
Vincent, William B., 1819, Md. 
Vines, W. W., 18S9, N. C. 
Virdin, William W., Jr., 1866, N. C. 
Volkmar, James M., 1881, Oregon. 
Voorhees, S. Herbert, 1889, Md. 
Vowell, John D., 1815, D. C. 

Wade, Robert M., 1875, Ga. 
Wagenhals, Philip M., 1847, Ohio. 
Wagner, Clinton, 1859, Md. 
Wagner, Harrison, 1865, Md. 
Wagner, John E. S., 1869, Md. 
Waite, Hugh H., 1823, Va. 
Wakelee, E. Herman, 1884, N. Y. 
Wakeman, Banks, 181 5, Md. 
Wales, Philip S., 1856, Md. 
Walker, Allen, 1886, D. C. 
Walker, George, 1888, S. C. 
Walker, H., 1871, S. C. 
Walker, Hales E., 1825, Md. 
Walker, Hiram H., i860, Va. 
Walker, J., 1871, Cal. 
Walker, J. B., 1890, Ga. 

Walker, M. M., 1867, Va. 
Wallace, G. M., 1871, Va. 
Wallace, Hamilton, 1827, Pa. 
Wallace, J. Veazey, 1853, Md. 
Wallace, James W., 1853, Pa. 
Waller, R. Edward, 1866, Md. 
Waller, William J., 1823, Va. 
Waller, W. J. C, 1870, Va. 
Wallis, Hugh Francis, 1883, Va. 
Walls, Hansford L., 188 1, W. Va. 
Walraven, Wilbur L., 1890, W. Va. 
Walshe, Despard M., 1864, Ireland. 
Walter, Charles, 1853, Md. 
Walter, Charles V., 1836, Md. 
Walter, Littleton T., 1884, Va. 
Walton, H. Rowland, 1850, Md. 
Walton, John, 1822, Miss. 
Wampler, Gustavus E., 1833, Md. 
Waples, Joseph B., 1868, Del. 
Ward, H. Clay, 1867, Md. 
Ward, James R., 1828, Md. 
Ward, Napoleon B., 1847, Md. 
1 Ward, Oscar V., 1847, Ky. 
Ward, Thomas J., 1877, Md. 
Ward, Warren W., 1847, N. C. 
Ward, William H., 1881, N. C. 
Warder, Abraham S., Jr., 1885, 

W. Va. 
Warder, John J., 1879, W. Va. 
Ware, H. F., 1871, Md. 
Ware, N. Anderson, 186S, Va. 
Wareham, Edward A., 1883, Md. 
Warfield, C, 1867, Md. 
Warfield, Evan W., 1845, Md. 
Warfield, George W., 1825, Md. 
Warfield, James H. H., 1863, Md. 
Warfield, Jesse L., 1823, Md. 
Warfield, Mactier, 1884, Md. 
Warfield, Ridgely B., 18S4, Md. 
Waring, Epaphroditus L., 1817, Va. 
Waring, John L., 1868, Md. 
Waring, William W., 1869, Md. 
Warner, Augustus L., 1829, Md. 
Warner, A. R., 1885, Md. 
Warner, F. A., 1873, Md. 

»Also B. M. 



Warren, Dawson, 1827, Va. 
Warren, Edward P., 1868, Pa. 
Warren, James M., 1881, Va. 
Warren, Lee W., 1890, Md. 
Warren, Lucius A,, 1868, Pa. 
Waters, Arnold E., 1830, Md. 
Waters, Cyrus, 1836, Md. 
Waters, C. H., 187 1, Md. 
Waters, Edmund G., 1853, Md. 
Waters, Franklin, 1826, Md. 
Waters, Franklin, Jr., 1869, Md. 
Waters, Henry, 1837, Md. 
Waters, Horace W., 1817, Md. 
Waters, James K., 1859, Md. 
Waters, Joiin, 1819, Tenn. 
Waters, Somerset R., 1858, Md. 
Waters, Stephen J., 1827, Md. 
Waters, Washington, 1826, Md. 
Waters, William, 1824, Md. 
Waters, William E., 1836, Md. 
Watkins, Benjamin, 1827, Md. 
Watkins, William C, 1868, Md. 
Watkins, William W., 1835, Md. 
Watkins, William W., 1883, S. C. 
Watson, A. G., 1872, Va. 
Watson, James, 1826, Va. 
Watson, J. A., 1872, S. C. 
Watson, William L., 1834, Pa. 
Watters, James, 1833, Md. 
Watts, Arthur G., 1880, Md. 
Watts, Henry R., 1864, Md. 
Watts, James, 1863, Md. 
Watts, John S., 1853, Pa. 
Waugh, James B., 18J5, N. Y. 
Waugh, John W., 1848, Md. 
Way, Walter S., 1822, Md. 
Wayland, Melville C, 1883, Va. 
Weagly, W. C, 1881, Md. 
Weaver, Jacob J., Jr., 1870, Md. 
Weaver, John F. B., 1864, Md. 
Webb, C. C, 1881, Tenn. 
Webb, Samuel, 1826, Md. 
Webb, William K., 1875, Md. 
Weber, Howard R., 1886, Md. 
Webster, George W., 1849, Md. 
Webster, Henry W., 1822, Md. 

Webster, Henry W., Jr., 1850, Md. 
Webster, H. W., 1889, Md. 
Webster, John Lee, 1833, Md. 
Webster, Richard H., 1847, Md. 
Webster, William, 1828, Md. 
Wederstrandt, John C. P., 1835, La. 
Weedon, John H. W. G., 1864, Md. 
Weems, George W., 1854, Md. 
Weems, Henry Y., 1858, Md. 
Weems, John N., 1816, Md. ^ 

Weems, Julius B., 1864, Md. 
Weems, Lock L., 1827, Md. 
Weems, Nathaniel C, 1828, Md. 
Weems, Stephen H., 1833, Md. 
Wegge, William F., 1886, Wis. 
Weigel, Louis A., 1875, N. Y. 
Weightman, Richard, 1S17, D. C. 
Weirick, Samuel T., 1865, Ohio. 
Weis, Ezra, 1851, Md. 
Weisel, Daniel, 1861, Md. 
Welch, Albert G., 1834, Md. 
Welch, Louis B., 1879, Pa. 
Welfley, Richard H., 1882, Md. 
Wellford, Beverly R., 1816, Va. 
Welling, William W., 1859, Md. 
Wells, Benjamin F., 1859, Md. 
Wells, Charles A., 1862, Md. 
Wells, Edward D., 1867, Md. 
Wells, John B., 1823, Md. 
Wells, R. C, 1867, Md. 
Wells, Thomas W., 1833, Md. 
Welsh, Carlos D., 1876, Mexico. 
Welsh, Emmet A., 1887, Ohio. 
Welsh, Robert S., 1848, Md. 
Welsh, Roberto A., 1881, Mexico. 
Welty, Frank H., 186S, Md. 
Wenner, John J., 1867, Va. 
Wentz, George, 1859, Md. 
West, Frank, 1879, Md. 
West, George Henry, 1889, Del. 
West, George W., 1S25, Md. 
West, Levin, 1886, Md. 
Westmoreland, Wm. G., 1855, Ala. 
Weston, Richard E., 1S40, N. C. 
Wetherall, George H., 1826, Md. 
Wethered, John D., 1826, Md, 



Wharton, John O., 1828, Tenn, 
Wheeden, Thomas J., 1859, MA 
Wheeler, William B., 1862, Md. 
Wheeler, William C, 1S88, Md. 
Whitaker, Henry H., 1883, N. C. 
Whitaker, L. T,, 1882, N. C, 
White, Alphonso A., 1853, Md. 
White, Alward, 1867, Md. 
White, Alward M., 1S29, Md. 
White, Arthur, 1S54, Md. 
White, Caleb B., 1S65, Md. 
White, Frederick F., 1822, Md. 
White, Gabriel P., 1849, N. C. 
White, George I., 1890, N. C. 
White, James M., 1879, D. C. 
White, John K., 18S4, Va. 
White, John Randolph, 1847, Md. 
White, Joseph A., 1S69, Md. 
White, N. Smith, 1867, Md. 
White, Russell Austin, 1889, Ky. 
White, Silas C, 1854, Va. 
White, Stephen B., 1823, Mass. 
White, Walter W., 1870, Md. 
White, William, 1849, ^d. 
White, William, 1851, Md. 
White, W. Garner, 1883, S. C. 
White, William H., 1887, Md. 
Whiteford, Alfred H., 1857, Eng. 
Whiteford, H. Clay, 1868, Md. 
Whiteford, William D., 1829, Md. 
Whitehead, Edwin, 1S23, Va. 
Whitehead, William H., 1870, N. C. 
Whitehill, Maximus, 1876, Md. 
Whitehurst, Mason J., 1875, F'^> 
Whiteside, B. Frank, 1877, N. C. 
Whiteside, J. Calloway, 1877, N. C. 
Whitfield, William C, 1884, Va. 
Whiting, Guy F., 1878, Va. 
Whitley, V. A., 1884, N. C. 
Whitly, Daniel P., 1889, N- C. 
Whitmore, W. P., 1880, Va. 
Whitridge, William, 1862, Md. 
Whittaker, Josias D., 1824, Md. 
Whittingham, Edward T., 1852, Md. 
Wickes, Joseph A., 1848, Md. 
Wickham, Walter M., 1826, Va. 



cks, Edmund G., 1888, Md. 
egand, William E., 1876, Md. 
endahl, Jacob H., 1854, La. 
ener, George W., 1874, Md. 
gman, Herman, 1845, Md. 
ley, Robert S., 1875, Tenn. 
ley, W. W., 1871, Md. 
Ikius, G. Lawson, 1870, Md. 
Ikins, John, 1851, Md. 
Ikins, Joseph, 1847, Md. 
Ikinson, Elias M., 1888, Va. 
Ikinson, J. Marion, 1874, Md. 
Hard, James, 1843, Md. 
lletts, J. E., 1881, Pa. 
lliams, A. J., 1886, Md. 
lliams, Bayton B., 1883, N. C. 
lliams, Denard S., 1865, Md. 
lliams, Elijah, 1869, Md. 
LLIAMS, George W., 1834, Ky. 
lliams, J. Buxton, Jr., 1868, N. C. 
lliams, James J., 1824, Va. 
lliams, James T., 1858, Md. 
lliams, J. v., 18S9, N. C. 
lliams, J. Whitridge, 1888, Md. 
lliams, Philip M., 1856, Va. 
lliams, T. B., 1877, N. C. 
lliams, T. Clayton, 1868, Va. 
lliams, Thomas H., 1848, Md. 
lliams, Thomas H. B., 1856, Miss. 
lliams, Walter B., 1833, Md. 
lliams, William, 1823, Md. 
lliams, William P., 1841, Md. 
lliams, William T., 1830, Md. 
lliamson, James C, 1890, N. C. 
lliamson, William L., 1869, Miss, 
lliard, Abraham P., 1850, Md. 
lliard, John T., 1858, Md. 
lling, James A. J., 1857, Md. 
lling, J. Elerick, 1890, Md. 
His, Edward W., 1889, Md. 
His, H. N., 1888, Md. 
His, William, 1818, Md. 
His, William L., 1852, Md. 
His, W. T., 1889, S. C. 
lloughby, Joseph D., 1847, Md. 
lis, Francis R., 1S28, Md. 



Willson, James H., 1846, Md. 
WiLLSON, Otho, 1834, Md. 
"Willson, Thomas Smythe, 1830, Md. 
Willson, W. G. G., Jr., 1876, Md. 
Wilmer, W, R., 1851, Md. 
Wilmoth, E. B., 1888, W. Va. 
Wilson, Charles J., 1859, D. C. 
Wilson, George W., 1835, Md. 
Wilson, Harry M., 1889, Pa. ^ 

Wilson, Henry B., 18S9, Md. 
Wilson, Henry M., 1850, Md. 
Wilson, Henry M., Jr., 1882, Md. 
Wilson, Henry P. C, 1851, Va. 
Wilson, J. B. B., 1S67, Md. 
Wilson, J. C., 1884, Pa. 
Wilson, James H., 186S, Md. 
Wilson, Joshua, 1818, Md. 
Wilson, Josiah N., 1834, Miss. 
Wilson, Luther B., 1877, Md. 
Wilson, L. Ridgely, 18S0, Md. 
Wilson, Pacha, 1828, Ala. 

Wilson, Rezin B., 1884, W. Va. 

Wilson, Robert T., 1S56, Md. 

Wilson.'Robert T., 1881. Md. 

Wilson, S. Kennedy, 1879, Md. 

Wilson, Thomas B., 1866, Md. 

Wilson, Thomas K., 1827, S. C. 

Wilson, Willard H., 1874, Md. 

Wilson, William G., 1852, Md. 

Wilson, William M. B., 1821, Md. 

Wilson, William T., 1842, Md. 

Wilson, William W., 1866, Md. 

Wiltshire, James G., 1869, Va. 

Wimberley, George L., 1883, N. C. 

Wimer, T. H., 1883, Iowa. 

Winborne, Robert W., 1887, N. C. 

Winchester, A. S., 1873, Md. 

Winchester, Benjamin T., 1875, Md. 

Winchester, Horace R., 1889, Md. 

Winchester, Weems R., 1874, Md. 

Winders, John K., 1875, ^^^ 

Windsor, W. S., 1890, N. C. 

Wingate, William L., 1845, Md. 

Winslow, John R., 1888, Md. 

Winslow, Randolph, 1873, Md. 

Winston, John T., 1878, N. C. 

Winterson, C. R., 1871, Md. 
Winthrop, Henry, 1825, S. C. 
Winwood, Benjamin, 1820, Md. 
Wirt, Henry G., 1841, Fla. 
Wirt, William C, 1843, Fla. 
Wise, E. Martin, 1877, Md. 
Wise, John J. H., 1854, Va. 
Wisherd, Elmer J., 1886, Md. 
Withers, H. D., 1883, Md. 
Withers, William B., 1875, N. C.i 
WiTMAN, John O., 1843, Pa. 
Wolfe, John H. R., 1861, Md. 
Wolfe, Wickham W., 1824, Del. 
Wolfe, William H., 1886, W. Va. 
Womble, John G., 1871, Md. 
Wood, Edgar W., 1850, Md. 
Wood, Isaac N., 1854, Md. 
Wood, John, 1844, Ind. 

Wood, R. v., 1S67, Md. 

Wood, Thomas F., 1868, N. C. 

Wood, William, Jr., 1819, Ohio. 

Wood, William M., 1829, Md. 

Woodley, Andrew B., 1824, Va. 

Woods, Benjamin W., 1836, Md. 

Woods, Hiram, Jr., 1882, Md. 

Woods, Wesley, 1824, Md. 

Woodson, Lewis G., 1887, Va. 

Woodville, Harry, 1866, Md. 

Woodward, Peter, 1823, Va. 

Woodward, William, 1861, Md. 

Woolford, Thomas, 1816, Md. 

Wooten, Edward, 1861, Md. 

Wooten, Tumor, 1819, Md. 

Worrell, Edward M., 1815, Md. 

Worrell, Frederick, 1854, Md. 

Worthington, George C., 1866, Md. 

Worthington, Hattersley P., 1841, 

Worthington, J. C., 1873, Md. 

Worthington, James C., 1848, Md. 

Worthington, J. M., 1872, Md. 

Worthington, Rezin H., 1843, Md, 

Worthington, Thomas C, 1840, Md. 

Worthington, Thomas C, 1842, Md. 

Worthington, Thomas C, 1876, Md. 

Worthington, William H., 1833, Md. 



Wright, Charles A., 1870, Md. 
Wright, Jefferson D., 1882, Ga. 
Wright, Josephus A., 1881, Md. 
Wright, M. Frank, 1890, W. Va. 
Wright, Thomas H., 1819, Md. 
Wright, William E., 1888, Va. 
Wrightson, James T., 1878, Md. 
Wroth, Peregrine, 1841, Md. 
Wroth, Thomas G., 1837, Md. 
Wroth, William J., 1852, Md. 
Wunder, Joseph C. X., 18S9, Md. 
Wyatt, Richard O., 1861, Va. 
Wyche, C. D., 1888, N. C. 
Wynn, Andrew L., 1889, N. C. 
Wynn, Thomas P., 1886, N. C. 
Wyse, W. P. E., 1886, Md. 
Wysham, William E., 1849, Md. 

Yandell, Lunsford P., 1825, Tenn. 
Yandell, Wilson, 1823, Tenn. 
Yates, Charles M., 1825, Md. 
Yates, T. B., 1878, W. Va. 
Yeargain, John T. P., 1820, S. C. 
Yearly, George A., 1835, Md. 

Yeates, Henry P. P., 1845, Md, 
Yeates, John L., 1822, Md. 
Yingling, George S., 1862, Md. 
Yingling, J., 1878, Ind. 
Yoe, Robert E., 1875, Md. 
Yost, Peter K., 1868, Pa. 
Young, George B., 18S7, Va. 
Young, Robert W., 1825, 'Va. 
Young, W. J., 1872, S. C. 
Yount, J. H., 1876, N. C. 
Yourtee, J. Tilghman, 1865, Md. 

Zeigler, Asa H., 1862, Md. 
Zeigler, Henry A., 1870, Pa. 
Zepp, James A., 1887, Md. 
Zepp, Leonard, 1868, Md. 
Ziegler, J. S., 1878, Pa. 
Zimmerman, Charles O., 1882, N. Y. 
Zimmerman, Edwin, 1879, ^^• 
Zimmerman, George M., 1857, Md. 
Zimmerman, Luther M., 1864, Md. 
Zion, Elkanah, 18S8, Tenn. 
Zollickoffer, William, 1818, Md. 
ZoUicoffer, William H., 1857, Md. 


The following names are also contained in the general Alumni Catalogue 
of 1S77, but as they have not been verified by the author, they are placed in 
a separate list. There are no means of verifying those of 1831 and i8;^2, 
as no lists of graduates of those years are accessible. Those given for 
1838 and 1839 may be names of graduates in the Trustees' School, the MS. 
records of whose classes are not to be found. Those for other years are 
probably incorrect, but I have hesitated to drop them. There were no 
circulars or catalogues until after 1839. 

Altvater, Garret, 1832, Md. 

Beadles, William, 1832, Md. 
Birckhead, L. H., 1832, Md. 
Blakey, R. Otway, 1832, Va. 
Bodman, Phil., 1831, Germany. 
Bowman, H. E., 1839, Va. 
Brehon, James G., 1832, N. C. 
Brent, William T., 1832, Md, 
Brown, George M., 1831, Va. 
Butler, John W., 1832, La. 

Chandler, J. F., 1839, Va. 
Cochrane, Hiram W., 1831, Md. 
Cross, G. W., 1839, Md. 
Crum, G. W., 1832, Md. 
Culbreth, Richard S.,' 1838, U. C. 
Gumming, R. H., 1831, Va. 

Davis, Daniel, 1S31, Md, 
Davis, Thomas A., 1832, Md, 
Day, Everett H., 1838, Md. 
Dent, Stouten W., 1831, Md, 
Dorsey, John, 1820, Md. 
Dowell, John M., 1827, Va, 
Dunbibin, Junius C, 1832, N, C. 
Dunlop, John, 1823, Md. 
Dwyer, Thomas O., 1831, Ireland. 

Edwards, Thomas O., 1831, Va, 
Evans, John, 1832, Md, 

Fauss, George L., 1821, Pa. 
Fergusson, John R., 1S31, Md. 
Fisher, Ed. C, 1831, Va. 
Flint, W. F., 1832, Md. 
Franklin, R., 1831, Md, 

Gale, Robert, 1832, . 

Gazzam, Edward H., 1832, Pa. 
Gibson, John, 1831, Md, 

Gillespie, W, A., 1831, . 

Grahame, William, 1831, Md. 
Gray, Reuben T., 1832, S. C, 
Greetham, Miles L,, 1831, Md, 
Grover, J. S., 1831, Md, 

Hall, R, C, 1832, Md. 
Hargrove, James T., 1832, Md. 
Harrison, John Hoffman, 1831, Md. 
Heartle, Oreas, 1831, Md. 

Hoffman, George, , . 

Horsay, J. A. E., 1831, Va. 
Houston, Henry W., 1832, Del. 
Howard, James, 1S32, Md. 
Howard, M. P., 1839, Md. 
Hunt, Henry S„ 1S31, Md, 
Hussey, Nathan, 1832, Md, 

Jacob, Edward, 1839, Md. 
Jenkins, Theodore, 1832, Md, 
Jones, Walker, 1832, Va, 

Kephart, Philip, 1832, Md. 



Laurason, Samuel C, 1831, Md. 
Lawrence, James H., 1832, Md. 
Layton, Garret S., 1831, Del. 
Lewis, John S., 1831, Va. 

Martin, H. H., 1832, Md. 
Mason, Alexander H., 1831, Va. 
McKee, James B., 1832, Md. 
McPhail, Leonard C, 1832, Md. 
McPherson, Samuel, 1832, Md. 
Miller, Barnard J., 1832, U. C. 
Morrison, Maurice, 1831, Md. 
Mott, Richard, 1831, Md. 
Mudd, Hilary, 1832, Md. 
Munroe, Thomas, 1831, Fla. 

Naudain, James S., 1832, Del. 
Nelms, Presley, 1832, Va. 
Nelson, George, 1837, Md. 
Nelson, Robert A., 1832, Va. 
Newcomb, George, 1831, Md. 
Norris, George Dashiels, 1831, Md. 

Orrick, J. C, 1831, Md. 
Owens, Thomas, 1831, Md. 

Perrie, Richard B., 1856, Md. 
Petherbridge, John F., 1832, Md. 

Piper, John R., 1839, Md. 
Polk, J. C, 1832, Md. 
Powell, G. W. J., 1831, Md. 

Reynolds, John C, 1831, Md. 
Robinson, Alexander C, 1832, Md. 
Robinson, Lake, 1832, Md. 

Scott, Walter, 1856, Md. 
Selby, William H., 1831, Md. 
Sewell, Jacob K., 1836, Md. 
Skinner, Henry, 1832, Md. 
Skinner, John H., 1832, Md. 
Snowden, Charles F., 1831, Md. 
Snyder, Benjamin C., 1832, Md. 
Snyder, James M., 1839, Md. 
Spalding, J. F., 1831, Md. 
Stephen, James B., 1831, Md. 

Thomas, Francis W. G., 1832, Va. 
Thompson, Richard H., 1839, Md. 
Turpin, Walter B., 1831, Md. 

Wersel, Samuel, , . 

Williams, Presley N., 1832, D. C. 
Wrenn, Albert E., 183T, Va. 
Wright, John €., 1831, Va. 



Hon. Robert Smith, 1813-15. 

Rgt. Rev. James Kemp, D. D., 1815-26. 

Hon. Roger B. Taney, 1826-39. 

Dr. Ashton Alexander, 1837-50! 

Hon. John P. Kennedy, 1850-70. 

Hon. S. Teackle Wallis, 1870-90. 


John B. Davidge, 1807-11, 1813, 1814, 1821. 

Nathaniel Potter, 1812, 1814. 

Elisha DeButts, 1816, 1822-24. 

William Gibson, 1818. 

Richard VVilmot Hall, 1819, 1S37-38. 

Maxwell McDowell, 1820, 1825-27. 

Granville Sharp Pattison, 1821-22. 

N. R. Smith, 182S-29, 1841. 

Samuel Baker, 1829-30. 

Eli Geddings, 1832-34, 1836-37. 

Robley Dunglison, 1834-35. 

Samuel George Baker, 1839. 

Wm. E. A. Aikin, 1840-41, 1844-55. 

Samuel Chew, 1842-44. 

George W. Miltenberger, 1855-69, 

Julian J. Chisolm, 1869-74. 

Samuel C. Chew, 1874-79. 

L. McLane Tiffany, 1879-86. 

J. Edwin Michael, 1886-90. 

I. Edmondson Atkinson, 1890. 

List of Professors. 

George Brown, 1807-07. 
William Donaldson, 1807-08. 


Thomas Emerson Bond, 1807-08. 
John Shaw, 1807-09. 
James Cocke, 1807-13. 
John Beale Davidge, 1807-29. 
Nathaniel Potter, 1807-43. 
Elisha DeButts, 1809-31. 
Samuel Baker, 1809-33. 
William Gibson, 1812-19. 
Richard Wilmot Hall, 1812-47. 
'John Owen, 1814-14. 
Maxwell McDowell, 1814-33. 
Granville Sharp Pattison, 1820-27. 
' Nathan Ryno Smith, 1827-38, 1840-70, 1873-77. 
'John Doane Wells, 1829-30. 
' Benjamin Lincoln, 1830-31. 
'Thomas H.Wright, 1831-31. 
Julius Timoleon Ducatel, 1831-37. 
Eli Geddings, 1831-37. 
Robley Dunglison, 1833-36. 
Robert Eglesfield Griffith, 1836-37. 
Samuel G. Baker, 1837-41. 
William E. A. Aikin, 1837-83. 
William N. Baker, 1838-41. 
' Alexander C Robinson, 1841-42. 
Samuel Chew, 1841-63. 
Joseph Roby, 1842-60. 
' Richard Sprigg Steuart, 1843-43. 
" Wm. H. Stokes, 1843-44. 
Elisha Bartlett, 1844-46. 
""William Power, 1845-52. 
Richard Henry Thomas, 1847-58. 
' ' George Warner Miltenberger, 1847-90. 
Charles Frick, 1858-60. 
William A. Hammond, 1860-61. 
Edward Warren, 1860-61. 
•Richard McSherry, 1862-85. 

'Declined. ''Lecturer, 1840-41. ^ Lecturer, 1829-30, full professor, 1830. 
♦Lecturer. ^ Resigned before Lectures. SLecturer, 1845-46. ' Lecturer, 1847- 
52. 8 Member of present Faculty, 1890. 'Lecturer, 1862-63. 


' Christopher Johnston, 1864-90. 

' Samuel Clagett Chew, 1864-90. 

' Frank Donaldson, 1866-90. 

' William T. Howard, 1867-90. 

' Julian J. Chisolm, 1869-90. 

' Francis T. Miles, 1869-90. 

Alan P. Smith, 1869-69, 1873-74. 

' Louis McLane .Tiffany, 1874-90. 

' I. Edmondson Atkinson, 1S79-90. * 

'J. Edwin Michael, 1880-90. 

' '^ R. Dorsey Coale, 1883-90. 

'John Noland Mackenzie, 1888-90. 

Demonstrators of Anatomy. 

James Bain (Prosector?), 1814-16. 
John D. Godman, 18 16-18. 
William Howard, 1820. 
Duncan Turnbull, 1821-26. 
John Buckler, 1826-27. 
Samuel Lyon, 1828-34. 
Henry W. Baxley, 1834-37. 
Ellis Hughes, 1837 (Trustees). 
John Byrne, 1837-38 (Regents). 
E.J. Chaisty, 1837-39 (Trustees). 
A. G. Welch, 1838-39 (Regents?). 
George W. Miltenberger, 1840-52. 
Berwick B. Smith, 1852-60. 
George G. Farnandis, 1860-60. 
James H. Butler, 1860-69. 
L. McLane Tiffany, 1869-74. 
J. Edwin Michael, 1874-80. 
Randolph Winslow, 1880-86. 
Herbert Harlan, 1886-90. 
J. Holmes Smith, 1890. 

' Members of present Faculty, 1890. ' Lecturer, 1883-84. 


Resident Physicians of the Infirmary. 

James Morison, 1846-50. 
Felix Jenkins, 1850-54. 
Joseph J. O'Donnell, 1854-54. 
John A. Doyle, 1854-57. 
Wm. C. Nichols, 1857-57. 
James H. Butler, 1857-60. 
Edward F. Milholland, 1860-65. 
Nathl. G. Keirle, 1865-65. 
J.J. Beckenbaugh, 1865-66. 
Thos. S. Latimer, 1866-68. 
John S. Conrad, 1868-72. 
Richard H. Lewis, 1872-73. 
George E. H. Harmon, 1873-74. 
J. C. Worthington, 1874-75. 
Thomas A. Ashby, 1875-79. 
T. Barton Brune, 1879-S0. 
Frank West, 1880-85. 
C. W. Mitchell, 1885-87. 
Frank Martin, 1887-90. 

List of Gold Medalists. 

I. Latin Medalists. 
John D. Sinnott, 1813. 

F.J. Didier, 1816. 
Richard Nun Allen, 1817. 
John D. God man, 18 18. 
Charles A. Harrow, 1819. 
Matthew J. Allen, 1820. 
E. C. Alexander, 1821. 
John B. Laborde, 1822. 
Isaac Hulse, 1823. 
Edward Sparks, 1824. 
Thomas J. Gassoway, 1825. 
W. T. Stephens, 1826. 
Rush Jameson, 1827. 
B. M. Byrne, 1828. 
FeHx D. McMeal, 1829. 


Richard Shea, 1830. 

• • • • 

Benj. F. Houston, 1833. 
Elhs Hughes, 18^4. 
John C. Nairn, 1835. 

E. J. Chaisty, 1837. 

2. Examin\ition Medalists. 

Robert Bond, 1880. 

L. Ernest Neale, Charles W. Mitchell, 1881. 

J. Mason Hundley, 1882, 

Henry Rolando, 1883. 

Charles P. Noble, 1884. 

Samuel Schwalbe, 1885. 

J. Ridley Nott, 1886. 

Ebenezer W. Pressly, 1887. 

J. Whitridge Williams, 1888. 

Kemp Battle Batchelor, 1889. 

J. Frank Crouch, A. D. McConachie, 1890. 

Note: — The comments (p. 127) regarding the absence of legis- 
lation authorizing and making provision for the practice of dissection 
in Maryland, demand revision, in view of the fact that since they 
were written a law has been passed by the Legislature requiring 
public officers of Baltimore City and County, under heavy penalty, 
to turn over any unclaimed bodies under their charge to the Medical 
Colleges of the State " for the advancement of medical science." 
The laW is said to be working satisfactorily to those concerned. 

Erraium. The name of Professor Alan P. Smith (p. 136) should be Alan 
Penniman Smith. ■ 


Academic Department, 30, 61, 102, 

Act founding Medical College, 6. 
" " University, 24. 

" of Restitution, g6. 
" " 1825, 57. 
Acts of 1807 and 1812, Relations of, 

Addenda, 207. 
Adjuncts, 133. 
Aikin, Wm. E, A., 89, 144. 
Alexander, Ashton, 115. 
Allen, John, 31, 
Almshouse, 45. 
Alumni Association, 140. 
Amounts due Professors, 84. 
Anatomy Law, 213. 
Annuity, McDowell, 75, 104, no. 
Appendix, 209. 
Appropriations of Legislature, 135, 

Archer, John, 13. 
Association of Medical Colleges, 

Atkinson, I. Edmondson, 140. 
Auscultation and Percussion, 116, 

125, 128. 

Baker, Samuel, 18, 75. 

" Samuel G.,89, 91, 106. 
" William N., 86, ic6. 
Baltimore in 1807, 12. 

" College, 13, 16, 96, 102. 

" College of Dental Sur- 

gery, 123. 
Baltimore, Early Period of, i. 

" General Dispensary, 68. 

" Infirmary, 44, 45, 46, 83, 

84, 96, 104, 130, 136, 140, 152, 154. 

Baltimore Library, 13, 16. 

" Medical Institute, 126. 

Bartlett, Elisha, 113, 114. 
Baxley, Henry W., 86, 88, 92. 
Bay View Hospital, 152. 
Beneficiary Students, 135, 136, 137. 
Bequest, 96, loi, 130, 154. 
Bond, Thos. E., 16, 18. 
Brown, George, 15. 
Buchanan, George, 2, 3. 
Buckler, John, 35, 61. 
Building, College, 17, 21. 
Burking, Case of, 127. 

Cadwalader, John, 23. 
Cadwaladers, 52. 
Carroll, John, 31. 
Catalogue of Alumni, 167. 
Certificate of Regents, 96. 
Chairs, Patent Folding-back, 146. 
Chapman, Nathaniel, 50. 
Chew, Samuel, 131. 

" Samuel C, 147. 
Children, Diseases of, 125, 133, 137. 
Chisolm, J. J., 147. 
Circular of Faculty, 104. 
Class of 1825, 47. 
Classes, 47, 131, 137, 154. 
Clinical Instruction Compulsory, 1 28. 

" Reporter, 130. 
Clinics, 133, 134, 137, 151, 152, 157. 
Coale, R. Dorsey, 149. 
Cocke, James, 5, 15, 17, 32. 
College of Medicine, First Course 

in, 16. 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, 

Baltimore, 137, 
College of Physicians and Surgeons, 

New York, 13. 



Commencement, First, ig. 
Commencements, 19, 48, 93, 97. 
Corner-stone Laid, 22. 
Counsel of Regents, 58, 59. 
Course Lengthened, 123. 
Crawford, John, 35. 

Dalrymple, E. A., 142. 

Dartmouth College, 13. 

Davidge, John Beale, 4, 36, 55, (17, 

68, 80. 
Deans, 209. 

De Butts, EHsha, 18, 73. 
Decision of Court of Appeals, 94. 
Degree of M. B., 48, 126. 
Degrees, First, 19. 

" Honorary, 48, 53. 
Demonstrators of Anatomy, 34, 211. 
Dental Department, 142, 152, 154. 

" Lectures, 123. 
Dentistry, Instruction in, 136. 
De Kosset, M. J., 132. 
Diploma, First Medical, 13. 

" University, 54. 
Diplomas, Trustees', 97. 
Dispensary, Special, 133. 

" University, 134, 136, 

140, 151. 
Dissection Compulsory, 99, 127. 

•• Material Abundant, 127, 

Dissection Mob, 2, 6. 

" Room, 34, 86, 127. ■ 

Divinity Faculty, 30, 142. 
Dobbin, George W., 130, 134. 
Donaldson, Frank, 140. 

" William, 16, 18. 

Dorsey, Robert E., 92. 
Ducatel, Jules T., 78. 
Dudley, B. W., 63. 
Duel, Cadwalader-Conway, 53. 

" Carr-Martin, 65. 

" Pattison-Cadwalader, 50. 
Dunglison, Robley, 76, 124, 

Encounter between Professors, iii. 
Endowment, 96, loi, 130, 154, 159. 

Examination Medalists, 213. 

Eye and Ear, Diseases of, 46, 133, 

134. 136- 
Eye and Ear Institute, 132. 

Faculty of Arts and Sciences, 30, 61, 

102, 142. 
Faculty, Medical, seek seats in 

Board of Trustees, 85. 
Faculty, Members of, 151, 209. 

" Trustees', 92. * 

Fees for Lectures, 126, 134, 137, 153. 
Finances of University, 154. 
Finley, M. A., 92. 
Fisher, Wm. R , 92. 
Frick, Charles, 115, 119. 
Funds, how expended, loi. 

Gambling and Drinking at Univer- 
sity, 81. 
Gas Introduced into Baltimore, 23. 
Geddings, Eli, 77. 
Gibson, William, 19, 33, 38, 50. 
Gilmer, Mr., of Virginia, 87. 
Godman, John D., 36, 38. 
Gold Medal Instituted, 31. 
Gold Medalists, 212. 
Graded Course, Three Years, 153. 
Graduation, Conditions of, 125, 134, 

154, 157- 
Graduation Fees, 81, 137, 
Gray Legacy, 96, loi, 130. 
Griffith, Robert Eglesfield, 89. 

Hall, Professor, Impeachment of, 

Hall, Richard Wilmot, 19, 109, iii. 
Hammond, William A., 115, 121, 

Hamner, J. G., 30, 142. 
Harlan, Richard, 63. 
Harvard University, 13. 
Hayden, Horace H., 123. 
Histology, 131. 
Hoffman, David, 49. 
Holmes, Oliver W., 119. 
Hospital, City, 45. 



Hospital, Lying-in, 146. 

" University ; see Baltimore 
Howard, Henry, 92. 

" John Eager, 21, 22. 

" "William, 39. 

" William T., 147. 
Hughes, Ellis, 93. 
Hygiene, 124, 131, 158. 

Indian Queen Hotel, 89. 
" " School, 91. 

Inglis, John A., 134. 
Institutes, 18. 
Introductory Lectures, 91, 92, 129. 

Jameson, Horatio Gates, 63. 
Janitor, Difficulty with, 80, 82. 
Johnston, Christopher, 142. 
Judgment against Faculty, 104. 

Kemp, James, 30, 59. 
Kennedy, John P., 102, 135. 
Key, Francis Scott, 17. 

Laboratory Instruction, 153, 159. 

Lafayette's Visit, 53. 

Latin Medalists, 212. 

Latrobe, John H. B., 134. 

Law Faculty, 30, 49, 61, 134, 135. 

Library, 35. 

Lincoln, Benjamin, 71. 

Littlejohn, Miles, 18. 

Loan, 40, 83, 105. 

Lombard St. Opened, loi. 

Long, R. Gary, 21, 23. 

Lot, Infirmary, 45, 96, 154. 

" Purchase of, 21. 
Lotteries, 19, 20, 49, 61, 85, 100. 
Lying-in Hospital, 146, 152. 

Macaulay, Patrick, 50. 
Mackenzie, John N., 150. 
Martin, Robert N., 134. 
Maryland Academy of Science and 
Literature, 79. 

Maryland Gollege of Pharmacy, 114. 
" Hospital, 13. 
" Medical Institute, 120, 126. 
May, John F., 92. 
McDowell Annuity, 75. 
" Ephraim, 48. 

Maxwell, 33, 75, 76, 104, 
McSherry, Richard, 145. 
Medal, 31, 154. 
Medalists, 212. 
Medical and Ghirurgical Faculty 

Chartered, 4. 
Medical and Ghirurgical Faculty 

Library, 75. 
Medical and Ghirurgical Faculty 

Orations, 69, 132. 
Medical Jurisprudence, 124, 158. 
" Lectures of 1789, 2. 
" School of 1790, 2. 
Medico-Ghirurgical Society, 75. 
Memorial of Regents, 95. 
" " Trustees, 96. 

Mercury, 70. 
Michael, J. Edwin, 149. 
Microscopy, 130, 131. 
Miles, Francis T., 148. 
Military Surgery, 131. 
Miltenberger, George W., 97, 146. 
Mob, Dissection, 2, 6. 
Morfit, Campbell, 129. 
Murdoch, Russell, 134. 
Museum, 40, 42, 131. 

Nervous Diseases, Instruction in, 


"N. R. Smith Pathological Labo- 
ratory," 42. 

Nurses' Training School, 152. 

Obstetrics, Practical, 136, 137, 146, 

Operative Surgery, 125, 134, 136. 
Ordinances, 105. 
" Outrage " of 1837, 90. 
Owen, John, 33. 



Pantheon, 21. 

Pathology, 128, 134, 142, iS3- 

Pattison, Granville Sharp, 39, 5°. 

51, 61. 
Pharmacy, ii3- 
Physical Diagnosis, 116. 
Physick, Professor, 50. 
Physiology, 133- 

Polk, Mary, 66, 67. • ^ 

Potter, Nathaniel, 4, 85, 107. 
Power, William, 114. ^i^. 
Practice Hall, 40. 
Practice, Teaching of, 128. 
Preliminary Examination, 158. 

" Course, 134. 

Presbyterian Eye, Ear and Throat 

Hospital, 151. 
Priestley's Academy, 102. 
Prizes, 31, 154- 
Professors, 209. 
Property turned over by Trustees, 

Property of University, 90, loi. 

Provosts, 209. 

Reading Room, 124. 

Reform in Medical Teaching, 126, 

Regents, 150. 

" Certificate, 96. 

" First Meeting, 15. 

" Memorial, 95. 
Regulation of Medical Practice, i. 
Reorganization of Faculty, 88. 
Report on Condition of University, 

Resident Physicians of Infirmary, 

130, 140,152, 212. 
Resident Students of Infirmary, 136, 

Resignations of Faculty, 88. 
Restoration to Regents, 98. 
Review of University, 155. 
Revolution of 1837, 79- 
Robinson, Alexander C, 106, 107. 
Roby, Joseph, 107, 118. 

Rush Club, 154. 

Salaries of Professors, 154. 

Scholarships, 137, I53- 

School of Applied Chemistry, 129. 

Seal, University, 55, loi. 

Shaaf, Dr., 17. 

Shaw, John, 5, 17- 

Smith, Alan P., 136. 

" Berwick B., 115. 

" Nathan R., 63, 93, 106, fii, 

128, 137. 
Smith, Robert, 31. 

" Samuel P., 34- 
Society, Anatomical, 154- 

" Medical, 2. 
Specialties, 133. 
Standard Raised, 157- 
Steuart, Richard S., 18, 112, 113. 
Stewart, David, 113. 
St. John's College, 17, 23, 68. 
St. Mary's College, 13. 
Stokes, William H., m. 
Students' Building, 136, 152. 
Subjects, Abundance of, 127, 153. 
Suit against Faculty, 32. 

» «' Trustees, 93. 
Summer Lectures, 133, I34. I35> »39- 
Surgery, Teaching of, 128. 

Taney, Roger Brooke, 103. 
Term, Increase of, 123. 
Theology, Faculty of, 30, 142- 
Theses, Publishing of, 47- 
Thomas, Richard H., 118. 
Three Years' Graded Course, 153. 
Tickets, All required, 76. 
Tiffany, L. McLane, 148. 
Transylvania University, 93. 
Trustees Appointed, 57. 

" Proceedings of, 84. 

«« Reign, 98. 

«» take Possession, 59. 
Trustees' Memorial, 96. 
Turnbull, Duncan, 72. 

University in 1825, 59. 



University Hospital ; see Baltimore 

University of Pennsylvania, 13. 

" State, 23. 

Ure Divorce, 51. 

Van Bibber, W, Chew, 131. 

WalHs, S. Teackle, 148. 
War, Effect of, 131. 
Warfield, Charles A., 54. 
Warner, Augustus L., 86, 106. 
Warren, Edward, 121. 

Washington College, 23. 

" Medical College, 63, 64. 

«' University, 122, 137. 

Wells, John Doane, 71. 
Wiesenthal, Andrew, 2, 3. 

" Charles F., 2. 

Women and Children, Diseases of, 

129. 133- 
Wright, Thomas H., 72. 

Wyatt, William E., 30. 

Yandell, Lunsford P., 69, 93. 
Yellow Fever, 70.